6

Civilian GPS Planning and Policy Making in the Federal Government



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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications 6 Civilian GPS Planning and Policy Making in the Federal Government

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications The GPS Information and Policy Organizational Structure Irene Gonin and George Wiggers U. S. Department of Transportation, Radionavigation and Positioning Staff Kenneth Lamm The MITRE Corporation INTRODUCTION The United States operates the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS). The GPS is a satellite-based system designed and developed within the Department of Defense (DOD) that provides a twenty-four hour, global user position and velocity determination capability relative to an earth-centered, earth-fixed coordinate system. GPS also provides a twenty-four hour global time determination capability. To provide these capabilities, DOD has placed in orbit 24 operational satellites and installed a worldwide ground control network that is operated by the US Space Command in Colorado Springs. Users obtain position, velocity and time information with special radio receivers with integrated computational components. With this function comes many responsibilities. To help facilitate policy and efficient usage of GPS for both military and civilian applications, the Joint DOD and Department of Transportation (DOT) GPS Executive Board was formed in 1994. The purpose of this Executive Board is to resolve conflicts arising from joint civil and military use of GPS. This paper describes the present organizational structure and function of the various committees, working groups and subcommittees that have been organized to help manage GPS. The paper also describes international organizations concerned with the provision of satellite navigation services because of their interaction with the U.S. GPS management structure. The focus of these organizations are to assure that the system provides maximum benefits to civil users while maintaining the military utility of GPS for the U.S. and its allies. The benefits of GPS also include the creation of new manufacturing and service industries evolving from this technology. Background Full Operational Capability (FOC) was announced for GPS by DOD on April 27, 1995. With this announcement, a new era in joint management of the GPS system has begun. No longer is the system in a test or development phase; GPS is now fully operational. It has taken GPS over 20 years to go from concept to the reality that a truly new navigation and positioning utility has been created for the world. For less than five hundred dollars, anyone, anywhere in the world, can determine his or her location in three dimensions to within 100 meters. With this tremendous world resource, comes much responsibility. The need for close cooperation and exchange of information between military, federal, civilian and international groups is very important to the future of the GPS system. By the early 1990's DOD had developed an organizational structure to support the implementation of GPS. With the increased usage of GPS in the federal, civilian and international communities, DOD and DOT realized the need for closer cooperation between the departments. As a result, a Joint DOD/DOT Task Force on GPS was created and a report to the Secretaries of Defense and Transportation was completed in December 1993. As part of the report, a survey of Federal users was conducted. Table 1 lists the agencies that responded, YES, to using GPS. Table 2 list agencies that responded, NO, to using GPS. One of the recommendations from the Joint Task Force on GPS, was to create a GPS Executive Board, composed of, an Assistant Secretary from both the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The purpose of this Executive Board would be to resolve conflicts arising from joint civil and military use of GPS. Another recommendation was the assignment of radionavigation policy and planning responsibilities to a DOT Assistant Secretary and the establishment of a DOT Positioning and Navigation (Pos/Nav) Executive Committee within DOT to mirror a similar organization within DOD. Descriptions of the organizational components that presently support this newly formed GPS Executive Board are described in the remainder of this report.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications TABLE 1 List Of Agencies That Responded to the Joint DOD/DOT Task Force on GPS and Indicated Present Usage of GPS within Their Agency Dept. of Agriculture Federal Emergency Management Administration Dept. of Commerce National Aeronautic and Space Administration Dept. of Housing and Urban Development National Railroad Passenger Corporation Dept. of Interior Nuclear Regulatory Commission Dept. of Justice Panama Canal Commission Dept. of Labor Peace Corps Dept. of State Tennessee Valley Administration Dept. of Treasury - Customs U.S. Arms Control Disarmament Agency Central Intelligence Agency Environmental Protection Agency TABLE 2 List of Agencies That Responded to the Joint DOD/DOT Task Force On GPS and Indicated no Present Usage of GPS within Their Agency Office of Management and Budget - budget related interest only General Services Administration - no requirements Federal Communications Commission* Office of Science and Technology Policy National Science Foundation* Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations National Transportation Safety Board* Agency for International Development     * Near term plans for usage. THE JOINT DOD/DOT GPS EXECUTIVE BOARD Upon approval of the Joint Task Force report, the GPS Executive Board was formed in 1994 to resolve conflicts arising from joint civil and military use of GPS. The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology and the Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Transportation Policy now comprise the GPS Executive Board. They are advised by members of both the DOD and the DOT Positioning and Navigation (Pos/Nav) Executive Committees (described in Section 2.1 and Section 2.2 respectively). This Board meets when required to resolve issues that cannot be resolved by the routine interaction of both the Pos/Nav Executive Committees. The Executive Board resolves issues by consensus. Certain components of the information and policy structure led by the GPS Executive Board structure have very well defined missions, others are still trying to shape their missions. DOD Pos/Nav Executive Committee The DOD Pos/Nav Executive Committee has existed since 1980. The Under Secretary for Acquisition and Technology (USD/T&A) is the chair of this Committee. It is the DOD element responsible for major policy decisions regarding GPS implementation and operation. This Committee is responsible for the development of the Master Navigation Plan (MNP). It is the DOD focal point and forum for all DOD Pos/Nav matters. Its primary function is to formulate DOD radionavigation system policy and provide overall guidance on matters of Pos/Nav research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E), modifications, acquisition, and operation. Much of this work is to be coordinated with the DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee, for example, the biennial revision of the Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP), and other areas of mutual interest. The Chair designates a member of the DOD Pos/Nav Executive Committee to chair the DOD Pos/Nav Working Group (discussed in Section 2.3.1).

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications The DOD Pos/Nav Executive Committee is composed of one representative from each of the following: Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (USD/P) Comptroller of the Department of Defense (C, DOD) Assistant Secretary of Defense (ASD/Production and Logistics) Assistant Secretary of Defense (ASD/Program Analysis and Evaluation) Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) The General Counsel, DOD (GC, DOD) Secretaries of the Military Departments National Security Agency (NSA) Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) The Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), supported by the Joint Staff, is the primary military advisor the to the National Command Authority (NCA). The President or the Secretary of Defense, with the approval of the President, is the NCA. The Service Chief provide guidance to their military departments in the preparation of their respective detailed navigation plans. The JCS are aware of operational navigation requirements and capabilities of the Unified Commands and the Services, and are responsible for the development, approval, and dissemination of the CJCS Master Navigation Plan (MNP). The MNP is the official navigation policy and planning document of the CJCS. It is a coordinated navigation system plan which addresses operational defense requirements. The MNP is the direct responsibility of the Deputy Director of Defense-Wide Command, Control, and Communications Support, Joint Staff (JCS/J4). Along with the MNP, JCS/J4 is responsible for general navigation matters; and analysis, evaluation, and monitoring of navigation system planning and operations. Commanders-in-Chief (CINCs) The Commanders-in-Chief (CINCs) of the Unified Commands perform navigation functions similar to those of JCS. The CINCs at both the Unified and Specified Commands develop navigation requirements as necessary for contingency plans and JCS exercises that require navigation resources external to that command. They are also responsible for review and compliance with the CJCS MNP. In addition, the CINC for the Specified Command U.S. Space Command (CINCSPACE) is responsible for launching, operating, and maintaining the GPS satellite constellation. This task is delegated to the Component Command, Air Force Space Command. Military Departments The Military Departments are responsible for participating in the development, dissemination, and implementation of the CJCS MNP and for managing the development, deployment, operation, and support of designated navigation systems. As part of this responsibility, the Department Secretaries are represented on the DOD Pos/Nav Executive Committee. The Secretary of the Navy is represented by both Navy and Marine personnel. The Secretary of the Air Force is specifically responsible for the GPS constellation. DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee The DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee, was created in 1994 by the reorganization of the then DOT Navigation Council. An Assistant Secretary of Transportation chairs this committee and has the authority to: speak on behalf of the civil user community, make decisions for the DOT regarding civil GPS service, and maintain an outreach program to ensure that the needs of other federal agencies, state, and private sector users are addressed in future GPS decision-making processes. The DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee is composed of senior level representatives from the following DOT components: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy Office of the General Counsel Office of the Assistant Secretary for Budget and Programs Office of Intermodalism Office of Commercial Space Transportation (now part of FAA) U.S. Coast Guard Federal Aviation Administration Federal Highway Administration Federal Railroad Administration National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Transit Administration St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation Maritime Administration Research and Special Programs Administration Bureau of Transportation Statistics In addition to the DOT agency representatives, the Director of the National Geodetic Survey, Department of

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications Commerce, represents the non-DOT agency interests on the Executive Committee (see Section 2.2.2.2) The Civil GPS Service Interface Committee (CGSIC is described in Section 2.2.1) had been an outreach group for civil users since 1986. In addition to the CGSIC, a new committee was formed in 1994 to include all Federal civil agencies in the decision-making process, called the GPS Interagency Advisory Council (GIAC is described in Section 2.2.2.2). Civil GPS Service Interface Committee (CGSIC) Civil GPS Service Interface Committee (CGSIC) origins can be first traced to 1986 when it was called the Civil GPS Steering Committee and run by the Joint Program Office (JPO). The committee changed its name in 1990 to, CGSIC. Its functions remained the same. It was not until January of 1995 - as a result of a report by the Joint DOD/DOT Task Force on GPS (December 1993) -that the charter of this committee changed to what it is today. The CGSIC, under its present charter, has the following four major roles: provide a forum to exchange technical information and collect information on the civil GPS user community's needs, identify information requirements and methods to distribute this information to the civil GPS user community, conduct GPS information studies on civil user needs as requested by DOT's Civil GPS Service Program or identified by the Committee, and identify any GPS issues that may need resolution. The CGSIC is a DOT sponsored outreach organization established to provide information to all civil GPS users. The CGSIC is an information sharing body, not an advisory committee. The CGSIC identifies GPS issues, but it is not empowered to resolve those issues. The CGSIC meets at least semiannually or as frequently as necessary to conduct its business. Any person or organization, including foreign entities, with an interest in GPS can become a member of the committee. Presently, the CGSIC membership, in the General Committee, consist of individuals from industry, academia, DOD, DOT, NASA, other federal agencies and Foreign Countries. The CGSIC interfaces with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, the USCG's Office of Navigation Safety and Waterways Services, the DOT Pos/Nav Working Group, and the Joint DOD/DOT Pos/Nav Working Group. The CGSIC also has an Executive Panel which consists of subcommittee chairs, a representative from the GPS Interagency Advisory Council (GIAC), and representatives from three modal areas: aviation -FAA, land - Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (FGCS), and marine -USCG. The following three standing subcommittees have been established: Timing Information Reference Station Information International Information Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) The FGDC was established through the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and charged with the responsibility to coordinate various surveying, mapping, and spatial data activities of the federal agencies to meet the needs of the nation. Major objectives of the FGDC are to avoid duplication and reduce costs in mapping and spatial data activities, which involves establishing standards and providing wider access to geospatial data. The FGDC is also charged with coordinating geospatial data related activities with other levels of government and other sectors. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is a main-line component of NOAA 's National Ocean Service and is responsible for developing and maintaining the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). The NSRS is a network of many thousands of precisely determined points known as geodetic control points. These points provide the common base of reference to correlate longitude, latitude, height, scale and orientation throughout the Nation, and the changes of these with time, for resource mapping; transportation, communication, and defense systems; boundary and property surveys; land record systems; mapping and charting; public utilities; and a variety of scientific and engineering applications. Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (FGCS). The FGCS of the FGDC exercises government wide leadership in coordinating the planning and execution of geodetic surveys, in developing standards and specifications for these surveys, and in the exchange of geodetic survey data and technical information. FGCS coordinates Federal agencies ' aspects of surveying that are governmental responsibilities. These responsibilities include: standards setting, testing new geodetic instrumentation and operational systems, coordination of user agency requirements, and the dissemination of government data to user agencies. The FGCS acts to ensure that GPS will continue to meet the positioning needs of the Federal civilian

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications community and works to strengthen ties between the GPS positioning and navigation communities. This responsibility is carried out through its newly formed organization called the GPS Interagency Advisory Council (GIAC) where the Director of NGS chairs the FGCS and the GIAC, and is a member of the DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee. GPS Interagency Advisory Council (GIAC). The GPS Interagency Advisory Council (GIAC) is an organization of Federal agencies which is empowered to identify issues that arise in the Federal civil use of GPS and to fully participate in the policy-making, consensus development, and resolution of those issues. The GIAC is also expected to help coordinate Federal infrastructure investments and operation of GPS augmentation systems. This Council was formed in 1994 and was initially called the GPS Interagency Panel. GIAC membership is limited to representatives of Federal agencies and meets at least semiannually or as frequently as necessary to conduct its business. The GIAC expresses issues and recommends Federal Policy relative to civil GPS positioning, navigation, and timing to the DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee. This is facilitated by having the chairperson of the GIAC sit as a member of the DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee. Other important roles of the GIAC are to: Collect and document annually all known Federal civil positioning, navigation and timing uses of GPS and issues affecting such applications. This document will be widely distributed as a yearly report and forwarded to the DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee. Evaluate the scope and potential impact of proposed DOD changes in GPS operation and management. These impacts will be communicated to the DOD Pos/Nav Executive Committee in a timely manner. Provide quarterly reports of GIAC activities through Federal bulletin boards, Internet, agency newsletters, and various professional society publications, in order to keep both Federal and non-federal civilian GPS users informed. To address the broadest spectrum of applications and issues, GIAC representation shall be focused toward Federal agencies and their customers that include state and local governments, academia, the private sector, consumers, and international users. The Civil GPS Service (CGS) In 1987, DOD formally requested that DOT assume responsibility for establishing and providing an office that would respond to civil user needs for GPS information, data, and assistance. In February 1989, the USCG Office of Navigation Safety and Waterways Service was named the lead agency for this project. The goals of the Civil GPS Service (CGS) are to: provide GPS information to civilian users (This is being accomplished through the USCG Navigation Information Service (see below for more details).), establish an organization to identify civil GPS user technical information needs in support of the CGS program (This is being accomplished through the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee.), provide information on Differential GPS (DGPS) (DGPS is an extension of GPS that enhances the Standard Positioning Service (SPS) for civil users in the maritime regions of the United States. USCG is expected to declare it operational in 1996. The Navigation Information Service (NIS) is being used for the dissemination of DGPS information.), establish a Precise Positioning Service Program Office (PPSPO) (The USCG is establishing this office. It is under development. PPSPO will review civil (federal and private) requests for access to the PPS signal (the military precise code) and forward best applications to DOD for final approval. It will then provide necessary training and information to the qualified civil users.), and handle aviation issues, including Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), National Aviation Standards for GPS, and GPS integrity as it relates to aviation (This is being accomplished by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).) The Navigation Center (NAVCEN) is the USCG's central point for the coordination of radionavigation management, operation and information. NAVCEN is responsible for gathering, processing and disseminating timely system status and general information about GPS, DGPS, and Omega and Loran-C systems, to domestic and foreign users of these systems. This is done through the NIS that began providing information to the civil community in March of 1990.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications Joint DOD/DOT Pos/Nav Working Group One output of this working group is the creation of the biennial report called the Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP). The first edition of the FRP was released in 1980 as part of a Presidential Report to Congress, prepared in response to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) Act of 1978. It marked the first time that a joint DOT/DOD plan for common-use (both civil and military) systems had been developed. In 1979 and again in 1990, a DOD/DOT Interagency Agreement for joint radionavigation planning, and the development and publication of the FRP was signed. In January 1993 a memorandum of agreement between DOD and DOT on the civil use of GPS was signed. It established policies and procedures to ensure an effective working relationship between the two departments regarding the civil use of GPS. The purpose of the FRP is to: Present an integrated Federal policy and plan for all common-use civil and military radionavigation systems. Provide a document for specifying radionavigation requirements and addressing common-use systems and applications. Outline an approach for consolidating radionavigation systems. Provide government radionavigation system planning information and schedules. Define and clarify new and unresolved common-use radionavigation systems issues. Provide a focal point for user participation. A draft version of the FRP is first developed by the DOT Pos/Nav Working Group. It then moves up to the JOINT Pos/Nav Working Group where DOD requirements and plans are integrated. The final version is signed by the Secretaries for Transportation and Defense. On occasion, issues may arise which need resolution at a higher level than the Joint DOT/DOD Pos/Nav Working Group. It is for these issues, that a joint meeting of the DOD and the DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committees would be called. On June 14, 1995, the first joint meeting of the DOD and DOT Executive Committee was held at the Pentagon. Topics for this meeting included the development of a DOD/DOT agreement on FAA's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), GPS national policy review, DOD/DOT working relationship, development of a GPS interference test notification process, GPS frequency issues, and GPS long-term financing. DOD Pos/Nav Working Group The DOD Pos/Nav Working Group was formed to help the DOD Executive Committee in carrying out its responsibilities. Membership is composed of representatives of the DOD Executive Committee. Representatives from the DOT and other government departments and agencies may be invited to assist the Working Group on various efforts. Non-DOD members of the Working Group are there in an advisory capacity only. DOT Pos/Nav Working Group The members of the DOT Pos/Nav Working Group are designated by the representatives to the DOT POS/NAV Executive Committee. In addition, the National Geodetic Survey and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration of the Department of Commerce have representatives on the working group. Experts from other Federal agencies also attend the working group meetings when appropriate. One of the primary functions of this group is to develop the draft Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP), described in Section 2.3 above. MEMORANDUMS OF UNDERSTANDING (MOA) The following section describes only a few of the MOA's established to support DOD and DOT requirements for civil use of GPS. Some have been in place for many years, others for only a few months. There is an umbrella MOA between NATO countries and the DOD involving GPS. The USCG is presently establishing a PPSPO, which will provide non military users a mechanism for applying for the PPS (military encrypted code). The USCG will review applications and send those with merit on to DOD. DOD will than assign encryption accounts, security clearances and equipment to the applicant. USCG will be responsible for training. So far, seventeen agencies have shown interest. MOA's will be required between DOD and each of these agencies. At present only one agency has established a MOA with DOD for the use of the Precise Positioning Service.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications MOA - US Space Command (USSPACECOM) and the U.S. Coast Guard The MOA between USSPACECOM and USCG establishes policies and procedures for the exchange of GPS status information. The MOA between Air Force Space Command (AFSPACECOM) and US Coast Guard Navigation Center (NAVCEN) specifies form, format, and frequency of GPS status information distribution (between AFSPACECOM and NAVCEN). US Air Force Second Satellite Operations Squadron (2SOPS) - who operates the GPS Master Control Station (MCS) - provides to USCG NIS the Notice Advisory to NAVSTAR Users (NANU) - generated as events occur on future, current or past satellite outages, system adjustments, or any condition that might adversely affect users DOT Representation at the GPS Joint Program Office (JPO) The DOT will assign representatives, as mutually agreed, to the JPO. DOT representatives will be assigned functional responsibilities within the JPO. The senior DOT representative at the JPO will be designated the DOT Deputy Program Manager (DPM). Duties and responsibilities will be similar to those described for Army, Navy and other Deputy Program Managers in the DOD Joint Services Charter for the Management and Administration of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Acquisition Program dated February 26, 1975. Functional responsibilities will be defined in a jointly developed position description. The DOT DPM will be directly responsible to the GPS Program Director for functional responsibility within the JPO. This MOA was signed in July 1993 and the first DOT representative reported to JPO in July 1995. DOT Representative(s) at the AFSPACECOM The DOT will assign representatives, as mutually agreed, to AFSPACECOM. The senior DOT representative at AFSPACECOM will be the on-site representative of OST/P-1 and representative for civil users. He or she will be the primary DOT point of contact with AFSPACECOM. In coordination with AFSPACECOM, DOT defines duties and responsibilities, prepare personnel performance evaluation reports, and provide all personnel-related funding for DOT representatives. This agreement was signed in July 1993 and will end on 31 December 2005 unless extended by mutual agreement of the signatories. The first DOT representative reported to Falcon Air Force Base in December 1994. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED WITH GPS INFORMATION Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GNSS is not an organization but rather a concept adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (see next section) and several European Countries. The goal of this system is to provide global navigation by developing strategies to use a combination of satellite systems (i.e., GPS, International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT), Russia's Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), etc.). The concept for the first generation GNSS (GNSS-1) is to use both GPS and GLONASS. The concept for a second generation GNSS (GNSS-2) is to use GPS, GLONASS and other undefined systems for positioning and navigation. It is hoped that this system would be internationally owned and funded. This would help ensure limited reliance on any particular system. The European Commission, the European Space Agency (ESA), EUROCONTROL, Japan GPS Council and others are all working together to develop a European Satellite Navigation (ESN) Action Program. The main objective of the program is to develop technologies that will ensure that data from the existing Global Navigation Satellite Systems (i.e. the United States' GPS and Russia's GLONASS), which are both under military control, will also be available for civil use on a reliable bases and will provide the requisite precision. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) The FAA works closely with ICAO to develop standards and regulations that govern international civil aviation. International agreements through ICAO help to insure global compatibility of various national aviation systems. GPS is becoming the primary choice as a stand-alone navigation system for aviation. This has occurred because of the following assurances the U.S. has made as to the availability of the civil GPS signal for international use: The U.S. offer to make the civil GPS signal freely available for use in international aviation was first stated by President Reagan after the KAL -007

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications tragedy in 1983. In a 1991 statement, DOT announced that it had no plans to limit access to civilian GPS for the foreseeable future and that it would give at least six years' advanced notice before imposing such limitations. This position was reaffirmed in a statement from President Clinton to the ICAO in March 1995. International Maritime Organization (IMO) USCG works closely with IMO to develop international standards and requirements for marine navigation. As with the aviation community, the marine community is beginning to rely more on the GPS. The Commandant of the USCG, in December 1994, wrote a letter to IMO making the same commitments for providing the civil GPS signal worldwide and free of direct user fees for the foreseeable future. These assurances are helping the international community continue investment into the GPS system. INMARSAT INMARSAT will provide L1 transponders for WAAS, EGNOS, etc. It is also proposing a navigation package on 15 ICO Global communications satellites, which will broadcast GPS signals on L1 and a second frequency, possibly L2. DOCUMENTS/REFERENCES The following documents/references are applicable to the policies and procedures outlined in this document: Charters for the following: Federal Geographic Data Committee Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee GPS Interagency Advisory Council Civil GPS Service Interface Committee DOD Pos/Nav Executive Committee DOD Pos/Nav Working Group GPS Phase-In Steering Committee DOD/DOT Memorandum of Agreement, Coordination of Federal Radionavigation and Positioning Planning. Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP), 1994, DOT-VNTSC-RSPA-95-1/DOD-4650.5. The Global Positioning System: Management and Operation of a Dual Use System, Joint DOD/DOT Task Force Report to the Secretaries of Defense and Transportation, December 1993. Federal Agency Responses to the Joint DOD/DOT Task Force on GPS as of October 1993. The Global Positioning System: Charting the Future, National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) and the National Research Council (NRC), May 1995. A Technical Report to the Secretary of Transportation on a National Approach to Augmented GPS Services, U. S. Department of Commerce - National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), U. S. Department of Transportation, December 1994, NTIA Special Publication 94-30. Parkinson, B., K. Gromov, T. Stansell, and R. Beard, “A History of Satellite Navigation”, Proceeding of the Institute of Navigation 51st Annual Meeting, June 5-7, 1995, Colorado Springs, CO., pp. 17-65. Shirer, H. O., Civil GPS Service Interface Committee (CGSIC). DOT, Research and Special Programs Administration, 1990. Shirer, H. O., The U. S. Federal Radionavigation Plan. Research and Special Programs Administration, 1988. Minutes from the Joint DOD/DOT Pos/Nav Working Group Meeting, June 29, 1995. Minutes from the Joint DOD/DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee Meeting, June 14, 1995. Draft, Minutes of the DOT Pos/Nav Executive Committee Meeting, June 2, 1995. European Space Agency Press Information Note No. 14-95, Paris, France, June 1995, Joint action program conducted by the European Commission, ESA and EUROCONTROL. - FAA WAAS Press Conference, Remarks prepared for delivery, Secretary Federico Peãa, August 3, 1995.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications ATTACHMENTS Two documents are attached that describe changes to GPS policy made after the main text of this paper was written. Attachment A is a fact sheet on GPS policy that accompanied the release of the Presidential Decision Directive on GPS, March 29, 1996. Attachment B is a February 27, 1997, Department of Transportation Press Release. It discusses an agreement reached between the DOT and DOD to guarantee the availability of the L2 carrier phase signal to civilian users while the details of a permanent second frequency for civilian users are being worked out.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications Attachment 1 THE WHITE HOUSE Office of Science and Technology Policy National Security Council EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE ON March 29, 1996 Contact: (202) 456-6020 FACT SHEET U.S. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM POLICY The President has approved a comprehensive national policy on the future management and use of the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and related U.S. Government augmentations. BACKGROUND The Global Positioning System (GPS) was designed as a dual-use system with the primary purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of U.S. and allied military forces. GPS provides a substantial military advantage and is now being integrated into virtually every facet of our military operations. GPS is also rapidly becoming an integral component of the emerging Global Information Infrastructure, with applications ranging from mapping and surveying to international air traffic management and global change research. The growing demand from military, civil, commercial, and scientific users has generated a U.S. commercial GPS equipment and service industry that leads the world. Augmentations to enhance basic GPS services could further expand these civil and commercial markets. The “basic GPS” is defined as the constellation of satellites, the navigation payloads which produce the GPS signals, ground stations, data links, and associated command and control facilities which are operated and maintained by the Department of Defense; the “Standard Positioning Service” (SPS) as the civil and commercial service provided by the basic GPS; and “augmentations” as those systems based on the GPS that provide real-time accuracy greater than the SPS. This policy presents a strategic vision for the future management and use of GPS, addressing a broad range of military, civil, commercial, and scientific interests, both national and international. POLICY GOALS In the management and use of GPS, we seek to support and enhance our economic competitiveness and productivity while protecting U.S. national security and foreign policy interests. Our goals are to: Strengthen and maintain our national security. Encourage acceptance and integration of GPS into peaceful civil, commercial and scientific applications worldwide. Encourage private sector investment in and use of U.S. GPS technologies and services. Promote safety and efficiency in transportation and other fields. Promote international cooperation in using GPS for peaceful purposes. Advance U.S. scientific and technical capabilities. POLICY GUIDELINES We will operate and manage GPS in accordance with the following guidelines: We will continue to provide the GPS Standard Positioning Service for peaceful civil, commercial and scientific use on a continuous, worldwide basis, free of direct user fees.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications It is our intention to discontinue the use of GPS Selective Availability (SA) within a decade in a manner that allows adequate time and resources for our military forces to prepare fully for operations without SA. To support such a decision, affected departments and agencies will submit recommendations in accordance with the reporting requirements outlined in this policy. The GPS and U.S. Government augmentations will remain responsive to the National Command Authorities. We will cooperate with other governments and international organizations to ensure an appropriate balance between the requirements of international civil, commercial and scientific users and international security interests. We will advocate the acceptance of GPS and U.S. Government augmentations as standards for international use. To the fullest extent feasible, we will purchase commercially available GPS products and services that meet U.S. Government requirements and will not conduct activities that preclude or deter commercial GPS activities, except for national security or public safety reasons. A permanent interagency GPS Executive Board, jointly chaired by the Departments of Defense and Transportation, will manage the GPS and U.S. Government augmentations. Other departments and agencies will participate as appropriate. The GPS Executive Board will consult with U.S. Government agencies, U.S. industries and foreign governments involved in navigation and positioning system research, development, operation, and use. This policy will be implemented within the overall resource and policy guidance provided by the President. AGENCY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The Department of Defense will: Continue to acquire, operate, and maintain the basic GPS. Maintain a Standard Positioning Service (as defined in the Federal Radionavigation Plan and the GPS Standard Positioning Service Signal Specification) that will be available on a continuous, worldwide basis. Maintain a Precise Positioning Service for use by the U.S. military and other authorized users. Cooperate with the Director of Central Intelligence, the Department of State and other appropriate departments and agencies to assess the national security implications of the use of GPS, its augmentations, and alternative satellite-based positioning and navigation systems. Develop measures to prevent the hostile use of GPS and its augmentations to ensure that the United States retains a military advantage without unduly disrupting or degrading civilian uses. The Department of Transportation will: Serve as the lead agency within the U.S. Government for all Federal civil GPS matters. Develop and implement U.S. Government augmentations to the basic GPS for transportation applications. In cooperation with the Departments of Commerce, Defense and State, take the lead in promoting commercial applications of GPS technologies and the acceptance of GPS and U.S. Government augmentations as standards in domestic and international transportation systems. In cooperation with other departments and agencies, coordinate U.S. Government-provided GPS civil augmentation systems to minimize cost and duplication of effort. The Department of State will: In cooperation with appropriate departments and agencies, consult with foreign governments and other international organizations to assess the feasibility of developing bilateral or multilateral guidelines on the provision and use of GPS services. Coordinate the interagency review of instructions to U.S. delegations to bilateral consultations and multilateral conferences related to the planning, operation, management, and use of GPS and related augmentation systems. Coordinate the interagency review of international agreements with foreign governments and international organizations concerning international use of GPS and related augmentation systems.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Beginning in 2000, the President will make an annual determination on continued use of GPS Selective Availability. To support this determination, the Secretary of Defense, in cooperation with the Secretary of Transportation, the Director of Central Intelligence, and heads of other appropriate departments and agencies, shall provide an assessment and recommendation on continued SA use. This recommendation shall be provided to the President through the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications Attachment 2 U.S. Department of Transportation FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Thursday, February 27, 1997 News: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Washington, D.C. 20590 DOT 21-97 DOT Contact: Bill Mosley Tel.: (202) 366-5571 DOD Contact Lt. Col Queenie Byars Tel.: (703) 697-5131 DOT AND DOD ASSURE GPS ACCESS FOR CIVIL USERS The Department of Transportation (DOT) and Department of Defense (DOD) today announced an agreement assuring civil users of the satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) the availability of a second frequency. A second frequency is essential for critical civilian uses of GPS. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, chaired by Vice President Al Gore, called for the establishment of a second civil frequency as part of a broader program to maintain U.S. leadership in aviation and satellite technology. DOD agreed to assure civil users uninterrupted access to a portion of its military signal, known as the “carrier phase.” The uninterrupted access to L2 carrier phase for civilian uses will be reflected in the upcoming publication of the Federal Radionavigation Plan, jointly published by both departments. Guaranteed availability of the L2 carrier phase signal will support the accelerated implementation of the Federal Aviation Administration 's (FAA) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). WAAS is the centerpiece of FAA's transition to a satellite-based air traffic control system. WAAS enhances the capabilities of GPS signals by providing the accuracy, integrity and reliability needed to allow the system to be used by civilian pilots as a primary means of navigation. In addition, DOT and DOD agreed to develop a plan for providing a second frequency with coarse acquisition code and navigation message for civil use. This will enhance worldwide GPS capability and allow each department to most effectively meet its responsibilities as laid out in the President's GPS Policy issued in 1996. The addition of a second civil frequency will result in an upgrading of the next generation satellites, known as the Block IIF. The detailed plan for providing this coded second civil frequency will be announced within one year. Dr. Paul Kaminski, under secretary of defense for acquisition and technology, and Frank Kruesi, assistant secretary for transportation policy, met on Feb. 22 to review the frequencies specified in the Block IIF contract for possible use as the second civil frequency, referred to as L5. Although none of the candidate frequencies listed in the Block IIF contract was considered mutually acceptable to all federal agencies with an interest in GPS, DOT and DOD reaffirmed their commitment to providing the second coded frequency for civil use. As a first step, DOD's GPS Joint Program Office has requested a proposal from Boeing North American, the Block IIF contractor, for an alternative design for providing the second civil frequency. Also, the DOD intends to investigate increasing the robustness of GPS for military use by supplementing the current system with an enhanced military capability at a yet to be determined frequency. These planned changes reflect the commitment in the President's GPS Policy that the United States will provide the most capable and reliable satellite navigation system for use by all nations of the world well into the next century.

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The Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications The DOT and the DOD also announced the signing of the charter for the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB). The agreement was signed by Secretary of Defense William Cohen and Secretary of Transportation Federico Pena before he left office. This board, established by the President's GPS Policy, will provide interagency management of the GPS and U.S. government augmentations to the GPS, and policy guidance for U.S. efforts to assure global acceptance of GPS technology. An electronic version of this document can be obtained via the World Wide Web at: http://www.dot.gov/affairs/index.htm.