provided protection in 27% of individuals (Santosham et al., 1981). However, doxycycline at 100 mg once daily provided protection in 81% of U.S. military personnel in Mexico (Freeman et al., 1983). In a multidrug study in Mexico, bactrim provided 71% protection during a 21-day study, and 95% protection for a 14-day study, bicozamycin provided 100% protection, and 88% of subjects taking norfloxacin were protected from travelers' diarrhea (Dupont et al., 1986). Bismuth subsalicylate in liquid form (60 ml four times a day) and tablets (600 mg four times a day) provided 77% and 87% protection, respectively (Steffen et al., 1986). Thus, both antibiotic and nonantibiotic prophylaxis provided excellent short-term protection ranging from 14 to 21 days.
Guerrant et al. (1985) state that the appropriate treatment for the vast majority of cases (of acute diarrhea) is simple and effective: oral glucose-and electrolyte- containing rehydration solution. Effective repletion of extracellular and total body water is accomplished by enhancement of small bowel reabsorption of sodium and water by glucose (solvent drag) (Field, 1977). A second generation of oral rehydration solutions (ORSs), the so-called super ORSs, are currently under study (Edelman, 1985). In these super ORS formulations, glycine as well as rice powder augment the effect of glucose in enhancing sodium and water reabsorption by the gut. For example, compared with glucose and electrolyte ORSs, glycerine, glucose, and electrolyte ORSs reduced the volume of stool output from 253 to 126 ml/kg as well as the duration of acute diarrhea from 43 to 30 h (Edelman, 1985).
The ideal ORS for the U.S. Army would serve multiple clinical uses: (1) alleviate fasting and prevent heat injury in encapsulated troops - Military Operational Protective Posture-A (MOPPA), (2) prevent heat injury, (3) treat heat casualties except for heat stroke, and (4) treat acute diarrhea. A powder formulation (Armyde) containing Na, 22.8 meq; Cl, 25.5 meq; K, 9.5 meq; Mg, 5.2 meq; PO4, 3.2 mg; and glucose, 25 g per packet, was studied under moderate field heat conditions in June 1988 at Fort Hood, Texas. These studies were carried out jointly by the Military Nutrition and Heat Research Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, and the 44th Evacuation Hospital (an Army Reserve Unit) and the results detailed in a technical report (Rose et al., 1989). It is designed such that one packet of this glucose electrolyte powder diluted in one canteen of potable water would be used for heat injury and heat casualty treatments (Na, 22.8 meq/liter; Cl, 25.5 meq/liter; K, 9.5 meq/liter; HCO3, 10 meq/liter; Mg, 5.2 meq/liter; PO4, 3.2 meq/liter, and glucose, 25 g, whereas two packets per canteen (Na, 45.6 meq/liter; Cl, 51 meq/liter; K, 19 meq/liter; HCO3, 20 meq/liter; Mg, 10.4 meq/liter; PO4, 6.3 meq/liter; and glucose, 50 g/liter) would be used in the treatment of acute diarrhea. In this