Appendix D
Data on Emissions from Light-Duty Motor Vehicles Using Fuels Selected from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program and the California Ethanol Testing Program



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 239
--> Appendix D Data on Emissions from Light-Duty Motor Vehicles Using Fuels Selected from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program and the California Ethanol Testing Program

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-1 Exhaust Emissions from Fuels F, S, U, T, N2 and MM Fuel Type No. 90 MIRa (g O3/mi) 91 MIRb (g O3/mi) 97 MIRc (g O3/mi) NOx (g/mi) VOC (g/mi) mean ± SDM mean ± SDM mean ± SDM min max mean ± SDM min max mean ± SDM min max No Oxygenate F 19 0.480 ± 0.070 0.663 ±0.096 0.766 ± 0.117 0.34 2.30 0.530 ± 0.065 0.10 1.05 0.201 ± 0.028 0.10 0.57 S 9 0.496 ± 0.105 0.687 ± 0.146 0.820 ± 0.182 0.43 2.24 0.566 ± 0.083 0.13 0.94 0.218 ± 0.047 0.10 0.58 Ethanol Blend U 11 0.476 ± 0.097 0.658 ± 0.133 0.765 ± 0.164 0.31 2.20 0.574 ± 0.087 0.13 1.06 0.205 ± 0.040 0.10 0.56 T 10 0.465 ± 0.096 0.644 ±0.133 0.757± 0.165 0.40 2.20 0.572 ± 0.095 0.14 1.11 0.203 ± 0.040 0.11 0.55 MTBE Blend N2 9 0.497 ± 0.114 0.681 ± 0.156 0.803 ± 0.188 0.39 2.24 0.619 ± 0.095 0.11 1.05 0.206 ± 0.042 0.11 0.53 MM 12 0.439 ± 0.084 0.601 ± 0.115 0.703 ± 0.139 0.38 2.11 0.583 ± 0.073 0.14 0.85 0.183 ± 0.031 0.11 0.50     CO (g/mi) 97 MIR Specific Reactivity (g O3/g VOC)               mean ± SDM min max mean ± SDM min max           No Oxygenate           F 19 2.76 ± 0.50 0.95 7.92 2.96 ± 0.12 1.68 3.79           S 9 2.57 ± 0.57 1.08 5.68 3.02 ± 0.15 1.99 3.74           Ethanol Blend           U 11 2.79 ± 0.72 0.81 8.29 2.85 ± 0.13 1.87 3.66           T 10 2.52 ± 0.60 0.81 6.42 2.93 ± 0.15 1.85 3.62           MTBE Blend           N2 9 2.82 ± 0.73 0.95 6.86 3.00 ± 0.16 2.00 3.75           MM 12 2.28 ± 0.54 0.74 6.30 3.03 ± 0.16 1.98 4.00           a Uses the SAPRC1990 chemical mechanism. b Uses the SAPRC1991 chemical mechanism. c Uses the SAPRC1997 chemical mechanism. Abbreviations: No., number of samples; SDM, standard deviation of the mean; rain, minimum; max, maximum.

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-2 Diurnal Emissions for Fuels F, S, U, T, N2 and MM Fuel Type No. 97 MIRa (g O3/test) VOC (g/test) mean ± SDM min max mean ± SDM min max No Oxygenate F 26 0.782 ± 0.092 0.19 1.89 0.311 ± 0.035 0.12 0.88 S 9 0.556 ±0 116 0.19 1.41 0.199 ±0.034 0.07 0.37 Ethanol Blend U 9 0.801±0.120 0.44 1.56 0.305 ± 0.040 0.20 0.55 T 9 0.699 ± 0.113 0.31 1.25 0.256 ± 0.040 0.15 0.51 MTBE Blend N2 9 0.680 ± 0.196 0.19 1.75 0.221 ± 0.054 0.06 0.55 MM 9 0.737 ± 0.124 0.29 1.49 0.228 ± 0.035 0.10 0.40     97 MIR Specific Reactivity (g O3/g VOC)           mean ± SDM min max       No Oxygenate       F 26 2.55 ± 0.14 1.40 4.05       S 9 2.76 ± 0.21 1.99 3.86       Ethanol Blend       U 9 2.60 ± 0.14 1.76 3.16       T 9 2.71 ±0.14 2.00 3.34       MTBE Blend       N2 9 3.06 ± 0.37 1.52 5.63       MM 9 3.23 ± 0.22 2.19 4.12       a Uses the SAPRC1997 chemical mechanism.

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-3 Hot-Soak Emissions for Fuels F, S, U, T, N2 and MM Fuel Type No. 97 MIRa (g O3/test) VOC (g/test) mean ± SDM min max mean ± SDM min max No Oxygenate F 26 1.10 ± 0.21 0.16 4.37 0.306 ± 0.054 0.07 1.11 S 9 0.92 ± 0.29 0.20 3.12 0.257 ± 0.075 0.06 0.84 Ethanol Blend U 9 1.36 ± 0.27 0.37 3.17 0.422 ± 0.082 0.14 0.96 T 9 1.26 ± 0.30 0.36 3.55 0.385 ± 0.091 0.12 1.08 MTBE Blend N2 9 0.97 ± 0.31 0.18 3.30 0.282 ± 0.085 0.07 0.93 MM 9 1.27 ± 0.32 0.21 3.55 0.339 ± 0.084 0.07 0.91     97 MIR Specific Reactivity (g O3/g VOC)           mean±SDM min max       No Oxygenate       F 26 3.43 ± 0.09 2.48 4.40       S 9 3.49 ± 0.08 3.11 3.84       Ethanol Blend       U 9 3.17 ± 0.10 2.56 3.58       T 9 3.28 ± 0.10 2.76 3.86       MTBE Blend       N2 9 3.31 ± 0.12 2.73 3.93       MM 9 3.73 ± 0.12 3.01 4.18       a Uses the SAPRC1997 chemical mechanism.

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-4 Exhaust Emissions for Current, Federal Tier 1, and Advanced Technology Vehicles Using Fuels C1 and C2 Fleet Fuel C1 (no oxygenate) Fuel C2 (MTBE) Mean ±SDM min max Mean ± SDM min max Current (No. = 9)     (No. = 17)     1991 MIR (g O3/mi) 0.808 ± 0.193 0.37 2.28 0.783 ± 0.137 0.32 2.32 1997 MIR (g O3/mi) 0.969 ± 0.225 0.45 2.68 0.964 ± 0.165 0.42 2.69 NOx (g/mi) 0.466 ± 0.080 0.13 0.84 0.494 ± 0.067 0.09 0.99 VOC (g/mi) 0.239 ± 0.050 0.10 0.61 0.241 ± 0.038 0.10 0.65 97 MIR specific reactivity (g O3/g VOC) 3.38 ±0.17 2.23 4.01 3.42 ± 0.13 2.31 4.09 CO (g/mi) 2.46 ± 0.65 0.77 6.38 2.21 ± 0.40 0.86 6.20 HCHO (mg/mi) 4.9 ± 1.2 1.7 14.1 4.9 ± 0.8 1.3 13.6 CH3CHO (mg/mi) 1.6 ± 0.4 0.7 4.6 1.6 ± 0.3 0.7 4.7 Butadiene (mg/mi) 1.02 ± 0.23 0.4 2.7 0.97 ± 0.18 0.4 2.9 Benzene (mg/mi) 6.6 ± 1.8 2.8 21.0 7.3±1.6 2.6 25.9 Federal Tier 1 (No. = 10)     (No. = 10)     1991 MIR (g O3/mi) 0.423 ± 0.025 0.34 0.49 0.416 ± 0.022 0.27 0.51 1997 MIR (g O3/mi) 0.518 ± 0.027 0.42 0.59 0.505 ± 0.026 0.38 0.69 NOx (g/mi) 0.284 ± 0.052 0.16 0.51 0.316 ± 0.049 0.13 0.55 VOC (g/mi) 0.121 ± 0.005 0.10 0.14 0.118 ± 0.006 0.09 0.16 97 MIR specific reactivity (g O3/g VOC) 3.51 ± 0.14 2.93 3.83 3.52 ± 0.11 2.97 4.04 CO (g/mi) 1.35 ± 0.12 0.99 1.94 1.34 ± 0.11 0.78 2.19 HCHO (mg/mi) 1.8 ± 0.2 0.9 2.3 2.1 ± 0.1 1.2 2.6 CH3CHO (mg/mi) 0.66 ± 0.08 0.3 0.9 0.63 ± 0.06 0.3 1.0 Butadlene (mg/mi) 0.59 ± 0.08 0.3 0.9 0.55 ± 0.06 0.3 0.8

OCR for page 239
--> Fleet Fuel C1 (no oxygenate) Fuel C2 (MTBE) Mean ±SDM min max Mean ± SDM min max Federal Tier 1 (No.= 10)     (No. = 10)     Benzene (mg/mi) 3.3 ± 0.2 2.5 3.8 3.4 ± 0.2 2.5 4.2 Advanced Technology (No.= 12)     (No.= 12)     1991 MIR (g O3/mi) 0.298 ± 0.028 0.19 0.39 0.280 ± 0.022 0.14 0.40 1997 MIR (g O3/mi) 0.371 ± 0.025 0.28 0.45 0.349 ± 0.026 0.19 0.51 NOx (g/mi) 0.124 ± 0.029 0.04 0.25 0.122 ± 0.019 0.03 0.26 VOC (g/mi) 0.088 ± 0.005 0.07 0.11 0.083 ± 0.006 0.06 0.12 97 MIR Specific Reactivity (g O3/g VOC) 3.56 ± 0.19 2.79 4.18 3.53 ± 0.11 2.70 4.04 CO (g/mi) 0.90 ± 0.12 0.58 1.39 0.84 ± 0.07 0.48 1.26 HCHO (mg/mi) 1.4 ± 0.4 0.5 3.5 1.6 ± 0.2 0.7 3.4 CH3CHO (mg/mi) 0.44 ± 0.12 0.2 1.0 0.48 ± 0.09 0.1 1.2 Butadiene (mg/mi) 0.44 ± 0.07 0.3 0.8 0.42 ± 0.06 0.2 0.9 Benzene (mg/mi) 2.8 ± 0.2 2.2 3.8 2.7 ± 0.1 2.0 3.3

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-5 Hot-Soak Emissions for Current Vehicles, Federal Tier 1 Vehicles, and Advanced-Technology Vehicles Using Fuels C1 and C2 Fleet Fuel C1 (no oxygenate) Fuel C2 (MTBE) Mean ±SDM min max Mean± SDM min max Current (No. = 8)     (No. = 17)     1991 MIR (g O3/test) 0.360 ± 0.049 0.21 0.56 0.417 ± 0.091 0.03 1.80 1997 MIR (g O3/test) 0.520 ± 0.085 0.14 0.94 0.575 ± 0.102 0.07 2.11 VOC (g/test) 0.13 ± 0.02 0.05 0.24 0.16 ± 0.03 0.02 0.52 97 MIR specific reactivity (g O3/g VOC) 3.90 ± 0.20 2.62 4.70 3.60 ± 0.15 1.67 4.44 Benzene (mg/test) 3.7 ± 0.6 1.7 6.8 4.0 ± 0.9 0.3 17.6 Federal Tier 1 (No. = 6)     (No. = 11)     1991 MIR (g O3/test) 0.566 ± 0.172 0.28 1.49 0.659 ± 0.150 0.15 1.68 1997 MIR (g O3/test) 0.748 ± 0.241 0.37 2.05 0.805 ± 0.198 0.19 2.13 VOC (g/test) 0.18 ± 0.06 0.08 0.50 0.21 ± 0.05 0.06 0.57 97 MIR specific reactivity (g O3/g VOC) 4.07 ± 0.15 3.54 4.49 3.79 ± 0.11 3.23 4.41 Benzene (mg/test) 5.9 ± 2.3 2.0 18.1 6.1 ± 1.6 1.1 18.5 Advanced Technology (No. = 1)     (No. = 3)     1991 MIR (g O3/test) 2.20     2.11 ± 0.41 1.47 3.11 1997 MIR (g O3/test) 2.96     2.62 ± 0.46 2.04 3.75 VOC (g/test) 0.94     0.62 ± 0.11 0.48 0.89 g O3/g VOC 3.16     4.27 ± 0.12 4.24 4.29 Benzene (mg/test) 17.8     11.6 ± 1.8 7.5 15.1

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-6 CARB Emission Testing Results of the FTP Teste Vehicle No.   Fuel 63 Fuel 64   Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity 2   1033 3.84     1507 3.85 3.18 0.59     1198 3.78     1812 3.51 3.26 0.55     1160 3.81             2 Mean 1130 3.81 3.05 0.58 1660 3.68 3.22 0.57 3   249 3.66     329 3.56         215 3.45     360 3.32     3 Mean 232 3.55 2.37 0.55 344 3.44 2.54 0.54 4   644 3.46     906 3.30         629 3.56     590 3.55                 722 3.41     4 Mean 637 3.51 2.80 0.55 739 3.42 2.87 0.53 5   895 3.16     816 3.20         870 3.33     1487 3.20                 1225 2.95     5 Mean 882 3.25 2.95 0.51 1176 3.12 3.07 0.49 6   744 3.29     547 3.31         572 3.54     663 3.24         610 3.78     518 3.56     6 Mean 642 3.54 2.81 0.55 576 3.37 2.76 0.53 7   274 3.38     250 3.44         314 3.28     281 3.32     7 Mean 294 3.33 2.47 0.52 265 3.38 2.42 0.53 8   1199 3.37     1088 3.50    

OCR for page 239
--> Vehicle No.   Fuel 63 Fuel 64   Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity     1056 3.48     1044 3.48     8 Mean 1128 3.42 3.05 0.53 1066 3.49 3.03 0.54 9   664 3.21     449 3.44         492 3.42     476 3.37     9 Mean 578 3.31 2.76 0.52 462 3.41 2.67 0.53 10   584 3.56     647 3.69         577 3.41     624 3.84         569 3.76             10 Mean 577 3.58 2.76 0.55 635 3.76 2.80 0.58 11   552 3.81     491 3.69         469 3.80     612 3.46     11 Mean 511 3.80 2.71 0.58 552 3.58 2.74 0.55 13   521 3.43     615 3.71         544 3.55     592 3.73         595 3.64             13 Mean 553 3.54 2.74 0.55 604 3.72 2.78 0.57 14   941 3.42     516 3.56         706 4.32     465 3.65         549 3.56             14 Mean 732 3.76 2.86 0.58 490 3.61 2.69 0.56   Mean 658 3.53 2.78 0.548 714 3.50 2.80 0.543   sd 280 0.189 0.205 0.0232 399 0.181 0.224 0.0228   sd mean 81.7 0.0544 0.0591 0.00668 115 0.0523 0.0647 0.000658 t test   F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63         ρ value   0.35 0.40 0.50 0.40        

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-7 CARB Emission-Testing Results of the Rep05 Cell Vehicle No.   Fuel 63 Fuel 64   Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity 2   180.44 3.83 2.26 0.58 151.31 3.88 2.18 0.59     130.64 3.76 2.12 0.57 102.47 3.73 2.01 0.57   Mean 155.54 3.79 2.19 0.58 126.89 3.81 2.10 0.58 3   166.99 4.17     101.98 4.17         118.38 4.01     105.49 4.10       Mean 142.68 4.09 2.15 0.61 103.74 4.13 2.02 0.62 4   340.06 3.88     380.06 3.93         366.25 4.00     320.68 3.89                 354.32 3.91       Mean 353.16 3.94 2.55 0.60 351.68 3.91 2.55 0.59 5   908.54 3.30     756.94 3.09         845.40 3.24     926.93 2.89         1048.35 3.07               Mean 934.10 3.20 2.97 0.51 841.93 2.99 2.93 0.48 6   158.42 4.08     143.91 4.18         128.46 4.06     125.13 4.02         144.61 4.12     99.74 3.83       Mean 143.83 4.09 2.16 0.61 122.93 4.01 2.09 0.60 7   116.42 3.47     73.04 3.47         124.17 1.99     121.12 3.48       Mean 120.29 2.73 2.08 0.44 97.08 3.48 1.99 0.54 8   273.45 3.61     292.15 3.57         298.20 3.52     407.08 3.73    

OCR for page 239
--> Vehicle No.   Fuel 63 Fuel 64   Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity   Mean 285.83 3.57 2.46 0.55 349.61 3.65 2.54 0.56 9   85.89 2.77     105.84 3.02         80.83 2.93     73.51 3.10       Mean 83.36 2.85 1.92 0.45 89.67 3.06 1.95 0.49 10   214.00 3.13     103.53 2.81         211.34 3.00     148.80 3.20         139.07 2.76               Mean 188.13 2.96 2.27 0.47 126.17 3.01 2.10 0.48 11   265.93 3.97     245.14 3.96         269.96 3.95     285.10 4.11       Mean 267.94 3.96 2.43 0.60 265.12 4.04 2.42 0.61 13   27.52 3.05     43.75 3.37         24.70 3.08     19.26 2.73         39.54 3.44               Mean 30.59 3.19 1.49 0.50 31.50 3.05 1.50 0.48 14   176.44 3.33     230.01 3.44         194.07 3.45     187.81 3.38         106.58 2.96               Mean 159.03 3.25 2.20 0.51 208.91 3.41 2.32 0.53   Mean 239 3.47 2.23 0.539 226 3.26 2.21 0.48   sd 236 0.498 0.346 0.0615 220 0.932 0.37 0.22   sdm 68.3 0.144 0.100 0.0178 63.4 0.269 0.106 0.065 ttest   F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63         ρvalue   0.34 0.51 0.26 0.43        

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-8 CARB Emission-Testing Results of the 1-Hour Hot Soak (SHED) Vehicle No.   Fuel 63 Fuel 64   Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity 7   687.39 2.87     793.28 2.91         774.40 2.89     1091.27 2.65     7 Mean 730.89 2.88 2.86 0.46 942.28 2.78 2.97 0.44 8   112.78 2.08     127.00 2.17         103.09 2.57     241.20 2.25     8 Mean 107.94 2.32 2.03 0.37 184.10 2.21 2.27 0.34 9   204.81 2.65     546.12 2.23         220.84 2.65     496.77 2.39     9 Mean 212.83 2.65 2.33 0.42 521.44 2.31 2.72 0.36 10   873.68 2.90     1762.09 2.75         988.00 2.82     1679.19 2.61         964.17 2.86             10 Mean 941.95 2.86 2.97 0.46 1720.64 2.68 3.24 0.43 11   138.64 2.66     165.89 2.16         111.06 2.32     223.55 2.24     11 Mean 124.85 2.49 2.10 0.40 194.72 2.20 2.29 0.34 13   220.96 2.87     384.84 2.26         133.76 2.58     404.01 2.22         142.61 2.56             13 Mean 165.78 2.67 2.22 0.43 394.43 2.24 2.60 0.35   Mean 381 2.65 2.42 0.421 660 2.40 2.68 0.379   sd 361 0.213 0.402 0.0356 589 0.259 0.382 0.0454   sdm 147 0.087 0.164 0.0145 241 0.106 0.156 0.0186 ttest   F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63         ρ value   0,048 0.0063 0.0020 0.0075         Note: SHED = sealed-housing-for-evaporative-determination facility.

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-9 CARB Emission-Testing Results of the O- to 24-Hour Diurnal (SHED) Vehicle No.   Fuel 63 Fuel 64   Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity 7   21223.40 2.15     21871.28 2.00         18659.70 2.13     24969.49 2.10     7 Mean 19941.55 2.14 4.30 0.33 23420.38 2.05 4.37 0.31 8   4282.02 1.41     11250.40 1.18         4893.90 1.33     8844.45 1.30     8 Mean 4587.96 1.37 3.66 0.14 10047.42 1.24 4.00 0.09 9   2650.33 1.47     4531.86 1.83         2643.23 1.52     3869.91 2.07     9 Mean 2646.78 1.50 3.42 0.18 4200.89 1.95 3.62 0.29 10   13680.52 2.15     33992.48 1.90         14127.95 2.11     28313.19 1.71         19181.15 1.74             10 Mean 15663.20 2.00 4.19 0.30 31152.83 1.81 4.49 0.26 11   2182.50 1.84     2921.51 1.92         2003.68 2.01     3071.85 2.03     11 Mean 2093.09 1.93 3.32 0.28 2996.68 1.97 3.48 0.30 13   2622.41 1.15     2872.04 1.50         1583.05 1.29     3334.12 1.40         1873.49 1.25             13 Mean 2026.32 1.23 3.31 0.09 3103.08 1.45 3.49 0.16   Mean 7830 1.69 3.70 0.219 12490 1.74 3.91 0.235   sd 7900 0.377 0.443 0.0992 12000 0.327 0.448 0.0880   sdm 3230 0.154 0.181 0.0405 4900 0.134 0.183 0.0359 t test   F-64-F-63 F.64-F.63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63         ρ value   0.10 0.63 0.0035 0.59        

OCR for page 239
--> TABLE D-10 CARB Emission Testing Results of the 24- to 48-Hour Diurnal (SHED) Vehicle No.   Fuel 63 Fuel 64   Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity Total Reactivity O3 (mg/mi) Specific Reactivity Log Total Reactivity Log Specific Reactivity 7   19074.88 1.72     27754.89 1.61         19707.16 1.74     24402.44 1.63     7 Mean 19391.02 1.73 4.29 0.24 26078.66 1.62 4.42 0.21 8   14637.40 1.36     25633.44 1.37         13567.74 1.33     27628.16 1.40     8 Mean 14102.57 1.34 4.15 0.13 26630.80 1.38 4.43 0.14 9   3061.17 1.28     6595.22 1.45         3392.42 1.36     6974.17 1.37     9 Mean 3226.80 1.32 3.51 0.12 6784.69 1.41 3.83 0.15 10   11190.77 1.69     33313.56 1.65         14347.75 1.78     29459.05 1.74         16287.71 1.45             10 Mean 13942.08 1.64 4.14 0.22 31386.30 1.69 4.50 0.23 11   3217.83 1.38     7084.59 1.28         2879.87 1.54     9709.03 1.26     11 Mean 3048.85 1.46 3.48 0.16 8396.81 1.27 3.92 0.10 13   4745.35 1.13     4335.13 1.25         2299.48 1.21     4959.99 1.18         2662.13 1.17             13 Mean 3235.65 1.17 3.51 0.07 4647.56 1.21 3.67 0.08   Mean 9490 1.44 3.85 0.156 17300 1.43 4.13 0.152   sd 7200 0.212 0.383 0.0638 11900 0.191 0.360 0.0572   sdm 2940 0.0867 0.156 0.0261 4870 0.0778 0.147 0.0233 t test   F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63 F-64-F-63         ρ value   0.024 0.77 0.0022 0.81