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Route of Administration

Adverse Reactions

Delivery Requirements

Incorporation into EPI

Intramuscular or subcutaneous

Slight/none

Refrigeration

Probably not warranted. Duration of immunity not certain and post-exposure prophylaxis strategy preferred

Same as at present

(with alum adjuvant)

Fewer reactions than current vaccine

Nothing unusual

Same

Probably intradermal

Unknown

Probably nothing unusual

Probably, depending on duration of immunity

Subcutaneous

None

Nothing unusual

Feasible

Intranasal

None

Nothing unusual

Feasible

Oral

Minimal or none

Refrigeration and must be administered with food or milk

Yes

Oral (an alternative to enteric-coated capsules, i.e., a liquid vaccine formula, may be needed for infants and young children)

None seen

Refrigeration and moisture control for enteric-coated capsules

Feasible (if new vaccine formulation is developed)

None

 

 

Oral

None

Probably lyophilization; possibly enteric-coated capsules

Feasible

Intramuscular

 

 

Readily incorporated

Parenteral

Local soreness, low grade fever

Refrigeration (4 C)

Feasible, dependent on cost

Oral

Present prototypes cause mild diarrhea in 20%

Cold chain for lyophilized bacteria

Feasible

Oral

None expected

Lyophilized probably will withstand moderate ambient temperatures

Probably promptly in endemic areas

Subcutaneous

Minimal

Refrigeration

Feasible



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