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vaccines. Chapter 8 presents further discussion of the grouping of vaccine candidates.

COMPARISON OF COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASES

Another way to compare candidates for accelerated vaccine development would be to compare the extent to which they would render unnecessary expenditures for treating diseases or avert other disease-related economic losses, for example, lost work productivity, and their cost-effectiveness in doing so. To make such comparisons it is necessary to know (or to obtain reliable estimates on) the costs associated with each disease. The costs incurred in vaccine development and in vaccination programs are discussed in Chapters 5 and 7, respectively.

TABLE 4.8 The Median Infant Mortality Equivalence Values for Respondents from the United States

 

Infant Mortality Equivalents

Morbidity

Category Description

Unit

Under 5 Years

5–14 Years

15–59 Years

60 Years and Over

A

Moderate localized pain and/or mild systemic reaction, or impairment requiring minor change in normal activities, and associated with some restriction of work activity

Days

300,000

140,000

50,000

10,000,000

B

Moderate pain and/or moderate impairment requiring moderate change in normal activities, e.g., housebound or in bed, and associated with temporary loss of ability to work

Days

80,000

10,000

4,000

100,000

C

Severe pain, severe short-term impairment, or hospitalization

Days

8,000

1,000

500

10,000

D

Mild chronic disability (not requiring hospitalization, institutionalization, or other major limitation of normal activity, and resulting in minor limitation of ability to work)

Cases

500

80

25

5,000

E

Moderate to severe chronic disability (requiring hospitalization, special care, or other major limitation of normal activity, and seriously restricting ability to work)

Cases

5

1

0.6

50

F

Total impairment

Cases

0.2

0.05

0.025

1

G

Reproductive impairment resulting in infertility

Cases

300

150

50

n.a.

H

Death

Cases

1

0.5

0.1

10



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