ROBERT A. FROSCH (Chair) is a senior research fellow at the Center for Science and International Affairs of the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. In 1989 he revived, redefined, and popularized the term ''industrial ecology,'' and his researched has focused on this field in recent years, especially in metals-handling industries. Frosch retired as vice president of General Motors Corporation in 1993, where he was in charge of the North American Operations Research and Development Center. He has been involved in global environmental research and policy issues at both the national and the international levels. Frosch's career combines varied research and administrative experience in industry and government service, including positions as deputy director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, assistant secretary of the Navy for Research and development, assistant executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme, and administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He has a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Columbia University and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
DAVID C. BONNER is director of technology, Performance Polymers Division, Rohm and Hass. He was previously senior vice president, technology and engineering, for the Westlake Group. Before joining Westlake in 1996, he was senior vice president and chief technical officer of Premix; vice president, research and development at BFGoodrich; and associate professor of chemical engineering at Texas A&M University. Bonner has published over 50 articles in the field of chemical engineering in peer-reviewed journals. He is a member of the Ameri-
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--> BIOGRAPHICAL DATA ROBERT A. FROSCH (Chair) is a senior research fellow at the Center for Science and International Affairs of the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. In 1989 he revived, redefined, and popularized the term ''industrial ecology,'' and his researched has focused on this field in recent years, especially in metals-handling industries. Frosch retired as vice president of General Motors Corporation in 1993, where he was in charge of the North American Operations Research and Development Center. He has been involved in global environmental research and policy issues at both the national and the international levels. Frosch's career combines varied research and administrative experience in industry and government service, including positions as deputy director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, assistant secretary of the Navy for Research and development, assistant executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme, and administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He has a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Columbia University and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. DAVID C. BONNER is director of technology, Performance Polymers Division, Rohm and Hass. He was previously senior vice president, technology and engineering, for the Westlake Group. Before joining Westlake in 1996, he was senior vice president and chief technical officer of Premix; vice president, research and development at BFGoodrich; and associate professor of chemical engineering at Texas A&M University. Bonner has published over 50 articles in the field of chemical engineering in peer-reviewed journals. He is a member of the Ameri-
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--> can Institute of Chemical Engineering and the American Chemical Society. Bonner has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley. JOHN B. CARBERRY is director of environmental technology for E.I. DuPont. He has responsibility for research and development that is focused on process renewal, product stewardship and product recycle. Carberry's responsibilities include providing technical assistance in understanding emerging environmental issues and analysis of their impact on DuPont, and reviewing the opportunities for new business based on environmental excellence. In addition, he is responsible for a corporate team that leads initiatives to obtain world-class, affordable, publicly acceptable remediation, treatment, and abatement technologies. Since 1988, Carberry has helped oversee a transition to waste prevention at DuPont, while maintaining excellence in the company's treatment, abatement, and remediation efforts. He is presently serving as chairman of the chemical engineering advisory board at Cornell University, is on the radioactive waste retrieval Technology Review Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, and sits on the American Chemical Society's Pollution Prevention Program Committee. Carberry has a master's degree in chemical engineering from Cornell University and an M.B.A. from the University of Delaware. LESLIE CAROTHERS is vice president, environment, health, and safety at United Technologies Corporation (UTC) and is an adjunct lecturer on environmental regulation at the Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. She has been an environment professional for 26 years. Before joining UTC in 1991, Carothers served as commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection from 197 to 1991. She is chair of the board of directors of the Connecticut Audubon Society, vice chair of Leadership Greater Hartford, and a past board member of the Environmental Law Institute. During 1994–1995, Carothers served on the Defense Science Board's Environmental Security Task Force, which was assigned to make recommendations for improvements in the environmental programs of the U.S. Department of Defense. She is a graduate of Smith College and Harvard Law School and has a master's degree in environmental law from George Washington University. DARYL DITZ is director of environmental management programs at the Environmental Law Institute (ELI). He is leading a new project on sustainable development in the southern United States and extending ELI's programs on corporate environmental management and public policy in Asia. Between 1993 and 1997, Dits led several projects at the World Resources Institute, including innovative work on corporate environmental accounting presented in the book Green Ledgers: Case Studies in Corporate Environmental Reporting (World Resources Institute, 1995) and extensive work with the electronics industry and the U.S.
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--> forestry sector. He has lectured and published widely on risk management, information disclosure, and other aspects of environmental policy. Ditz has a Ph.D. in engineering and public policy from Carnegie Mellon University. THOMAS N. GLADWIN is the Max McGraw Professor of Sustainable Enterprise and director of the Corporate Environmental Management Program, a joint initiative of the Business School and School of Natural Resources and Environmental at the University of Michigan. His research and teaching focus on ecologically and socially sustainable business on a global basis. Gladwin has taught multinational corporate executive programs and has served as a consultant to the Corporate Conservation Council of the National Wildlife Federation, Business Council for Sustainable Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Environment Directorate, National Science Foundation, and World Commission on Environment and Development. He has a Ph.D. in international business and natural resource policy from the University of Michigan. THOMAS E. GRAEDEL is a professor of industrial ecology, a professor of chemical engineering, and a professor of geology in the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, a position he assumed after 27 years at AT&T Bell Laboratories. He was the first atmospheric chemist to study the atmospheric reactions of sulfur and the concentration trends in methane and carbon monoxide. As a corrosion scientist, he devised the first computer model to simulate the atmospheric corrosion of metals. This work led to a voluntary position as consultant to the Statue of Liberty Restoration Project in 1984–1986. One of the founders of the newly emerging field of industrial ecology, Graedel coauthored the first textbook in that specialty and has lectured widely on its implementation and implications. He has published nine books and more than 200 scientific papers. He has a B.S. from Washington University, an M.A. from Kent State University, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. CHRISTOPHER (KIT) GREEN is executive director of the materials research and technology business development directorate and chief technology officer, China, for General Motors Corporation. The directorate focuses on advancing research for materials utilizing physics and chemistry as core disciplines. As GM's chief technology officer in China, Green manages and coordinates technology acquisition and deployment for corporate joint ventures. He is a diplomat of the Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States, a medical officer in the U.S. government, and a recipient of the National Intelligence Medal. Green is the former chairman of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Biotechnology in the Year 2020. He is chairman of the NRC Board on Army Science and Technology and a member of numerous National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine commissions. Green has a Ph.D. in neuro-
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--> physiology from the University of Colorado Medical School and an M.D. from the University Autonoma in El Paso, Texas/Juarez. RICHARD R. GUSTAFSON is the Denman Professor of Paper Science and Engineering and chair of the Management and Engineering Division at the University of Washington College of Forest Resources. His research is focused on the analysis, modeling, and control of pulping and bleaching operations, and the department he chairs covers the entire range of the forestry of pulp fibers. Gustafson has done research and has consulted for several forest products companies, including Weyerhaeuser, Potlatch, and Champion International. He has a B.S. in wood and fiber science and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Washington. MICHAEL J. LEAKE is director of environment, health, and safety for Raytheon/Texas Instruments Systems. Previously, he was quality assurance manager of group manufacturing and was responsible for metal fabrication, printed-wiring board manufacturing, magnetics, and plastics manufacturing. Leake's research interests are in environmental and thick-film engineering. He is cochairman of the Environmental Enhancement Group/21st Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy, which is tasked with assessing U.S. industrial competitiveness and determining what is needed to maintain worldwide competitiveness to the year 2006. Leake is also a member of the Steering Committee for the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Strategic Initiative. He has an M.S. in environmental science from the University of Texas at Dallas. DAVID W. MAYER is director of pollution prevention and environmental performance at Georgia-Pacific and director of the Global Environmental Management Initiative. He is responsible for implementing Georgia-Pacific's 58 Environmental Principles and Goals, as well as developing future environmental performance measures. In addition, Mayer develops an annual company-wide strategy to provide environmental training for officers, key managers, and environmental coordinators. Previously, he was chief of the technical assistance staff for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Asbestos Action Program, where he coordinated and reviewed the development of all of EPA's guidance documents on asbestos. Subsequently, Mayer became director of the Environmental Training Center for Law Environmental and was responsible for coordinating the development, staffing, and implementation of a wide range of environmental health and safety training courses. He has a B.S. in biology and environmental studies from Coe College and an M.S. in engineering and public policy from Washington University. RICHARD D. MORGENSTERN is a senior fellow at Resources for the Future, on leave from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is currently
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--> engaged as a senior economic counsellor at the U.S. Department of State. He was a tenured associate professor of economics at Queens College of the City University of New York before becoming deputy assistant director for energy, the environmental, and natural resources at the Congressional Budget Office. Subsequently, Morgenstern served as legislative assistant to Sen. J. Bennett Johnston and then directed the energy program of the Urban Institute. He later directed the office of policy analysis of the EPA. At EPA, Morgenstern has served as acting assistant administrator for policy, planning, and evaluation (1991–1993) and as deputy administrator during the transition period at the beginning of the Clinton administration. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan. WILLIAM F. POWERS is vice president of research at Ford Motor Company. Prior to this assignment he was executive director of information technology at the Ford Research Laboratory. Before joining Ford in 1979, Powers was professor of aerospace engineering and computer, information, and control engineering at the University of Michigan. He serves as a member of the USCAR Council, the Automotive Research Center Board of Advisors, and the NRC's Competitiveness Task Force. Powers is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy, and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has a Ph.D. in engineering mechanics from the University of Texas at Austin. DARRYL K. WILLIAMS is senior vice president, technology and environment, for Eastman Chemical Company. He joined Eastman Chemical in 1965 and has served in a variety of manufacturing management positions. Williams joined Eastman Kodak in 1990 as manager of strategic planning for consumer color film. He returned to Eastman Chemical in 1992 as president of Eastman Chemical Japan Ltd. Williams was appointed vice president, Asia Pacific regional support services, in 1993 and vice president, Asia Pacific sales, in 1994. He has a master's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Tennessee and was a Sloan fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he received a master's degree in management. Committee Staff DEANNA J. RICHARDS is associate director of the National Academy of Engineering's program office and directs the Academy's program on Technology and Sustainable Development, formerly known as Technology and Environment (T&E). Hired in 1991 to launch the T&E program, projects, publications, and dissemination efforts under her direction have helped catalyze the establishment of the field of industrial ecology. Richard's efforts have focused on technological innovation and management issues critical to meeting environmental goals.
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--> The approach has used analysis of the flows of materials energy, labor, and capital to support smarter strategies and decision making in industrial firms. Another focus has been to understand how technological innovations help firms, nations, and entire regions adapt to economic opportunities and environmental constraints. An environmental engineer by training, she has a B.S. (with honors) in civil engineering from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. GREGORY W. CHARACKLIS was selected as a National Academy of Engineering fellow in 1997 to work on issues related to industrial environmental performance metrics. He hails from the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at Rice University, where his research focused on applying market mechanisms to water management in Texas. Prior to moving to Rice University in 1992, Characklis was associate scientist in the research division of EG&E, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy facility. He has a bachelor's degree in materials science and engineering from Johns Hopkins University and master's and doctoral degrees in environmental engineering from Rice University. GREG PEARSON is editor of the National Academy of Engineering. He has over 15 years of experience as an editor and writer in technical and policy aspects of science, health, and technology. Prior to joining the NAE in 1995, Pearson was associate editor at Science News magazine. Before joining the Science News staff in 1993, he ran a successful freelance editing and writing business, consulting on various projects for the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, and National Science Foundation. Pearson has an M.A. in journalism from the American University and a B.A. in biology from Swarthmore College. LONG T. NGUYEN joined the National Academy of Engineering in 1997 as a project assistant, following a personal three-month travel-study mission to Vietnam and assignments with the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, and the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, both at the national Research Council. He has a B.S. in international economics from Georgetown University.