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Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources Commission on Life Sciences National Academy Press March 1995
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Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approvedby the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose membersare drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences,the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosenfor their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors accordingto procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting ofmembers of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academyof Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuatingsociety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineeringresearch, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technologyand to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of thecharter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has amandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientificand technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the NationalAcademy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, underthe charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organizationof outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administrationand in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academyof Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government.The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programsaimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research,and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. RobertM. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the NationalAcademy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members ofappropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertainingto the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibilitygiven to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charterto be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative,to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr.Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academyof Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science andtechnology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge andadvising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with generalpolicies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principaloperating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and theNational Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government,the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Councilis administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine.Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman,respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,contract #68-W4-0044. Printed in the United States of America
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Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH AND PEER REVIEW IN EPA PAUL G. RISSER,(Chair), Miami University, Oxford, Ohio BRADEN R. ALLENBY, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Princeton, New Jersey JULIAN B. ANDELMAN, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ANDERS W. ANDREN, University of Wisconsin, Madison JOHN C. BAILAR III, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Montreal, Canada JUDY A. BEAN, University of Miami Medical School, Florida EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Ohio DAVID S. C. CHU, RAND, Washington, D.C. RALPH J. CICERONE, University of California, Irvine ELLIS B. COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh WALTER F. DABBERDT, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ROLF HARTUNG, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ALAN J. KRUPNICK, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. MORTON LIPPMANN, New York University Medical School, Tuxedo RAYMOND C. LOEHR, University of Texas, Austin PAMELA A. MATSON, University of California, Berkeley JUDITH MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Massachusetts JERRY M. MELILLO, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts DAVID W. MILLER, Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Plainview, New York DAVID L. MORRISON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. GEOFFREY PLACE(retired; formerly Procter & Gamble), Hilton Head, South Carolina DONALD W. PRITCHARD (emeritus; State University of New York at Stony Brook), SevernaPark, Maryland HOWARD E. SIMMONS, JR.(retired; formerly duPont), Wilmington, Delaware BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C. Project Staff JAMES J. REISA,Principal Staff Officer RAYMOND A. WASSEL,Senior Staff Officer RUTH P. DANOFF,Senior Project Assistant LORA K. TAYLOR,Project Assistant
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Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY PAUL G. RISSER,(Chair), Miami University, Oxford, Ohio MICHAEL J. BEAN, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio EDWIN H. CLARK, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia ALLAN H. CONNEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina JOHN L. EMMERSON, Eli Lilly & Company, Greenfield, Indiana ROBERT C. FORNEY, Unionville, Pennsylvania ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts KAI LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JANE LUBCHENCO, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington FRANK PARKER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, South Carolina DAVID P. RALL, Washington, D.C. LESLIE A. REAL, Indiana University,Bloomington, Indiana KRISTIN SHRADER-FRECHETTE, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey MARGARET STRAND, Eckert, Seamans, Cherin, & Mellot, Washington, D.C. GERALD VAN BELLE, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C. Staff Program Directors JAMES J. REISA,Director DAVID POLICANSKY,Associate Director and Program Director for Ecology and Natural Resources CAROL MACZKA,Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE PAULSON,Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND WASSEL,Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering
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Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN( Chair), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa WILLIAM L. FISHER, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia W. BARCLAY KAMB, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, Stanford, California S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland ELLEN SILBERGELD, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN,Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER,Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK,Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON,Administrative Officer SANDRA FITZPATRICK,Administrative Associate
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Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES THOMAS D. POLLARD,(Chair), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland BRUCE N. AMES, University of California, Berkeley, California JOHN C. BAILAR III, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Montreal, Canada J. MICHAEL BISHOP, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, California JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, California GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington MARIAN E. KOSHLAND, University of California, Berkeley, California RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan EMIL A. PFITZER, Hoffman La Roche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California HENRY C. PITOT III, University of Wisconsin, Madison JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland HAROLD M. SCHMECK, JR., North Chatam, Massachusetts CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, California SUSAN S. TAYLOR, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California P. ROY VAGELOS, Merck & Company, Inc., Whitehouse Station, New Jersey JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas PAUL GILMAN,Executive Director