H

Report of the International Symposium on “Severe Infectious Diseases: Epidemiology, Express-Diagnostics, and Prevention” Nizhne-Ivkino, Kirov Oblast June 16-20, 1997

The participants from a number of countries emphasized the importance of the topics discussed during the symposium, which are set forth in the attached agenda.

The problem of emerging and reemerging infections should be considered a top priority at both the national and international levels. The consequences of unpredictable epidemics which could be caused by these infections are very serious.

The urgent nature of the problem is based on the evolving nature of the genome and biological (e.g., antigenic) characteristics of pathogens. Such changes are the result of dramatic alterations in social and environmental conditions at both local and global levels. The natural migration of animals, the increasing movement of people, and modifications in ecosystems due to anthropogenic activities also contribute to the global spread of numerous zoonoses and zooanthroponoses. It is necessary to anticipate and predict such situations and conduct monitoring at the national and international levels in order to prevent and reduce the scope of epidemic events.

In the case of emergency epidemic situations, it is necessary to ensure adequate and timely diagnostics, as well as reliable vaccines and antimicrobials, including antivirals, and other preparations for saving human and animal lives. In this regard, the following approaches should be directed to the diseases of greatest concern (see Table 1 for examples of diseases):

  1. Identify organisms for which vaccines, antiviral preparations, and antibiotics should be developed and specify groups which require immunization.

  2. Employ the tremendous power of modern molecular microbiology and immunology toward the conception and design of the most effective, innovative vaccines against the most dangerous pathogens.

  3. Apply the new knowledge obtained from basic molecular microbiologic research toward rapid vaccine production technology and effective distribution for the global prevention and control of catastrophic disease episodes.

  4. Develop highly sensitive and specific methods of rapid diagnostics.

These areas were discussed in the reports during the symposium.

The reported experiments and data reflected the substantial progress which has been achieved in diagnosing and preventing emerging and reemerging infections. At the same time, a wide range of problems was identified. In some cases, solutions to these problems were proposed.



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OCR for page 71
Controlling Dangerous Pathogens: A Blueprint for U.S.-Russian Cooperation H Report of the International Symposium on “Severe Infectious Diseases: Epidemiology, Express-Diagnostics, and Prevention” Nizhne-Ivkino, Kirov Oblast June 16-20, 1997 The participants from a number of countries emphasized the importance of the topics discussed during the symposium, which are set forth in the attached agenda. The problem of emerging and reemerging infections should be considered a top priority at both the national and international levels. The consequences of unpredictable epidemics which could be caused by these infections are very serious. The urgent nature of the problem is based on the evolving nature of the genome and biological (e.g., antigenic) characteristics of pathogens. Such changes are the result of dramatic alterations in social and environmental conditions at both local and global levels. The natural migration of animals, the increasing movement of people, and modifications in ecosystems due to anthropogenic activities also contribute to the global spread of numerous zoonoses and zooanthroponoses. It is necessary to anticipate and predict such situations and conduct monitoring at the national and international levels in order to prevent and reduce the scope of epidemic events. In the case of emergency epidemic situations, it is necessary to ensure adequate and timely diagnostics, as well as reliable vaccines and antimicrobials, including antivirals, and other preparations for saving human and animal lives. In this regard, the following approaches should be directed to the diseases of greatest concern (see Table 1 for examples of diseases): Identify organisms for which vaccines, antiviral preparations, and antibiotics should be developed and specify groups which require immunization. Employ the tremendous power of modern molecular microbiology and immunology toward the conception and design of the most effective, innovative vaccines against the most dangerous pathogens. Apply the new knowledge obtained from basic molecular microbiologic research toward rapid vaccine production technology and effective distribution for the global prevention and control of catastrophic disease episodes. Develop highly sensitive and specific methods of rapid diagnostics. These areas were discussed in the reports during the symposium. The reported experiments and data reflected the substantial progress which has been achieved in diagnosing and preventing emerging and reemerging infections. At the same time, a wide range of problems was identified. In some cases, solutions to these problems were proposed.

OCR for page 71
Controlling Dangerous Pathogens: A Blueprint for U.S.-Russian Cooperation In addition to reports on fundamental research highlighting the basic pathogenesis of highly dangerous infections, molecular and genetic characteristics of their causative agents, and mechanisms of immunogenesis, attention also focused on results obtained from applied research. Such studies are aimed at improving techniques and methods of rapid diagnostics of highly dangerous infections and indication and identification of relevant pathogens, as well as developing new research efforts in the design of immunological and biological preparations. The participants recognized the special contributions to public health which defense scientists can make and urged them to direct their efforts to improved prophylaxis, detection, and treatment of highly dangerous pathogens. The participants of the symposium enthusiastically supported the idea of exchanges of specialists from different countries. It would facilitate the sharing of research results and the search for areas of mutually beneficial scientific cooperation and would provide a basis for joint research. Expanded educational programs are needed to improve understanding among both health practitioners and the general public about practical measures that can be taken to reduce the risks of infections from dangerous pathogens. Modern information and communications technologies are providing unprecedented opportunities for direct communications among scientists throughout the world. Governments and private organizations should ensure that these technologies are made available to scientists working on dangerous pathogens. A continuing high level of attention should be given to all aspects of safe handling of dangerous pathogens, including the safe disposal of contaminated wastes. Thus, it is clear that scientists must support the battle against epidemics which result in tremendous disasters inflicted on the world 's population and cause 16 million deaths every year. The participants expressed their sincere gratitude to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the International Science and Technology Center, which cosponsored the symposium, to the Volga-Vyatka State Scientific Center of Applied Biotechnology, which organized the event, and to the governor of Kirov Region, Academician V.N. Sergeenkov, for his special interest in the symposium. The participants had an opportunity to visit the Kirov Biochemical Plant, the Vyatka Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and the facilities of the Sanitary Epidemiological Service and the Committee on Ecology in Kirov. Also, the participants welcomed the proposal of the Volgo-Vyatka State Scientific Center for Applied Biotechnology to serve as a point of contact for future cooperation with the region in fields related to the topics discussed at the symposium. June 20, 1997

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Controlling Dangerous Pathogens: A Blueprint for U.S.-Russian Cooperation CONFERENCE LIST OF PARTICIPANTS KIROV, RUSSIA, JUNE 1997 Abramov, Vyacheslav M. Institute of Immunology Anderson, George W., LTC USAMRIID Baskevitch, Pierre Paul French Embassy Bektimirov, Tagir A. L.A. Tarasevich State Research Institute for Standards and Control of Medical Biological Preparations Biketov, Sergei F. State Research Center for Applied Microbiology Bragintseva, Lidia Scientific and Industrial Enterprise Buravtseva, Nina P. Stavropol Plague Scientific Research Institute Byrne, W. Russell, COL USAMRIID Cassell, Gail H. University of Alabama at Birmingham Cherkassky, Benyamin L. Central Research Institute of Epidemiology Dobritza, Valery P. Anti-Plague Research Institute Efremenko, Vitaly I. Stavropol Plague Scientific Research Institute Farina, Francisco International Science and Technology Center Fokin, Valery G. Administration of Kirov Region Girdany, Martha J. Office of the Secretary of Defense Glukhov, Alexander I. Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Medical Ecology Committee on Health Care

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Controlling Dangerous Pathogens: A Blueprint for U.S.-Russian Cooperation Gordeev, Sergei A. All Russian Scientific Center of Molecular Diagnostics and Treatment Gryazanova, Elena A. International Science and Technology Center Hiroaki, Okumo National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology Howson, Christopher P. IOM, NAS Jaax, Gerald P., COL USAMRIID Jahrling, Peter B. USAMRIID Kalachev, Igor Ya. State Research Center for Applied Microbiology Kirillin, Yuri V. Scientific Research Institute of Biotechnical Industry Kondratenkov, Yuri B. International Science and Technology Center Kondratov, Vasily M. Vyatka State Technical University Krikorian, Debra J. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs L'vov, Dmitry K. D. 1. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology Lipatnikov, Nikolai M. Vyatka Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Kirov Region Loktev, Valery B. “Vector” State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Molton, Peter M. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Murphy, Frederick A. University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine Nietzold, Dieter E. International Science and Technology Center Noskov, Anatoly N. State Research Center for Applied Microbiology

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Controlling Dangerous Pathogens: A Blueprint for U.S.-Russian Cooperation Ogura, Shinichiro International Science and Technology Center Okuno, Hiroaki National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology Osin, Nikolai S. GosNII of Biological Instrument Making Pobedimskaya, Diana D. International Science and Technology Center Robbins, Kelly L. NRC Ruban, Eugene A. Russian Federal Research and Technological Institute of Biotechnology Industry Schweitzer, Glenn E. NRC Shemyakin, Igor G. State Research Center for Applied Microbiology Shiyan, Yuri Russian Academy of Sciences Stepanov, Alexei V. State Research Center for Applied Microbiology Svetiova, Anastasia V. International Science and Technology Center Takeda, Yoskhifumi Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan Toshitada, Takemori Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases Tulyankin, Gennady M. Volgo-Vyatka State Scientific Center of Applied Technology Voronov, Alexander V. All Russian Scientific Center of Molecular Diagnostics and Treatment Weber, Andrew Office of the Secretary of Defense, International Security Policy

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Controlling Dangerous Pathogens: A Blueprint for U.S.-Russian Cooperation Yukimatsu, Yasuhiro Embassy of Japan Zav'yalov, Vladimir P. Institute of Immunology Zlobin, Vladimir N. State Scientific Research Institute of Biological Engineering NOTE: This list does not include unregistered exhibitors at the conference.