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Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 421

Description

disease, see Disease description

pathogen, see Pathogen description

Developing countries, 44–46

Development, successful, probability of, 64–65, 68–69, 72

Development costs, 64, 66, 73

Development scenario, alternative, 135

expenditures and, 139

IME units and, 138

DHHS (Department of Health and Human Services), 421

Diarrheal diseases, 51

annual incidence of, 160

diarrheal episodes in, 161

disease burden, 159–169

by etiology, 162

mortality from, 161

population in, 160

Differential utilization (U), 35

effect of, 135

Discount rate, 33, 34, 90, 134–135

expenditures and, 137

IME and, 136

Discounting procedure, 11, 33

Disease burden

acute respiratory illness, 149–158

aggregate nature of calculations of, 108

assumptions for, 132–134

comparison of, 44–61

dengue virus, 172, 173

diarrheal disease, 159–169

enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 163, 179–182

equity considerations in, 106–111

estimates, 7, 8, 47

Haemophilus influenzae, 155

Haemophilus influenzae type b, 188–191

hepatitis A virus, 198–203

hepatitis B virus, 210–216

Japanese encephalitis virus, 227–230

modification of, 166

Mycobacterium leprae, 242–244

Neisseria meningitidis, 255–260

parainfluenza viruses, 149–158, 268–270

Plasmodium spp., 277–279, 282

rabies virus, 291, 292, 293

respiratory syncytial virus, 149–158, 301, 302

rotavirus, 164, 311, 312, 313

Salmonella typhi, 321–324

Shigella spp., 165, 331–333

streptococcus A, 342–345, 346

Streptococcus pneumoniae, 158, 359–370

trends in, 85–86

Vibrio cholerae, 378–381

yellow fever virus, 392–397

Disease characteristics not recognized by system, 60–61

Disease control measures, alternative, 113–114, 116–117

Disease description

dengue virus, 170–171

enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 178

Haemophilus influenzae type b, 186–187

hepatitis A virus, 197–198

hepatitis B virus, 208–209

Japanese encephalitis virus, 223–224

Mycobacterium leprae, 241

Neisseria meningitidis, 251–253

parainfluenza viruses, 267

Plasmodium spp., 275

rabies virus, 287–289

respiratory syncytial virus, 299

rotavirus, 308–309

Salmonella typhi, 319

Shigella spp., 329–330

streptococcus A, 338–339

Streptococcus pneumoniae, 357–358

Vibrio cholerae, 376–377

yellow fever virus, 390–391

Disease distribution

dengue virus, 172

enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 179, 182

Haemophilus influenzae type b, 188–190

hepatitis A virus, 198–202

hepatitis B virus, 210–213

Japanese encephalitis virus, 226–230

Mycobacterium leprae, 242–244

Neisseria meningitidis, 255–260

parainfluenza viruses, 268–269

Plasmodium spp., 277–278

rabies virus, 290–291

respiratory syncytial virus, 300–301

rotavirus, 310–311

Salmonella typhi, 320–321

Shigella spp., 331–333

streptococcus A, 342–345

Streptococcus pneumoniae, 359–370

Vibrio cholerae, 378–381

yellow fever virus, 392–397

Disease estimates

general procedures and assumptions in, 51

limitations of current, 51–54

procedures used in deriving, 50–51

Disease incidence, 53

Diseases

costs associated with, see under Costs

distribution of, 108–109

eradication of, 115

important, in developing countries, 146–147

interactions of, 115

ranking of, 15

second-order effects of, 166, 169

synergistic interaction with, 61

Dominance

concept of, 13

test for, 40

Dose(s)

cost per, 65, 67, 74

number of, 65, 67, 74

Drug resistance, 114

Dysentery, see Shigella spp.

E

Ectopic pregnancy, 56

Effectiveness, 25

Efficacy, 35, 65, 67, 73–74

Efficacy score, 24

Encephalitis, see Japanese encephalitis virus

Endemic meningococcal meningitis, 257–259

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

annual number of vaccinees and delay in benefits, 87

as candidate, 5

disease burden, 163, 179–182

disease description, 178

disease distribution, 179, 182

health benefits and expenditures associated with, 124

host immune response, 179

pathogen description, 178–179

prediction tables, 64–65, 68–69

probable vaccine target population, 182–183

prospects for immunizing against, 178–185

prospects for vaccine development, 184–185

relationships betweenexpenditures and health benefits, 128–129

suitability for vaccine control, 183–184

times associated with, 91



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