INDEX

A

Accidents, see Environmental incidents;

Health and safety

Accountability, 4, 12-13, 20, 35

environmental cost accounting, 21, 22, 23-24, 113, 119

product life cycle, 5, 12-13,

Aggregation of metrics, 164-165, 178-180, 182

automotive industry, 77, 80-81

chemical industry, 103

Air pollutants, 4, 34, 234

automotive industry, 54, 57, 58, 61, 64-67, 71, 74, 76-77, 78

best practices, 7-8

chemical industry, 92-93, 101

international perspectives, 78, 222, 223

pulp and paper industry, 140, 141, 144

see also Climate change

AMD, 229-230

American Chemical Society, 85

American Forest and Paper Association, 139

Asia Environmental Partnership, see U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, v-vi, 26

Attitudes

corporate, 2, 4, 157

see also Public opinion

Automotive sector, 51, 53-84

aggregation of metrics, 77, 80-81

air emissions, 54, 57, 58, 61, 64-67, 71, 74, 76-77, 78

computer applications, 56-57

cost factors, other then fuel economy, 61, 63, 77

decision making, general, 74, 75, 76

energy consumption issues, other than fuel economy, 54, 56, 57, 59 , 60, 65, 67, 74, 76, 80, 148

environmental burdens, 75, 79, 162

EPA, 56, 59

Superfund, 57, 58, 74

TRI, 57, 58, 59, 74, 80

facility considerations, 3, 59, 62, 75, 148, 170

fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162

hazardous materials and wastes, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 69;

see also "toxicity metrics" and "Toxic Release Inventory" infra

health and safety, 58, 74, 75, 77, 148

historical perspectives, 56-57, 62, 69, 71

international perspectives, 53(n.1), 56, 78-79

materials use and flow, 49, 54, 56-57, 58, 59, 61-63, 73, 74, 148



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--> INDEX A Accidents, see Environmental incidents; Health and safety Accountability, 4, 12-13, 20, 35 environmental cost accounting, 21, 22, 23-24, 113, 119 product life cycle, 5, 12-13, Aggregation of metrics, 164-165, 178-180, 182 automotive industry, 77, 80-81 chemical industry, 103 Air pollutants, 4, 34, 234 automotive industry, 54, 57, 58, 61, 64-67, 71, 74, 76-77, 78 best practices, 7-8 chemical industry, 92-93, 101 international perspectives, 78, 222, 223 pulp and paper industry, 140, 141, 144 see also Climate change AMD, 229-230 American Chemical Society, 85 American Forest and Paper Association, 139 Asia Environmental Partnership, see U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, v-vi, 26 Attitudes corporate, 2, 4, 157 see also Public opinion Automotive sector, 51, 53-84 aggregation of metrics, 77, 80-81 air emissions, 54, 57, 58, 61, 64-67, 71, 74, 76-77, 78 computer applications, 56-57 cost factors, other then fuel economy, 61, 63, 77 decision making, general, 74, 75, 76 energy consumption issues, other than fuel economy, 54, 56, 57, 59 , 60, 65, 67, 74, 76, 80, 148 environmental burdens, 75, 79, 162 EPA, 56, 59 Superfund, 57, 58, 74 TRI, 57, 58, 59, 74, 80 facility considerations, 3, 59, 62, 75, 148, 170 fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162 hazardous materials and wastes, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 69; see also "toxicity metrics" and "Toxic Release Inventory" infra health and safety, 58, 74, 75, 77, 148 historical perspectives, 56-57, 62, 69, 71 international perspectives, 53(n.1), 56, 78-79 materials use and flow, 49, 54, 56-57, 58, 59, 61-63, 73, 74, 148

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--> packaging, 58, 63, 70, 74, 148 pollutant emissions, general, 54, 56, 62; see also "air emissions" supra product-centered metrics, 51, 64, 75, 78, 162 product life cycle, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 63, 64, 66, 79-80, 162 recycling and reuse of materials, 53-54, 57, 58, 59, 63-65, 69, 70 , 71-72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 148, 158 regulatory issues, 54, 56, 57, 64, 65-66, 75; see also "fuel economy" supra reporting, 57, 59 resource use, 67, 72, 75, 77, 80-81 small and medium-sized companies, 53, 77 solid wastes, 58, 63-64, 68, 74 Superfund, 57, 58, 74 suppliers, 63, 77, 78, 148 small and medium-sized companies, 53, 77 toxicity metrics, other than TRI, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64-65, 80 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 57, 58, 59, 74, 80 types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 64-65, 74, 82, 148 waste management, 59-61, 69, 71-72; see also "solid wastes" supra water use and water pollutants, 56, 57, 58, 63, 66, 67, 74, 80 weighting of metrics, 79, 83 B Best practices, 2, 6, 7-9, 13, 23, 161, 202-204, 212 forestry, 137-139, 142-143, 144 product life cycle, 6, 13, 161 small and medium-sized companies, 5, 13, 161, 212 Biodiversity, 10, 38, 50, 105, 158, 165, 186, 189 environmental condition metrics, 34 forestry, 136, 137, 139, 186 Biotechnology chemical industry, 85, 89 forests, 137, 138 C Case studies, analytic framework, 40 see also Automotive sector; Chemical sector; Electronics sector; Pulp and paper sector; Semiconductors Chemical Manufacturers Association, 87(n.4), 91, 98, 99 Chemical sector, 85-105, 223, 234 aggregation of metrics, 103 air pollutants, 92-93, 101 biotechnology, 85, 89 cost factors, 87, 89 decision making, general, 89, 103 economics of, 85-86 ecosystems and ecoefficiency, 87, 105 energy factors, 87, 97, 101, 104, 105, 148 environmental burden metrics, 16, 101, 104, 158, 163 environmental incidents, 93, 98, 101, 148 facility-based considerations, 3, 92, 148 hazardous materials and wastes, 98, 101, 102; see "toxicity metrics" and "Toxic Release Inventory" infra health and safety, 87, 89, 91, 98, 99, 102, 148 international perspectives, 85-86, 97 materials use, 49-50, 86, 87, 93, 95-96, 99, 101, 148; see also "raw materials" infra packaging, 93, 98-100, 101, 148 pollutant emissions, 87, 89, 92-94, 103; see also "air pollutants" supra product-centered metrics, 86, 97-98, 99, 102 public opinion, 87, 91, 93 raw materials, 49, 51, 86, 93, 104 recycling and reuse of materials, 98, 100, 104-105, 148 regulatory issues, 87, 100; see also "standards" infra reporting, 91, 92, 97, 220, 221 resource use, 93-95, 103-104 standards, 87, 91, 96, 99 stewardship issues, 87(n.4), 98, 99, 100, 102 Superfund, 92, 98 suppliers, 98, 99, 148 sustainability, 104-105 toxicity metrics, other than TRI, 92-93, 101 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 92, 98, 101, 103 types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 101-102, 148 waste management, 49-50, 93-95 weighting of metrics, 93, 94, 103, 104 see also Hazardous materials and wastes

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--> Clean Air Act, 54, 61 Clean Water Act, 54 Climate change, 4, 65, 76, 105, 110, 148, 158, 162, 186, 203, 223, 227-231 (passim), 235 Kyoto Protocol, 97, 139, 165, 210 Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics, 78, 118, 160, 209 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 38 see also Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Computer applications automotive industry, 56-57 semiconductors manufacturing, 108 see also Internet Cost factors, 4, 10, 41, 155, 159, 160, 165, 171, 223 automotive fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162 automotive industry, other, 61, 63, 77 chemical industry, 87, 89 environmental cost accounting, 21, 22, 23-24, 113, 119 historical perspectives, 21, 22 product life cycle metrics, general, 13 semiconductors, 109, 114-117 (passim), 126 see also Energy consumption and conservation Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), 57, 61, 64-65 Council on Environmental Quality, 205, 208, 209, 214 D Decision making, v, 11, 15, 24, 33, 34, 39, 42-44, 183-184, 188, 191 automotive industry, 74, 75, 76 chemical industry, 89, 103 investors, 39, 40-43, 79, 118, 156, 157, 160 ISO standards, 29-30 semiconductor manufacturing, 116 see also Management metrics Department of Commerce, 57, 107, 210, 212 Department of Defense, 162 Department of Energy, 166 Department of State, 210 Design for environment, 115-117, 118, 119, 121, 123-124, 125 Digital Equipment, 230 E Economic factors, 6, 154, 155-156 automotive industry, 53 chemical industry, 85-86 environmental factors vs, 20, 23-24, 25 financial metrics, 19, 118, 163, 169, 178 pulp and paper industry, 129-130, 136 socioeconomic status, 166, 214-215 suppliers, demand-side purchasing power, 161-162 sustainability, 14, 187 taxes and incentives, 77, 82 see also Cost factors; Market factors Ecosystems and ecoefficiency, 4, 8, 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 39, 155, 157 , 158, 164, 165, 169, 183, 185, 189, 192, 194, 224 chemical industry, 87, 105 historical perspectives, 21, 24, 25 pulp and paper industry, 136 see also Biodiversity; Forestry; Sustainability Electronics sector, 50, 107-127 types of metrics used, table/list, 3, 111, 119, 148 see also Semiconductors Emergency Planning and Right-to-Know Act, 57 Emissions, see Pollutant emissions Energy consumption and conservation7, 8, 149, 155, 160, 171, 172, 173, 186, 203, 227-231 (passim), 235 automotive fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162 automotive industry, other, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 65, 67, 74, 76, 80 , 148 chemical industry, 87, 97, 101, 104, 105, 148 global scale reporting, 222, 223 historical perspectives, 22 operational metrics, 30, 31 materials flow, general, 50 pulp and paper industry, 132, 140, 143, 148 semiconductors, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114, 120, 121, 122, 124, 126, 148 Energy Policy Act, 57 Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 56 Environmental burden metrics, 4, 5, 11, 20, 24, 33, 34, 51, 160, 162, 164, 166, 170, 179, 180, 204, 207, 209 automotive industry, 75, 79, 162 chemical industry, 16, 101, 104, 158, 163

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--> operational metrics, general, 30 pulp and paper industry, 144 semiconductors, 112, 119 Environmental Defense Fund, 38, 158, 164 Environmental incidents, 7, 148, 203, 223, 233 chemical industry, 93, 98, 101, 148 pulp and paper industry, 144, 148 Environmental justice, see Minority groups; Socioeconomic status Environmental management systems, 236 automotive industry, 77 global scale reporting, 222, 224 historical perspectives, 21 semiconductor manufacturing, 113 Environmental Protection Agency, 38, 205, 206, 208, 209-210, 212, 214 automotive industry, 56, 59 pulp and paper industry, 140 semiconductor manufacturing, 110, 112, 113 see also Toxic Release Inventory Ethnicity, see Minority groups F Facility-based considerations, 10-11, 14, 159-160, 162, 164, 171, 180, 204, 207 automotive industry, 3, 59, 62, 75, 148, 170 chemical industry, 3, 92, 148 by sector, 3, 148 semiconductors, 3, 110, 111, 112, 115, 117, 148 pulp and paper industry, 3, 143-145, 148 stakeholders, 35 Federal government, 6, 23, 165, 205-214 see also Legislation; Public-sector industries; Regulatory issues; Reporting; specific departments and agencies Financial metrics, 19, 42, 118, 163, 169, 178 Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Forestry, 130-131, 136-139, 140, 142-143, 144, 165 best practices, 137-139, 142-143, 144 biodiversity, 136, 137, 139, 186 biotechnology, 137, 138 G Global Reporting Initiative, 209 Government, see Federal government; Local communities and government; Public-sector industries; State government Great Lakes persistent toxics (GLPT) program, 56, 58, 59, 74 Greenhouse gases, see Climate change H Hazardous materials and wastes, 3, 10-11, 37, 38, 155, 207, 227-231 (passim), 234, 235 automotive industry, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 69 chemical industry, 98, 101, 102 best practices, 7-8 historical perspectives, 22 operational metrics, 30 pulp and paper industry, 144 real estate transactions, liability, 38-39 semiconductor manufacturing, 110, 111, 120, 121, 123 see also Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act; Toxicity metrics; Toxic Release Inventory Hazard Ranking System, 38, 158 Health and safety, 4, 7, 25, 37, 51, 149, 165, 174-175, 179, 180, 203, 233 automotive industry, 58, 74, 75, 77, 148 chemical industry, 87, 89, 91, 98, 99, 102, 148 environmental condition metrics, 33 global scale reporting, 222 pulp and paper industry, 140, 144, 148 semiconductor manufacturing, 110-113(passim), 116, 119, 121, 148 sustainable development, 187(n.2) see also Environmental incidents; Toxicity metrics; Toxic Release Inventory Hewlett Packard, 229 Historical perspectives, 20-22, 50, 183-184, 187-188 automotive industry, 56-57, 62, 69, 71 ecosystems and ecoefficiency, 21, 24, 25 metrics comparability over time, 35, 36 pulp and paper industry, 134-135 semiconductor manufacturing, 110

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--> I IBM, 230 Imperial Chemical Industries, 93, 94, 103, 158, 163, 207 Incentives, see Taxes and incentives Industrial Toxics Project, 141 Information technology, see Computer applications Insurance industry/liability, 4, 38-39, 41, 157 Integrated circuits, see Semiconductors Intel Corporation, 227-228 International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 29-34, 118, 120 International perspectives, 5, 25, 184, 186, 204-205, 234, 235 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, v-vi, 26 automotive industry, 53(n.1), 56, 78-79 chemical industry, 85-86, 97 climate change, 4, 65, 76, 105, 110, 148, 158, 162, 186, 203, 223, 227-231 (passim), 235 Kyoto Protocol, 97, 139, 165, 210 energy consumption, 222, 223 environmental management systems, 222, 224 OECD, 20, 210, 219 paper impacts, 130 reporting, 219-225 semiconductors, 111, 118, 120 standardization of metrics, 12, 29-34, 35, 36, 78-79, 118, 120, 158 , 210 United Nations, 39, 183 U.S. Agency for International Development, v-vi, 1-2, 210 U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership, v, 1-2 U.S. Trade Representative, 210 World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 172, 186, 209 World Commission on Environment and Development, 187 World Council on Environment and Development, 25 World Resources Institute, 35, 42 Internet, 38, 117, 164, 189, 227 Investors, 39, 40-43, 79, 118, 156, 157, 160 Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics, 78, 118, 160 regulatory issues, 39, 42, 43-44 ISO, see International Organization for Standardization J Just-in-time inventory, 56, 61, 61-62, 98 K Kyoto Protocol, 97, 139, 165, 210 L Legislation Clean Air Act, 54, 61 Clean Water Act, 54 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 38 see also ''Superfund ...'' infra Emergency Planning and Right-to-Know Act, 57 Energy Policy Act, 57 Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 56 Pollution Prevention Act, 54 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 10-11, 54, 207, 208 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 54, 57, 58, 74, 92, 98, 113 see also Toxic Release Inventory Liability, 4, 38-39, 41, 157 management metrics, 32 Life cycle metrics, see Product life cycle Local communities and government, 4, 33, 37, 157, 160, 166, 222 automotive industry, 78 urban areas, 5, 166, 184 Lucent Technologies, 229 M Management metrics, 32-33, 40-42, 224 historical perspectives, 21 ISO standards, 29-30 Market factors, 2, 3, 24, 81, 155 investors, 39, 40-43, 79, 118, 156, 157, 160 see also Public opinion Massachusetts, 161 Materials use, 148, 149, 155, 160, 170-171, 172, 203 automotive industry, 49, 54, 56-57, 58, 59, 61-63, 73, 74, 148

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--> chemical industry, 49-50, 86, 87, 93, 95-96, 99, 101, 148 best practices, general, 7-8 just-in-time inventory, 56, 61, 61-62, 98 operational metrics, 30, 31, 32 pulp and paper industry, 50, 130-131, 136-137, 142-143, 148 sectoral studies, compared, 49-50 semiconductor manufacturing, 50, 116, 117, 122-123, 124, 148 see also Packaging and containers; Raw materials; Recycling and reuse of materials; Waste management; Water use and water pollutants Minority groups, 166 Models and modeling aggregation and presentation of metrics, 169-182 chemical industry emissions, 92 environmental cost accounting, 23-24 semiconductor manufacturing, 108 sustainable development, 189-191 Motorola Corporation, 228 Motor vehicles, see Automotive sector N National Institutes of Health, 208 National Science Foundation, 214 National Semiconductor, 229 New Jersey, 161 O Occupational safety and health, see Human health and safety Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 113, 116, 140, 144 Operational metrics, 30-32 automotive industry, 51 defined, 30 semiconductor manufacturing, 117 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 20, 210, 219 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 56 P Pacific Rim, see Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Packaging and containers, 7, 148, 149, 173, 179, 203 automotive industry, 58, 63, 70, 74, 148 chemical industry, 93, 98-100, 101, 148 operational metrics, 30 semiconductor manufacturing, 109, 113, 116, 148 Paper sector, see Pulp and paper sector Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, 57 Pollutant emissions, 3, 149, 158, 189, 203 automotive industry, 54, 56, 62 best practices, general, 7-8 chemical industry, 87, 89, 92-94, 103 defined, 147 global scale reporting, 219, 222, 223 historical perspectives, 21 operational metrics, 30, 31 semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 117 see also Air pollutants; Hazardous materials and wastes; Solid wastes; Toxicity metrics; Toxic Release Inventory; Water use and water pollutants Pollution Prevention Act, 54 Prioritization of impacts, see Weighting of metrics Product-centered metrics, 24, 147-148, 149, 162, 164, 179, 203 automotive industry, 51, 64, 75, 78, 162 chemical industry, 86, 97-98, 99, 102 comparability across products/companies, 35, 36, 78, 158, 159-160, 204 global scale reporting, 222 historical perspectives, 22 operational metrics, 30, 31 by sector, 3, 148 semiconductor manufacturing, 113 Product life cycle, 2, 5, 6, 12-13, 26, 50, 158, 161-163, 210-211 automotive industry, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 63, 64, 66, 79-80, 162 best practices, general, 6, 13, 161 historical perspectives, 21, 22 pulp and paper industry, 51, 130-136 semiconductor manufacturing, 116-117, 118, 120-124

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--> see also Recycling and reuse of materials; Suppliers and supply chain metrics Public opinion, 3, 6, 20, 24, 38, 50, 156-157, 158, 165, 188, 201 chemical industry, 87, 91, 93 toxic releases, general, 38 Public-sector industries, 5, 161, 162, 166 Pulp and paper sector, 129-146 air pollutants, 140, 141, 144 economic factors, 129-130, 136 energy, 132, 140, 143, 148 environmental incidents, 144, 148 facility-based considerations, 3, 143-145, 148 forestry, 130-131, 136-139, 140, 142-143, 144, 165 sustainability, 131, 136-137, 142-143, 144, 148 health and safety, 140, 144, 148 historical perspectives, 134-135 materials use, 50, 130-131, 136-137, 142-143, 148 product life cycle, 51, 130-136 raw materials, 50, 51, 141; see also "forestry" supra resource use, 140-142; see also Forestry solid wastes, 140, 142 sustainability, 131, 136-137, 142-143, 144, 148 types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 144, 148 water use and water pollutants, 132, 137, 138, 139, 140, 143-144 Q Quantitative metrics, general, 9-10, 12, 22, 23, 153-154, 156-157, 161, 164, 187, 204, 205-206, 210-211, 219 automotive industry, 65, 80 financial-environmental performance, 39 materials use, 30 semiconductors, 120 sustainability, 188 R Race/ethnicity, see Minority groups Raw materials automotive industry, 58, 73 chemical industry, 49, 51, 86, 93, 104 pulp and paper sector, 50, 51, 141; see also Forestry Recycling and reuse of materials, 63-64, 69, 149, 158, 172, 179, 203, 227-230 (passim) automotive industry, 53-54, 57, 58, 59, 63-65, 69, 70, 71-72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 148, 158 chemical industry, 98, 100, 104-105, 148 electronics industry, 50, 148, see also "semiconductor ..." infra historical perspectives, 22 operational metrics, 30, 31 paper industry, 130, 132, 134, 140, 142, 143-144, 148, 155 product take-back, 163 semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 114-116, 118, 120, 121, 123, 125 , 163 Regulatory issues, 1, 3, 23, 37, 42, 154, 156, 157, 174, 188 automotive industry, 54, 56, 57, 64, 65-66, 75 chemical industry, 87, 100 financial metrics, 19, 118, 163 global scale reporting, 222, 223 historical perspectives, 21, 22 investors and, 39, 42, 43-44 operational metrics, 32 quantitative goals, 9 semiconductor manufacturing, 110-113 (passim), 117 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Standards Reporting, 1, 3, 9-10, 157-158, 159-160, 205 automotive industry, 57, 59 chemical industry, 91, 92, 97, 220, 221 by country, 220, 221, 224 global scale, 219-225 impact ranking, 10-11 by sector, 220, 21 semiconductor manufacturing, 227-231 standardization of metrics, 11-12, 35, 36 see also Aggregation of metrics; Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 10-11, 54, 207, 208 Resource use and resource-use metrics, 103-104, 149, 170-173, 179, 180 automotive industry, 67, 72, 75, 77, 80-81 chemical industry, 93-95, 103-104

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--> pulp and paper industry, 140-142; see also Forestry semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 114, 119, 126 see also Energy consumption and conservation; Materials use; Recycling and reuse of materials; Water use and water pollutants Responsible Care program, 87(n.4), 91 Reuse of waste, see Recycling and reuse of materials Rockwell International, 231 S Safety, see Health and safety SEMATECH, 117 Semiconductor Industry Association, 116 Semiconductors, 51, 107-127, 227-232 cost factors, 109, 114-117 (passim), 126 energy, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114, 120, 121, 122, 124, 126, 148 environmental burden, 112, 119 EPA, 110, 112, 113 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 112, 113 facility-based considerations, 3, 110, 111, 112, 115, 117, 148 hazardous materials, 110, 111, 120, 121, 123 health and safety issues, 110-113 (passim), 116, 119, 121, 148 historical perspectives, 110 international perspectives, 111, 118, 120 manufacturing process, 107-110 materials use, 50, 116, 117, 122-123, 124, 148 packaging, 109, 113, 116, 148 pollutant emissions, 112, 117; see also "water use and water pollutants" infra product life cycle, 116-117, 118, 120-124 recycling and reuse of waste, 112, 114-116, 118, 120, 121, 123, 125 , 163 regulatory issues, 110-113 (passim), 117 reporting, 227-231 resource and resource-use metrics, 112, 114, 119, 126 solid waste, 113 standards, 118-120, 121 sustainability, 124 toxicity metrics, other than TRI, 110, 111, 113 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 112, 113 Types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 119, 126, 148 waste management, 112, 113, 117, 121-125 (passim); see also "solid waste" supra water use and water pollutants, 111-114(passim), 120, 122, 123 Service sector, 5, 149-150, 166-167, 172 Shareholders, see Investors Small and medium-sized companies automotive industry, 53, 77 best practices, 5, 13, 161, 212 product life cycle metrics, 13 Social impacts, 4, 19-20, 184-185, 188, 190-191, 194-195 operational metrics, 30 population dynamics, 194(n. 1), 186 see also Human health and safety; Public opinion Socioeconomic status, 166, 214-215 Soils environmental condition metrics, 34 forests, 137, 140, 144 real estate transactions, liability, 38-39 Solid wastes, 234 automotive industry, 58, 63-64, 68, 74 best practices, 7-8 pulp and paper industry, 140, 142 semiconductor manufacturing, 113 see also Recycling and reuse of materials Stakeholders, general, 19, 33, 157, 164, 191 commercial/financial, 4, 28, 38-42, 157, 208 automotive industry, 56 external, 4, 11, 29, 34, 35, 37-38, 39, 157, 208 Standards automotive fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162 chemical industry, 87, 91, 96, 99 environmental, general, 2 historical perspectives, 21, 22 International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 29-34, 118, 120 metrics, general, 5, 11-12, 29-42, 118, 154, 158, 169-182, 204, 208 -210 comparability across products/

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--> companies, 35, 36, 78, 158, 159-160, 204, 208-209 financial metrics, 19, 118, 163, 169, 178 international efforts, 12, 29-34, 35, 36, 78-79, 118, 158, 120, 210 quantitative, 9-10 semiconductor manufacturing, 118-120, 121 see also Best practices State government, 23, 37, 161, 165 semiconductor manufacturing, 110 Stewardship, 3, 154, 156-157 chemical industry, 87(n.4), 98, 99, 100, 102 historical perspectives, 21 investors and, 39 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 54 automotive industry, 57, 58, 74 chemical industry, 92, 98 semiconductor manufacturing, 113 see also Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; Toxic Release Inventory Suppliers and supply chain metrics, 6, 12-13, 50, 148, 158, 161-162, 175, 179 automotive industry, 63, 77, 78, 148 small and medium-sized companies, 53, 77 defined, 147 chemical industry, 98, 99, 148 electronics industry, 3, 148 global scale reporting, 222 public procurement, 161, 162 by sector, 3, 148 service sector, 166-167 Sustainability, 4, 6, 10, 13-14, 25, 37, 38, 50, 149, 158, 166, 172 , 175-176, 179, 183-197, 204, 213-215, 222 chemicals sector, 104-105 defined, 25, 33, 147, 187 historical perspectives, 21 metrics by sector, 3 pulp and paper industry, forests, 131, 136-137, 142-143, 144, 148 semiconductor manufacturing, 124 socioeconomic factors, 14 see also Best management practices T Taxes and incentives, 77, 82 Telecommunications, 124, 220, 221 see also Internet Tellus Institute, 35, 42 Texas Instruments, 228 3M, 95 Torts, see Liability Toxicity metrics, general, 22, 25, 37-38, 164 automotive industry, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64-65, 80 chemical industry, 92-93, 101 Great Lakes persistent toxics (GLPT) program, 56, 58, 59, 74 pulp and paper industry, 141 semiconductor manufacturing, 110, 111, 113 see also Hazardous materials and wastes Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 37-38, 154, 159-160, 164, 205, 207, 208 automotive industry, 57, 58, 59, 74, 80 chemical industry, 92, 98, 101, 103 semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 113 Transportation, 220 chemical industry, 102 operational metrics, 30, 31 semiconductor manufacturing, 121 U United Nations Development Programme, 39 United Nations Environment Programme, 183 Urban areas, 5, 166, 184 U.S. Agency for International Development, v-vi, 1-2, 210 U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership, v, 1-2 U.S. Trade Representative, 210 V Volatile organic compounds, 60, 61, 65, 101, 114, 140, 227-230 (passim) W Waste management, 63-64, 155, 234 automotive industry, 59-61, 69, 71-72 chemical industry, 49-50, 93-95 electronics industry, 50 global scale reporting, 222, 223 historical perspectives, 21

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--> operational metrics, 30, 31 pulp and paper industry, 140 semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 113, 117, 121-125 (passim) see also Hazardous materials and wastes; Recycling and reuse of materials; Solid wastes Water use and water pollutants, 4, 149, 160, 171, 172, 186, 203, 227-230 (passim), 235, 236 automotive industry, 56, 57, 58, 63, 66, 67, 74, 80 chemical industry, 105 best practices, 7-8 environmental condition metrics, 34 pulp and paper industry, 132, 137, 138, 139, 140, 143-144 semiconductor manufacturing, 111-114 (passim), 120, 122, 123 Weighting of metrics, vi, 10-11, 22, 37, 38, 51, 163-164, 167, 176 -177, 219, 223 automotive industry, 79, 83 chemical industry, 93, 94, 103, 104 Wildlife and wildlife habitat, 38, 105, 137, 138-139, 144, 165, 186 environmental condition metrics, 33, 34 see also Biodiversity World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 172, 186, 209 World Commission on Environment and Development, 25, 187 World Resources Institute, 35, 42 World Wide Web, see Internet X Xerox Corporation, 125