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TABLE B.1 Population Distribution in Regions Where Developing Countries Predominate (thousands)

 

Age Group (years)

Region

Under 1

1–4

Total Under 5

5–14

15–59

60 and Over

Africa

23,040

73,762

96,802

141,459

265,451

27,288

Asia

73,400

270,300

343,700

666,402

1,472,242

179,656

Latin America

12,736

44,499

57,235

100,220

214,415

25,130

Oceania

187

635

822

1,285

2,620

273

Total

109,363

389,196

498,559

909,366

1,954,728

232,347

TABLE B.2 Estimated Mortality in Developing Countries Due to Acute Respiratory Infections (deaths/100,000 population/yeara)

 

Age Group (years)

Region

Under 1

1–4

5–14

15–59b

60 and Over

Africa

1,500

500

20

150

Asia

1,200

200

20

150

Latin America

1,300

130

13

400

Oceania

200

10

1

100

aModified from Bulla and Hitze (1978). Rates in some categories are based on a small number of reporting countries.

bNot calculated.

Pio et al. (1985) reviewed the results of bacteriological studies on lung aspirates from children (birth to 8 years of age) in developing countries who had pneumonia and no previous antimicrobial treatment. About 55 percent of these aspirates were culture positive for bacteria. Of these, 22.5 percent contained S. pneumoniae, and 11.5 percent contained H. influenzae. Staphylococcus aureus (4.4 percent), mixed infections, or other bacteria accounted for the balance of positive cultures. These proportions may be underestimates because the appropriate lung lesion may not have been reached with the aspiration needle or because laboratory methods may have been inadequate. Lung aspirate sampling may overestimate the significance of bacterial pathogens because of the kinds of patients selected for testing (see above). However, it is not possible to estimate how much these considerations affect the accuracy of available data.



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