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Pathogen (Target Population)

Type of Vaccine

Cost of Development ($ millions)

Probability of Successful Development

Rabies virus

(Individuals at high risk, plus post-exposure prophylaxis)

Vero cell

5

0.90

(Same)

Glycoprotein produced by rDNA technology in mammalian cells

3–5

0.85

(Birth cohort in areas of high risk)

Attenuated live vector virus containing gene for protective glycoprotein antigen

10–20

0.50

Respiratory syncytial virus

(Infants at earliest possible age)

Polypeptides produced by recombinant DNA technology

25

0.80

Attenuated live virus

25

0.80

Rotavirus

(Infants at earliest possible age, preferably with oral polio vaccine)

Attenuated high passage bovine rotavirus

10

0.90

Attenuated low passage bovine rotavirus

30

0.80

Rhesus monkey rotavirus

30

0.80

Salmonella typhi

(Children; young adults at risk; travelers from developed countries to endemic areas)

Attenuated ga1E mutant S. typhi strain TY21a

2

0.90

Aromatic amino acid dependent strains of S. typhi

2

0.50

Shigella spp.

(Infants at birth or earliest possible age; elderly for epidemic strains)

Probably plasmid mediated outer membrane protein invasion determinant (small number of promising options need investigation to determine best approach)

25–50

0.70

for polyvalent vaccine

(0.85 for targeted S. dysenteriae and S. flexneri strains)

Streptococcus A

(Children,<3 to 4 years)

Synthetic M protein segment (excluding portions cross-reacting with human tissue)

50

0.80

Streptococcus pneumoniae

(Infants)

Conjugated polysaccharides, polyvalent

30

0.80

Vibrio cholera

(Children, especially <2 years)

Genetically defined live mutant V. cholerae (A−B+ or A−B− with respect to toxin subunit synthesis

25

0.75

Inactivated antigens

10

0.65

Yellow fever virus

(Young children)

Attenuated live virus produced in cell culture

15

0.95



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