NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approvedby the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose membersare drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences,the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosenfor their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors accordingto procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting ofmembers of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academyof Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuatingsociety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineeringresearch, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technologyand to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of thecharter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has amandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientificand technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the NationalAcademy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, underthe charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organizationof outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administrationand in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academyof Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government.The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programsaimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research,and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. HaroldLiebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the NationalAcademy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members ofappropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertainingto the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibilitygiven to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charterto be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative,to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr.Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academyof Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science andtechnology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge andadvising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with generalpolicies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principaloperating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and theNational Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government,the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Councilis administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine.Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vicechairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
The Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education wasestablished in 1995 to provide coordination of all the National ResearchCouncil's education activities and reform efforts for all studentsat all levels, specifically kindergarten through twelfth grade, undergraduate,school-to-work programs, and continuing education. The Center reportsdirectly to the Governing Board of the National Research Council.
Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved.
Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this report foreducational purposes but not for sale may be granted upon receiptof a written request to the
National Academy Press,
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.20418.
Printed in the United States of America.