The Physics of Materials

How Science Improves Our Lives

Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics

Solid State Sciences Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives The Physics of Materials How Science Improves Our Lives Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-96ER45613, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-9632837, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology under Grant No. 50SBNB5C8819. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Front Cover: A scanning tunneling microscope image that shows the wave nature of electrons confined in a “quantum corral” of 48 individually positioned atoms. See page 2. (Courtesy of IBM Research.) Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report are available from: Board on Physics and Astronomy National Research Council, HA 562 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 bpa@nas.edu Printed in the United States of America

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The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives COMMITTEE ON CONDENSED-MATTER AND MATERIALS PHYSICS VENKATESH NARAYANAMURTI, University of California, Santa Barbara, Chair JAMES B. ROBERTO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Vice Chair GABRIEL AEPPLI, NEC Research Institute ARTHUR BIENENSTOCK, Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory J. MURRAY GIBSON, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign STEVEN GIRVIN, Indiana University MARK KETCHEN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center EDWARD KRAMER, University of California, Santa Barbara JAMES S. LANGER, University of California, Santa Barbara CHERRY A. MURRAY, Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories V. ADRIAN PARSEGIAN, National Institutes of Health PAUL S. PEERCY, SEMI/SEMATECH JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University FRANS SPAEPEN, Harvard University KATEPALLI R. SREENIVASAN, Yale University DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE THOMAS P. RUSSELL, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Chair MYRIAM P. SARACHIK, City College of New York, Vice Chair PAUL A. FLEURY, University of New Mexico, Past Chair GABRIEL AEPPLI, NEC Research Institute FRANK S. BATES, University of Minnesota JOHN C. BRAVMAN, Stanford University DANIEL S. CHEMLA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GERALD MAHAN, University of Tennessee, Knoxville DAVID MONCTON, Argonne National Laboratory CHERRY A. MURRAY, Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories S. THOMAS PICRAUX, Sandia National Laboratories JAMES B. ROBERTO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory JOHN J. RUSH, National Institute of Standards and Technology DALE W. SCHAEFER, University of Cincinnati DO Y. YOON, IBM Almaden Research Center DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer

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The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego, Chair ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University, Vice Chair IRA BERNSTEIN, Yale University STEVEN CHU, Stanford University VAL FITCH, Princeton University IVAR GIAEVER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute JOHN P. HUCHRA, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics ANTHONY C.S. READHEAD, California Institute of Technology R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, University of Washington KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, GM Research and Development Center J. ANTHONY TYSON, Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University DAVID WILKINSON, Princeton University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Senior Administrative Associate GRACE WANG, Project Assistant COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California, Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California, Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives Preface In the spring of 1996, the National Research Council's Board on Physics and Astronomy established the Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics to prepare a scholarly assessment of the field as part of a new decadal physics survey. The work of the committee began with a two-day workshop in Washington in June 1996. This workshop brought together some 60 leading practitioners in the field as well as key policymakers from government, industry, and universities. Since then, the committee has met several times to formulate its report, which is to be completed by June 1998. This short report, The Physics of Materials: How Science Improves Our Lives, is an early output of the ongoing study, intended for a broad audience. Based largely on the presentations at the June 1996 workshop, it highlights some of the fundamental science at the forefront of research in the field and demonstrates, through illustrative examples, the field's impact on our everyday lives. Even though the highlights presented are primarily physics based, the committee would like to emphasize the importance of links with other fields of science and engineering and the inherent interdisciplinary nature and unity of materials research. Important examples of these multidisciplinary links include fullerenes (physics and chemistry), macromolecules (physics and biology), structural alloys (physics and materials engineering), and silicon technology (physics and electrical engineering). The committee would like to express its gratitude for the interactions it has had with numerous scientists and policy-makers. As it continues its deliberations over the next several months, the committee looks forward to receiving further input from the community.

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