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Fluid Replacement and Heat Stress, 1993

Pp. 143-160. Washington, D.C.

National Academy Press

12

Role of Osmolality and Plasma Volume During Rehydration in Humans

Hiroshi Nose, Gary W. Mack, Xiangrong Shi, and Ethan R. Nadel1

INTRODUCTION

Humans have a prolonged period of delayed rehydration after thermal dehydration. This phenomenon has been known as involuntary dehydration since 1974 (Rothstein et al., 1947), and a number of studies have been conducted to better understand its cause (Greenleaf and Sargent, 1965; Greenleaf et al., 1983; Mack et al., 1986). Dill et al. (1933) suggested that thirst is primarily a function of the sodium chloride concentration in plasma rather than plasma volume. Greenleaf (1982) stated that two factors unique to humans contribute to the involuntary dehydration: excessive extracellular fluid loss due to Na+ loss into sweat and the upright posture. Recently, Morimoto et al. (1981b) found that the degree of involuntary dehydration in humans was reduced when a glucose-electrolyte solution rather than water was ingested during thermal dehydration. However, their results may have

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Hiroshi Nose, Foundation Laboratory and Departments of Epidemiology and Public Health and Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519



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