Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy

Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium

Kennebunkport, Maine

November 1-3, 1994

Committee on Science and Policy for the Coastal Ocean

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium Kennebunkport, Maine November 1-3, 1994 Committee on Science and Policy for the Coastal Ocean Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995

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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W.Washington, DC20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report and the symposium on which it was based was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Ocean Service and Coastal Ocean Program), the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Minerals Management Service. Cover art was created by Ellen Hill-Godfrey. Ms. Hill-Godfrey received her master of fine arts degree from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Her paintings and prints have been exhibited in the Washington, D.C. area and throughout the Mid-Atlantic and Southern regions. She is currently a resident printmaker at Pyramid Atlantic in Riverside, Md. Copies of this report are available from Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20418. Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND POLICY FOR THE COASTAL OCEAN DONALD F. BOESCH (Co-chair), University of Maryland, Cambridge BILIANA CICIN-SAIN (Co-chair), University of Delaware, Newark PETER M. DOUGLAS, California Coastal Commission, San Francisco EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California SUSAN S. HANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis DAVID H. KEELEY, Maine State Planning Office, Augusta MICHAEL K. ORBACH, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina JOHN M. TEAL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Staff EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Study Director LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Project Assistant

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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium OCEAN STUDIES BOARD WILLIAM MERRELL (Chairman), Texas A&M University, Galveston GERALD A. CANN, Senior Advisor to the Executive Committee, Raytheon Company, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ELLEN DRUFFEL, University of California, Irvine RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida JOHN E. FLIPSE, Independent Consultant, Georgetown, South Carolina SUSAN HANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis JOHN E. HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia ROBERT B. GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California LOUIS L. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey JOHN MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison B. GREGORY MITCHELL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ARTHUR NOWELL, University of Washington, Seattle TERRANCE J. QUINN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks BARRY RALEIGH, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JAMES P. RAY, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas PETER RHINES, University of Washington, Seattle BRIAN ROTHSCHILD, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth THOMAS C. ROYER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin Staff MARY HOPE KATSOUROS, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Staff Officer DAN WALKER, Staff Officer ELIZABETH TURNER, Research Associate MARY PECHACEK, Administrative Associate LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Senior Secretary PAULETTE SALMON, Project Assistant CURTIS TAYLOR, Office Assistant

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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDY MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS A. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer JAMES MALLORY, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant

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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy: Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.