Chapter 2

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory



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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 Chapter 2 Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 PANEL MEMBERS V. Thomas Rhyne, Consultant, Chair Karen H. Brown, SEMATECH Robert A. Buhrman, Cornell University Ralph K. Cavin III, Semiconductor Research Corporation Larry A. Coldren, University of California, Santa Barbara James P. Eisenstein, California Institute of Technology H.R. Hofmann, Lucent Technologies Roger F. Hoyt, IBM Storage Systems Division Waguih Ishak, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Carl O. Jelinek, Raytheon E-Systems Donald B. Keck, Coming, Inc. Solomon Max, LTX Corporation Suzanne R. Nagel, Consultant Lori S. Nye, MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc. Alton D. Patton, Texas A&M University Robert Rottmayer, Read-Rite Corporation Robert E. Schwall, American Superconductor Corporation Thomas J. Shaffner, Texas Instruments Incorporated Henry I. Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Carlton E. Speck, General Motors Research & Development Center Peter W. Staecker, M/A-COM, Inc. John A. Wehrmeyer, Eastman Kodak Company Submitted for the panel by its Chair, V. Thomas Rhyne, this assessment of the fiscal year 1998 activities of the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory is based on site visits by individual panel members, a formal meeting of the panel February 11–13, 1998, in Boulder, Colorado, and documents provided by the laboratory.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 LABORATORY-LEVEL REVIEW Laboratory Mission The mission of the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory (EEEL), as stated by the laboratory, is to promote U.S. economic growth by providing measurement capability of high impact focused primarily on the critical needs of the U.S. electronics and electrical industries and their customers and suppliers. This mission statement is an appropriate recitation of the purpose and goals of the EEEL, and the laboratory's overall performance during the past year of operations conformed very effectively to this mission. Further, the panel observed that the laboratory's activities mesh well with the overall mission of NIST itself, although some opportunities for improvement of cross-laboratory programming were seen. Comments on those observations may be found in the division-level portions of this report which follow. Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work The technical work of the EEEL shows strong merit and generally is state of the art in the specific technical areas addressed by the laboratory's current programs. In a number of areas, the panel observed that the work of the staff is actually advancing the state of their relevant art. Selected examples of such leading-edge achievement include the single-electron tunneling (SET) project within the Electricity Division, the characterization of the electrical properties of thin film dielectric materials in the Electromagnetic Fields Division, the Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for optical fibers produced by the optical fiber metrology project within the Optoelectronics Division, the Josephson array development project within the Electromagnetic Technology Division, and the definition of the fundamental mechanisms involved with transistor gate oxide reliability by the Semiconductor Electronics Division. The panel observed that the current selection of programs within the EEEL is generally quite appropriate to the mission of the laboratory in light of the limited resources available to address that mission. Specific comments on those few situations in which activities were less appropriate can be found in the division-level portions of this report. The placement of the Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) within the EEEL seems to be primarily an artifact of historical circumstances. The OLES performs high-quality, highly respected work appropriate for NIST, but little of this work is relevant to the EEEL's mission. In addition, the laboratory headcount limitations seem to be preventing OLES from expanding programs into areas of need that have available funding. It may be appropriate to revisit this office's place in the NIST organizational chart. Another concern of the panel was that there was no comment in either the charge to the panel, or in any of the presentations, regarding the EEEL's potential role in supporting the formal accreditation of industrial calibration and test laboratories. This is known to be an important and pressing issue to U.S. industry and may be a topic for future consideration by the panel. It was also observed that there is no comprehensive approach to a quality assurance system for the EEEL, although the Optoelectronics Division has used such a system to its advantage.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 Impact of Programs In keeping with its stated mission to provide the results of its programs to U.S. industries seeking effective measurement capabilities to support their competitiveness, the EEEL is quite effective in disseminating results through an increasing array of mechanisms, including papers, Standard Reference Materials and Standard Reference Data, workshops, guest researchers, and expanding use of the World Wide Web. Documentation of the direct impact these activities have on a number of U.S. industries is detailed in the division-level portions of this report. Overall, the EEEL is fairly well-connected to its industrial customers. For example, in fiscal year 1997, 49 laboratory staff participated in standards organizations, the laboratory was part of 6 consortia, and personnel serviced 275 calibration customers and gave 20 training courses with 703 attendees. This array of activities helped the laboratory both to gather input on industrial needs and to disseminate information. In addition to their technical work, laboratory staff provide a valuable service to U.S. electronics and electrical industries through their participation in international standards committees. Currently, laboratory personnel fill 25 memberships on such committees and 4 committee chairs. In six of these positions, the NIST staff act as the official U.S. representative. Laboratory Resources Funding sources1 for the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory (in millions of dollars) are as follows:   Fiscal Year 1997 Fiscal Year 1998 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 31.5 31.4 Competence 1.7 2.1 ATP 1.3 0.7 Measurement Services (SRM production) 0.2 0.0 OA/NFG/CRADA 10.7 13.8 Other Reimbursable 3.0 1.8 Total 48.4 49.8 1   The NIST Measurement and Standards Laboratories funding comes from a variety of sources. The laboratories receive appropriations from Congress, known as Scientific and Technical Research and Services (STRS) funding. Competence funding also comes from NIST's congressional appropriations, but it is allotted by the NIST director's office in multiyear grants for projects that advance NIST's capabilities in new and emerging areas of measurement science. Advanced Technology Program (ATP) funding reflects support from NIST's ATP for work done at the NIST laboratories in collaboration with or in support of ATP projects. Funding to support production of Standard Reference Materials is tied to the use of such products and is classified as Measurement Services. NIST laboratories also receive funding through grants or contracts from other government agencies (OA), from nonfederal governmental (NFG) agencies, and from industry in the form of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs). All other laboratory funding including that from Calibration Services is grouped under Other Reimbursable.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 The panel observed that although the above-cited resources were not sufficient for the laboratory to address the entirety of its mission, they were adequate for meeting the carefully selected portions of that mission that were reflected in the programs carried out during the past year. The need for facility refurbishment discussed in the panel's 1997 report continues; concerns include safety, security, and appropriate environmental control for precision measurements. Staffing for the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory currently includes 270 full-time permanent positions, of which 231 are for technical professionals. There are also 28 nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral fellows and part-time workers. The laboratory is likely to face the replacement of a substantial number of retiring staff members in the near future. Finding staff members with appropriate gender and ethnic diversity should be a goal as such replacements are made. Certain key projects currently depend on the knowledge and skills of only one staff member. More cross-training of staff may be appropriate to reduce the risk of single-point coverage. DIVISIONAL REVIEWS Electricity Division Division Mission The mission of the Electricity Division, as stated by the division, is to provide the world's most technically advanced and fundamentally sound basis for all electrical measurements in the United States by realizing the International System (SI) of electrical units; developing improved measurement methods and calibration services; and supporting the measurements and standards infrastructure needed by U.S. industry to develop new products, ensure quality, and compete economically in the world's markets. The panel observed that this statement succinctly describes the activities within the division and is a significant improvement over the lengthy and overly inclusive statement presented to the panel during its 1997 review. Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work From a broad perspective, the Electricity Division was observed to be succeeding quite well at executing its basic mission. It pursues a remarkably wide spectrum of technically demanding, high-impact projects. In almost all cases, these projects are administered well, define and adhere to reasonable milestones, and are well attuned to the needs of industry. Importantly, the division has successfully maintained its position as the preeminent electrical standards institution worldwide, and it should be immensely proud of this accomplishment. The overall technical merit of the various projects being pursued within the division is extremely high, both in those projects that are best classified as cutting-edge research (e.g., the SET project and the Watt balance experiment to replace the artifactual kilogram) and in those having immediate industrial impact (e.g., video standards for flat-panel displays and the work on power quality). This high technical quality is evident both on projects that possess recently

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 updated equipment and facilities and on those being carried out within a more modest, yet adequate, environment. The division has done well husbanding the most important ingredient for this success—its outstanding staff. With very few exceptions, the programs being pursued by the division are appropriate to the division mission. The scope of these programs is extremely wide, ranging from forward-looking work on future metrology needs to more traditional activities such as the provision of calibration services. Noteworthy examples include the calibration database project and the SET project. The first is a state-of-the-art software project that provides a systematic way to archive all the results of calibrations performed within the division in one comprehensive database. The database will be accessible to internal NIST personnel and, with appropriate security, to external calibration customers. The method integrates freeware and commercial Internet products to allow platform-independent access. The second, the SET project, is an excellent example of a clearly appropriate metrology research project that has great potential for future importance. This project, which is being pursued jointly with the Electromagnetic Technology Division in the NIST Boulder laboratories, is investigating the possibility of a new, quantum-based capacitance standard. The Electrical Systems Group effort includes several projects of high technical merit and obvious divisional appropriateness. Recent research in the power quality laboratory includes tests to assess the degradation of low-voltage varistors by repetitive voltage swells and is motivated by the fire hazard associated with varistor failure in household surge protectors. Optical current transformers, which represent a potential breakthrough in current measurement for both commercial and laboratory standards applications, are being vigorously investigated in collaboration with the Optoelectronics Division and an industrial partner corporation. Important work also continues on the development of standards for the efficiency of transformers and electrical motors. The panel observed some programs whose appropriateness to the division mission is not as clear. In particular, the Integrated Electronics Manufacturing component of the electronic data exchange project, although quite impressive from a technical perspective, does not readily seem to be appropriate work for a division mainly concerned with basic electrical measurements. A concern of the panel is that the division has no quality assurance system in place. The need for such a system is apparently recognized within the laboratory, since one has been set up in the Optoelectronics Division. However, a more integrated approach at the laboratory level is not apparent. Although the Electricity Division currently has programs to evaluate the technical quality of its projects, a comprehensive quality assurance system could address broader issues such as resolution of customer complaints, timeliness of the delivery of services, identification and resolution of the root causes of errors, and the security of intellectual property. Developing the system at the laboratory level, or even at the NIST level, could prove to be more efficient and effective than having various divisions work at it separately. Impact of Programs It was quite clear that the results and products of the division are widely disseminated and have great impact on industry. Such communication is aggressively fostered through publications, attendance at and sponsorship of professional conferences, and participation in round-robin

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 laboratory comparisons. In essentially every area, the division's work has a substantial impact on industrial metrological needs. This impact ranges from performing calibrations of instruments for industrial uses to setting the standards by which evolving industrial products can be judged. Representative examples of impact include the division's alternating current (AC) watt-hour calibration service, which produces more accurate metrics for electric power, thereby having an obvious impact on the vast electrical power industry in the United States. The division's calibration group also serves as the pilot laboratory for a Consultative Committee on Electricity and Magnetism international power calibration comparison with nine other countries. An important current project being undertaken in response to industrial needs involves providing watt-hour calibrations at voltages up to 600 AC volts. The ongoing deregulation of the electrical utilities industry, which should increase the number of providers of basic electrical service, at least in the short term, has not yet had an impact within NIST but is likely to in the near future, and it will place additional demands on this group. Other groups in this division, such as the Quantum Standards of Voltage and Resistance Groups, also have a direct impact on industry through the calibration capabilities they enable. NIST continues to be the world leader in the application of fundamental physical laws to the maintenance of the system of electrical units. Recent work includes significant progress on shortening the pathway between the calculable capacitor and the quantum Hall effect ohm and the application of these standards to the electronic determination of the kilogram. Other examples of projects whose outcome will have a positive impact on NIST's calibration customers include the development of the three-voltmeter digital impedance bridge and the effort on testing strategies for complex electronic systems. The new bridge technology clearly has the potential to reduce calibration turnaround time, and the outcome of the testing strategies work will likely reduce calibration costs by predicting appropriate testing and calibration intervals. In fact, this division has recently received a Competence funding grant from the NIST director's office for the work on testing software embedded systems. Other examples of seminal work in this division include the groundbreaking project done by the Video Display Group on the quantification of flat-panel display parameters which will likely have a dramatic effect within that industry. NIST began this work in response to industry needs for measurement standards to characterize displays and to quantify the quality of digital video undergoing compression. The Video Electronics Standards Association is currently in the process of adapting a NIST-developed standard in this area. Another important project is the wideband sampling voltmeter technology, which has the potential to extend the measurement options available in high-frequency metrology, and the quantifying of the pulse response of high-speed oscilloscopes will advance the state of the art in high-speed pulse measurements. Finally, through its development and dissemination of measurement methodology for power-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the Electrical Systems Group has had great impact on the very visible issue of possible negative health effects caused by EMFs generated by power lines. The definitive work at NIST on the proper measurement of power-frequency magnetic fields has done much to lay such concerns to rest. Although this work is now winding down, this group can take pride in having rendered a significant public service.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 Division Resources Funding sources for the Electricity Division (in millions of dollars) are as follows:   Fiscal Year 1997 Fiscal Year 1998 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 7.4 7.5 Competence 0.7 1.1 ATP 0.4 0.2 OA/NFG/CRADA 1.5 2.3 Other Reimbursable 1.3 0.9 Total 11.3 12.0 Staffing for the Electricity Division currently includes 70 full-time permanent positions, of which 64 are for technical professionals. There are also nine nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral fellows and part-time workers. The understaffing problem noted in the 1997 assessment is still an issue. In general, the staff of the division appears to be spread too thinly. In some instances, projects are only one employee deep, and it is unclear if the division has contingency plans to confront the sudden departure of a critical individual. In some cases, individual employees are involved in too many projects and in others, an important function is dependent on the full-time presence of a specific individual. The result is slow turnaround time and extreme vulnerability to the loss of a single employee. Given the unlikely prospect of increasing the staff size, the panel believes that the division may eventually be forced to consider a reduction in the total number of projects being pursued. For some projects (e.g., the SET work), the addition of a postdoctoral staff member would be most helpful and presumably cost-effective. Employment of students at the college and precollege level, while an admirable educational outreach activity for NIST, is unlikely, in the panel's opinion, to alleviate the problem noted here. It may in fact exacerbate it by adding training duties to the burdens on an already oversubscribed staff. The calibration staff morale issue noted in 1997 does not seem to have been resolved, despite reported attempts by division management to address this subtle problem. It does not appear to be extremely serious at this time, although continued attention is warranted. The shortcomings of NIST's physical facilities were again evident. Although all laboratories visited by the panel were obviously functional, it still appears that inadequate environmental control is increasing uncertainties in some operations. Even though there has been improvement in environmental monitoring, uncontrolled humidity is still a problem in the voltage, AC impedance, and other calibration laboratories. At the same time, there have been clear improvements in specific operations. Most dramatic was the upgrade of the Watt balance laboratory. A new vacuum chamber has been constructed to house the balance, and a new “inner” building is being designed to improve the environmental control of this high-visibility project. The panel was very pleased to hear that the prospects for the construction of the Advanced Measurement Laboratory appear to be much improved.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 Although the laboratory equipment is, on the whole, adequate, substantial variation in the quality of key instrumentation was noted. The contrast between the very old bridges being used in the impedance laboratory and the very new cryogenic instrumentation recently installed in the SET laboratory is striking. The resourcefulness of the staff in fabricating precision impedance bridges is impressive, but such activities may not be cost-effective. The development of quality metrics for video compression algorithms is an important project, and the lack of appropriate high-definition television equipment could become a serious impediment in the near future. The panel was concerned to note that little observable action has been taken within the division toward improving the previously reported need for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection for various critical operations. This issue is important; the sometimes subtle nature of ESD damage to delicate instrumentation warrants more serious attention than it has received. Similarly, the security and safety issues noted in the 1997 assessment do not appear to have been adequately addressed. NIST personnel expressed the view that the problems were slight and perhaps better left untreated. Although the panel agrees that maintaining a fairly low security level can be helpful in fostering a more collegial and effective working environment, the real risks to intellectual property and equipment should not be ignored. Semiconductor Electronics Division Division Mission The mission of the Semiconductor Electronics Division, as stated by the division, is to provide technical leadership in research and development of the semiconductor measurement infrastructure essential to silicon and other advanced technology needs. The panel observed this mission statement to be concise and appropriate. It conveys the fact that the division provides leadership in research and development of the semiconductor measurement infrastructure essential to silicon and other advanced technology needs. The panel also observed that the division's programs are in conformance with both the division and NIST mission statements. Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work The panel was presented with information and discussion about an array of activities in the Semiconductor Electronics Division. Observations about the work performed during the past year are provided below. The Metrology for Process and Tool Control project is aligned with the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS) in the dimensional range from 0.25 µm to below 0.1 µm. The first phase of the project, separation by implantation of oxygen-based critical dimension standards, has been transferred to industry and represents a major accomplishment. Development of a NIST traceable reference material SRM based on silicon atom counting via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is planned for 1998. This highly relevant approach is an excellent demonstration of state-of-the-art technology in this division. Work on this project will solve the problem of adequate linewidth standards for future metrology.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 Two projects work on dielectric and interconnect reliability metrology. In ultrathin dielectrics for gate materials, the focus is on silicon oxides. It appears that the work is aligned with the NTRS 0.13 µ m technology node, which refers to the “half-pitch” for dense lines rather than the NTRS-Cadence that deals with the gate dimension, expected to be 0.10 µm by 2003. Although it is important to understand gate degradation in conventional oxide dielectronics, as currently studied by NIST, new materials such as oxynitrides may have additional fundamental failure mechanisms, and it is expected that oxynitrides will come into use in manufacturing within the next 5 years. An accelerated schedule for understanding the failure mechanisms of oxynitrates, as well as other new dielectric materials, is critical for the semiconductor industry. NIST's unique depth and knowledge in this field could provide significant leverage to accomplish this goal. The excellent technical work on understanding the physical mechanisms of oxide aging may lead to the extension of silicon oxide as a viable gate dielectric in the future. In addition, the new voltage-time technique for testing oxide reliability directly on a real product reduces the test cycle tenfold, which is a significant savings in time and cost for industry. The interconnect reliability aspect of this project is now focused on electromigration and stress voiding of copper lines, in alignment with the division's strategic plan. The work on the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) project supports a new and emerging industry and is also directly applicable to silicon metrology, that is, stress/strain measurements for next-generation SCALPEL (scattering with angular limitation projection electron-beam lithography), x ray, and ion projection masks. With smaller dimensions and thinner gates, the properties of materials above the gate level affect fabricated device characteristics and reliability. Since the stress/strain of thin films is directly related to process conditions during deposition, the ability to measure these properties in situ, and while directly integrated with the process, should enable better understanding and control of thin film parameters. The division is developing an infrastructure for MEMS processing and standards. The panel believes the correlation between multidisciplinary approaches to measuring thin film thickness lends credibility and provides state-of-the-art capability for making these measurements. The Thin-Film Process Metrology Group continues to pursue fundamental understanding of ellipsometry and is developing the infrastructure for real-time applications in film growth. The Metrology for Simulation and Computer Aided Design (CAD) Group finished modeling for the insulated-gate bipolar transistor in conjunction with SEMATECH (Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology) and validated the models for use with CAD systems. Future work is focused on extending modeling and validation to the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) structures needed by NTRS and emerging device designs. The Optical Metrology for Semiconductor Manufacturing Group is making a valuable contribution through its work on the technique for measuring differential absorption for native oxide on silicon independent of interface surface roughness. This new, highly sensitive way of looking at ultrathin films has great technical merit. The activity is being driven by emphasis on optical probe techniques across a broad range of projects, including SiGe quantum structures and compound semiconductors. The high-vacuum chamber for the project on metrology for compound semiconductor manufacturing is now operational after several years of development and is producing good experimental results. Four techniques are being applied to measure in situ film thickness and

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 composition. In particular, the x-ray fluorescence capability is cutting-edge technology and unique in the industry. The scanning-probe microscopy metrology project is the definitive work in the industry for two-dimensional dopant profiling of shallow junctions and is an important topic in NTRS. The division is now working on three-dimensional dopant profiling, which will have important implications for semiconductor technology computer-assisted design calibration. The panel noted that spreading the software component of this project throughout industry has been difficult, but the dissemination process is beginning to accelerate. The Semiconductor Electronics Division is the first group to apply intermittent contact for scanning capacitance imaging. The second thrust of this effort is electrical characterization of thin films. The SRMs evolving out of this project are important to industry. The divisional planning, viewed as weak in previous assessments, now has a very strong foundation that provides focus and direction. The results are evident, and the programs in each group seem to be well directed and highly relevant. When mapping the programs of this division and of the Office of Microelectronics Programs (OMP) against the critical challenges listed in the 1997 NTRS for metrology, the panel observed that those programs were well aligned for both > 100 nm and < 100 nm challenges. The only noticeable area where more focus could be applied is in alternate classes of gate dielectrics. Another concern of the panel is that, although thin film metrology work is evident in many groups within this division, as well as in several other NIST laboratories, the interrelationship between these activities is not apparent. The panel was unclear about how this work is coordinated and whether this dispersion across groups is the intended approach. Impact of Programs In several cases, teaming with outside agencies provides an effective pathway for dissemination of the division's metrology results for industrial use. If applied to more projects, this approach could facilitate acceptance, maintain NIST neutrality, and circumvent intellectual property issues. An example of the success of this method can be seen in the partnership with SEMATECH for the commercialization of the Monte Carlo Simulation of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Signals for Linewidth Metrology code, which provides improved SEM performance. The focus on creation of a protocol for artifacts produced by others that are traceable to NIST SRMs is noteworthy. This is clearly an effective way to leverage resources in achieving the metrology dissemination goals of the division and of NIST. The focused program management approach is having a growing influence. Examples include reduced tester time provided by the voltage-time (V-t) integration technique to measure device reliability; continued work on developing physically correct models for oxide wearout; the scanning capacitance microscopy technology, which is already finding use in industry for problem-solving; and round-robin analysis coordination. The division has made major strides in developing focus and planning processes to identify the needs of the industry and to provide responsive programs. There are many indicators of the involvement of the division with industry to ensure that its programs are relevant. Examples

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 of falling below critical mass. This has a negative effect on morale. This division could benefit from better plans for training, mentoring, and retaining key staff, as well as for ways to acquire new skills. The panel noted with interest the efforts being made by NIST on identifying and hiring promising minority employees starting at the high school level but was unsure whether those efforts were having an impact at the divisional level. This division has had an acting chief for over a year, and the panel felt this situation also to be detrimental to division morale. The facilities used by the division appear to be minimally adequate. Progress has been made on the replacement of the absorber material associated with the antenna measurement facilities. This upgrade was necessary to improve measurement quality and fire safety. The current rebuilding of the anechoic chamber will result in important improvements in temperature and humidity control, as well as in mechanical alignment. However, the Open Area Test Site for low-frequency antenna measurements continues to need repairs. Without this upgrade, NIST will not have a facility comparable with those available elsewhere in the United States and abroad. The current location is too close to radio interference sources, and the ground plane is in poor repair. When and if the proposed facility renovations occur, the division 's current crowding problems should be resolved. Electromagnetic Technology Division Division Mission The mission of the Electromagnetic Technology Division, as stated by the division, is to develop and promote advanced standards and measurement methods for the magnetics, electronics, and superconductor industries and their scientific communities; employ phenomena based on magnetics, superconductivity, and cryoelectronics to create new standards, apparatus, and measurement technology; and advance the state of the art by basic research and development of requisite materials, fabrication techniques, and metrology. In support of the magnetics industry, the division provides new measurements, instrumentation, imaging and characterization tools, and standards; develops measurement technology to determine basic properties of magnetic materials and structures with support from theoretical studies and modeling; and collaborates with the magnetic recording industry in development of metrology to support future recording heads and media with their ever-increasing data density. The division uses the unique properties of superconductors to invent and improve measurement methods for electromagnetic signals ranging from static voltages and magnetic fields, through audio, microwave, infrared, visible, and x-ray frequencies; leads the international community in setting standards for measurement of superconductor parameters; and provides the metrology infrastructure needed for the industrial development of superconductors, both large-and small-scale. The panel noted that although the mission statement appears comprehensive, it is difficult to characterize it as succinct. The division's programs in magnetics conform well to this mission as well as to the laboratory and NIST missions. The programs are focused on providing significant impact to fundamental magnetics and the storage industry.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work The division's work in magnetics was observed to be very good overall, with some truly outstanding highlights. For example, the second harmonic magneto-optic Keer effect measurements of fundamental switching times in permalloy and other materials have been broadly recognized as the answer to a vital question related to limiting frequency performance of these materials. The improved instrumentation and characterization techniques derived from these studies will provide opportunities for future technology transfer to industry. The division's technical projects in magnetics are aimed at providing an understanding of fundamental questions relating to the future of magnetic storage (switching times, bit cell stability), novel measurement techniques (magnetic force and resonance microscopy, magnetic read/write modeling), and advanced instrumentation for materials and device characterization. Many efforts are application oriented, such as the magnetic-imaging reference standard, the development of round-robin measurements on magnetic thin films of commercial importance, the work on novel static measurement tools, and the leadership of industry-wide consortia efforts in defining metrology standards for recording heads. These all are key projects and will be vital in assuring the future of the storage industry and U.S. technical leadership. The panel observed that the current plans on round-robin measurements for head materials could be expanded to include those for disk media, perhaps using the media of the magnetic-imaging reference standard. A clearly defined strategic path for the resonance force microscopy project would help to assure that this work could have an impact on NIST's customer base. Better coupling between theoretical and experimental efforts in magnetics could ensure the maximum results and impact from the division's resources. There are also several areas that in the panel's opinion will be industrial issues in the future, such as improved measurement capability in ultrathin films for the magnetic storage industry. Advanced instrumentation for accurate determination of film thickness, magnetostriction, and in situ measurement of small structures also fall within this category. Measurement techniques and instrumentation of interest to industry are cited in the National Storage Industry Consortium Head Metrology Roadmap. The work in superconductivity and cryoelectronics ranges from good to superb. These programs can be conveniently divided into four areas: standards activities, instrumentation and measurement techniques for characterizing superconductive materials and devices, instrumentation and measurement techniques using unique properties available at reduced temperatures, and understanding of fundamental issues affecting the performance of superconductive materials and devices. As in the case of magnetics, these programs conform well to the division and NIST 's mission statement. These programs are invaluable to the emerging superconductor industry, are the source of basic standards such as the volt, and provide the basis for a wide variety of unique measurement techniques such as high-resolution calorimetry and electron counting. The panel felt that the proposed plan to capture many years of experience in the characterization of superconductors in a book is very appropriate. There is a need in the community for such a work, and the book would provide a structured method for the industry to derive benefit from the excellent work done in this group. The intent of the work on superconductor standards is entirely consistent with the NIST mission, and the execution is very good given the level of resources devoted to this project. The work on the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) interlaboratory

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 comparisons of critical current remains valuable, and the development of definitive techniques for measuring critical currents in moderate-sized samples at variable temperature and field is essential for the superconductor industry. Involvement in superconductor standards activities of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has been valuable, although frustrating to the NIST personnel involved. As has been noted in previous assessments, the level of resources committed to this effort is below critical mass. The superconductor industry, which to date has consisted primarily of small, marginally profitable companies, has not provided the level of support that is considered normal in, for example, the semiconductor industry. As large-scale high-temperature superconductive (HTS) devices such as power cables, transformers, and motors enter the commercial marketplace over the next few years, larger, better-capitalized companies will play a bigger role in the industry, and industry support for standards activities can be expected to increase. In the interim, organizational or funding changes will be necessary to maintain staff morale and sustain a viable program in this area. The work on superconductor interfaces and electrical transport remains strong. Perhaps the most impressive aspect of this project is the continuing refinement and use of the composite coil measurement apparatus for an ever-widening variety of evaluations. The latest example is the work on the strain hardening of high-purity aluminum. The work on superconductor-noble metal interfaces appears competent; more insight into its value should be gained over the next year. The Josephson array development work remains an exemplary NIST project. The programmable Josephson voltage standard is a logical extension of the previous direct current standard with increased utility and applicability. The pulse-driven AC voltage standard will offer greatly enhanced functionality and is an excellent example of the progress made possible by the integrated design, fabrication, and test facilities built by the division in Boulder. The cycle time for development of instruments such as this would be prolonged by years if circuit fabrication, for example, were subcontracted to a remote site. The VAMAS interlaboratory comparisons, the IEC participation, and development of new apparatus and methods for characterizing high-current superconductors are clearly appropriate for NIST. The panel observed, however, that the division could consider transitioning the critical current measurement capability to industry at the earliest possible stage. The equipment developed in this project can be readily replicated in industry, and the techniques could be learned by industry representatives during short visits to NIST. The panel was concerned that unless NIST takes a strong initiative in moving the capability to industry, it runs the very real risk of becoming a “job shop” for measurements that are more convenient for industry to have done at NIST but add little or nothing to the real mission of this project. A similar observation can be made about the superconductor AC loss measurements done in the magnetic instruments and materials characterization project. Although the revenue derived from both types of measurements might be attractive, care must be taken to ensure that they do not detract from the true mission of the division. The nanoscale cryoelectronics area may be the source of some of the laboratory's most exciting developments in the next few years. The base technologies of electron counting and microcalorimetry have the inherent capability to spawn a wide variety of instruments, standards, and measurement techniques. The present state of the electron pump appears sufficient to allow construction of a capacitance standard, but the panel is encouraged by the effort to identify the source of the discrepancy between currently observed performance and that predicted by theory. Resolution of this question should not only enhance the capacitance standard but also contribute

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 significantly to the general field of single-electron tunneling. The strength of the microcalorimeter work, both the x-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and the mass spectrometer, actually lie not so much in the calorimeter device itself but in the systems capability of the staff. Successful implementation of the EDS in a semiconductor manufacturing facility will depend on innovative application of cryogenics, refrigeration, and instrument design. All indications are that the staff is well equipped to handle these challenges and that a truly superb instrument will result. The effort in high-performance sensors, infrared detectors, and mixers appears competent and of general interest. The collaborative work with other divisions on electrical substitution radiometry is an excellent example of how work on innovative devices in this division can yield widespread benefits to NIST as a whole. The microwave measurements work in the high critical temperature (Tc) electronics project is an excellent example of NIST's making a very valuable contribution in a highly competitive field. Although there are numerous industry sources of very good HTS films, the panel agreed that a real need still exists to define a standard method to measure their properties, particularly the surface resistance (Rs). This project approaches its tasks by developing a measurement method, identifying and characterizing the sources of error, evaluating films from a variety of industry sources, and finally transferring the measurement method to industry (e.g., microwave measurements of R s). Ideally, some version of this approach could be applied to the work on large-scale measurements. Impact of Programs The division effectively communicates its results through conference presentations, participation in industry consortia and studies, refereed journal publications, and Internet release of developments such as the magnetic-imaging reference standard and the micromagnetic simulator software. Divisional efforts are beginning to have an impact on the magnetics industry through understanding of the limiting switching performance of current head materials, the definition of the metrological requirements of the industry for recording heads, and the distribution and use of the magnetic-imaging reference standard. The results from these efforts may significantly affect the technical path of magnetic storage development. The superconducting standards activities are valuable because NIST 's presence prevents foreign interests from completely dominating the IEC standards work. The critical current measurements provide a measurement capability in the United States, but more could be done to move that capability to industry after development. Also, the work with the ring coils has continued to have an impact on a variety of superconductivity projects ranging from HTS motors to the Anchorage superconducting magnetic energy storage. The Josephson array development project has successfully provided a worldwide voltage standard. However, efforts by U.S. industry to commercialize this technique have apparently not gone well, despite reasonable efforts by the project staff to facilitate the development of a successful commercial product. This failure may be due to an absence of intellectual property protection for the industrial collaborators or to the limited size of the market. The microcalorimeter work has yet to have an impact on industry but may have the largest potential of any present program. More emphasis could be placed on developing the division's patent

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 portfolio in areas critical to U.S. industry, and the panel hopes to hear more about patent status next year. Division Resources Funding sources for the Electromagnetic Technology Division (in millions of dollars) are presented below:   Fiscal Year 1997 Fiscal Year 1998 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 4.5 4.5 Competence 0.5 0.5 ATP 0.4 0.2 OA/NFG/CRADA 2.1 3.2 Other Reimbursable 0.1 0.0 Total 7.6 8.4 This division has a heavier reliance on OA funding than other divisions in the EEEL. Although this level of external funding is not necessarily a negative, there is always the danger that excessive technical staff time could be spent raising funds. Currently, the resources available to the magnetics efforts of the division are generally adequate. The addition of laboratory space and equipment over the next year will allow divisional programs to increase effectiveness and impact on magnetics and related industries. A technician appears to be needed for the nanoprobe facility. Staffing for the Electromagnetic Technology Division currently includes 40 full-time permanent positions, of which 36 are for technical professionals. There are also six nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral fellows and part-time workers. The organization of this division is unique in that project leaders report directly to the division chief. This structure is intended to allow project leaders to spend a greater fraction of their time on technical work than group leaders would be able to spend. This system generally works quite well for projects consisting of approximately 7 to 12 people. However, some smaller groups end up spending a much higher fraction of staff time on overhead functions and fund raising. Therefore, some consolidation of projects would be consistent with the original organizational intent. The panel was concerned that several structural deficiencies seem to be associated with the resources available to the division as a whole. Clean-room space was inadequate and so crowded that it would likely be considered unsafe in an industrial setting. Although the staff has been very creative in using the present facilities, the conditions will increasingly affect all work associated with thin films and lithography in the coming year. The spreading of division personnel over three separate sites has further complicated management and integration efforts, but it is hoped that the impending move into space vacated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) personnel in Boulder will offer the opportunity to remedy this situation.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 Optoelectronics Division Division Mission The mission of the Optoelectronics Division, as stated by the division, is to provide the optoelectronics industry and its suppliers and customers with comprehensive and technically advanced measurement capabilities, standards, and traceability to those standards. This mission is well stated and succinct and fits logically and completely within the overall NIST and laboratory missions. The panel noted that the proposed Office of Optoelectronics Programs would be an excellent step toward coordination of the optoelectronics activities that range throughout the EEEL and NIST in general. Such an organization could parallel the effectiveness of the existing Office of Microelectronics Programs. The establishment of an Office of Optoelectronics Programs would address current concerns about programmatic overlap and uncorrelated efforts in optoelectronics. Technical Merit and Appropriateness of Work In some areas, the Optoelectronics Division's capability is truly world class; in many others, it is at the state of the art; and in certain mature areas, important calibrations are consistently delivered to a well-established customer base. Activities are divided into four technical areas: sources and detectors, fiber and integrated optics, optical components, and optoelectronics manufacturing. The division currently has eight project areas, each with specific goals and objectives. Cross-project teamwork occurs when appropriate. The programs balance delivery of calibrations and standards to industry with the initiation of new activities in emerging technology areas. The Laser Radiometry project continues to provide and improve on well-established calibration services to industry for laser power and energy meters and detectors, as well as for optical fiber power meters and detectors. The panel was pleased to note the excellent progress made in the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) area. Very useful round-robin measurements were made in laser beam characterization. These data verified that industrial measurements are made to sufficient accuracy and in accordance with relevant International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. The panel endorses the thrust to support the semiconductor and medical industries with the characterization of excimer sources and material at 193 nm. Good progress continues in high-speed measurements and in a number of well-established projects driven by military and industrial applications, such as measurements for relative intensity noise. The division has also established a state-of-the-art heterodyne system for characterizing photonic devices. The capability and program output of the Optical Fiber Metrology project are world class. This project continues to provide industry with valuable SRMs for optical fiber coating diameter, fiber cladding diameter, pin gage standard for ferrules, optical fiber ferrule geometry, polarization mode dispersion, and chromatic dispersion standards. These tools are critical for the ongoing expansion of the fiber-optic industry. In response to the Telecommunications Industries Association request, work done on connectors showed that random errors dominate the

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 measurement issues and are within 2 to 5 percent of one another. This range is well within industry requirements, and consequently, this project has been concluded. The panel was also enthusiastic about the Integrated Optics Metrology project, which focuses on characterization of integrated optics and fiber nonlinear effects. The movement toward establishing planar-optics mode-field measurement expertise also is to be applauded. In 1997, this group provided a new world-class SRM for chromatic dispersion. Most importantly, the unique work on multimode differential mode delay (DMD) for the Gigabit Ethernet Working Group helped to identify cross-industry issues regarding laser launch and fiber profiles. The panel applauded the use of optical low-coherence measurements characterizing many of today's devices; with modifications it should be adaptable to integrated optic devices, as well as to the group 's response to the need for EDFA measurements. The initial round-robin was an excellent first step. In the Fiber and Discrete Components project area, the division's world-class wavelength standard for the 1.55-µ window is an important contribution, particularly as wavelength division-multiplexers optical communication systems are emerging. Division personnel are currently documenting and disseminating the SRM for HCN, and the panel was pleased to learn that the group proposes to transfer the fabrication of these units to an outside organization. The work on metrology for photo-induced Bragg gratings in optical fiber continues and is progressing. Continued development of optical amplifier standard performance measurements, such as gain, gain flatness, gain tilt, and noise figures, is important, and the group has obtained some excellent round-robin results. In the Optical Fiber Sensors project, the panel supports the continuing competency in sensor metrology. The work on measurement of the Verdet constant is world class. In the work on optical data-storage metrology, the first-round robin measurements on disk retardance are highlighting important industry issues. The panel applauds this initiative, which was established last year based on industry input. The Semiconductor Materials and Devices project is continuing to respond to industry inputs. However, given the breadth of issues in this field and the limited availability of group resources, this project may need to narrow its focus to metrology that can be applied to a variety of manufacturing systems. The effort could also benefit from collaboration with other government organizations, such as Sandia National Laboratories, that have the necessary infrastructure for materials growth. Although in situ growth control is an important topic, the panel was concerned that NIST researchers be careful to select problems within their core competency but not specific to their own equipment. The development of metrology tools for the characterization of fabrication equipment is an important capability for industry. Some examples are the cofunded program with ATP on ex situ source materials characterization and the metrology work on GaN materials. The latter project could benefit from collaboration with other organizations working on GaN materials and devices. The panel did not hear about the work on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers that had been proposed last year. Efforts in this rapidly expanding area would be very appropriate for the division, and opportunities exist for industrial and academic partnerships, as well as for collaboration with staff working on the division' s semiconductor devices and materials project. In the Dielectric Materials and Devices project, the quality of the bulk and periodically poled LiNbO3 metrology work is excellent, but the panel is uncertain about its widespread applicability.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 In general, this division's work in calibrations and standards has benefited from the implementation of a quality assurance system, and the panel applauds division management 's initiative in this area. Impact of Programs The panel was impressed by the effectiveness of the division's work. This success is based on planning, customer input, project management, and prioritization processes. The division continues to use publications, the World Wide Web, workshop sponsorship, and participation in appropriate standards groups to disseminate information. The Metrology Roadmap is moving forward in concert with the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), as evidenced by the recent joint Metrology Workshop. The division continues to perform outstanding work with important impact on the fiber-optic and optoelectronics industries. Notable examples of these include the fiber-dimension and dispersion SRMs, the multimode DMD measurements, the magnetic field sensor, the Verdet constant measurement, the HCN and acetylene wavelength standards, and the Maker fringe LiNbO3 characterization. The panel was impressed by the division's outreach efforts such as workshops and OIDA interactions. However, the methodology for obtaining rigorous customer feedback regarding the impact and the effectiveness of the work, particularly in new areas, is not fully in place. The division's outputs could have a broader impact on industry if the appropriate partnerships and dissemination vehicles are augmented. Division Resources Funding sources for the Optoelectronics Division (in millions of dollars) are as follows:   Fiscal Year 1997 Fiscal Year 1998 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 5.7 5.4 ATP 0.2 0.1 Measurement Services (SRM production) 0.1 0.0 OA/NFG/CRADA 1.1 2.2 Other Reimbursable 0.3 0.3 Total 7.4 8.0 Staffing for the Optoelectronics Division currently includes 36 full-time permanent positions, of which 32 are for technical professionals. There are also three nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral fellows and part-time workers.

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 The panel was concerned that the current ratio of permanent staff to contract researchers within the division could compromise institutional memory in key areas of expertise. However, the panel observed that the ratio of scientists to projects is small, necessitating the use of contract researchers. Overall, progress could be greatly enhanced by upgrading the quality of equipment. In some cases, the existing equipment is adequate to perform the work; however, in many cases, it is below industrial standards and the state of the art. The panel noted that the caliber of the output from the division is impressive, given this situation. Since last year, utilization of laboratory space has improved. In Boulder, the vacating of nearby space by NOAA presents an opportunity for the division to physically consolidate its laboratories in a structured, cost-effective manner. Such geographical unity would further enhance teamwork and communications. Office of Microelectronics Programs According to NIST documentation, the mission of the Office of Microelectronics Programs is to matrix manage NIST technical activities in support of the semiconductor device, materials, and manufacturing equipment industries. This is done by assisting management and technical staff to plan, execute, and deliver results of technical work in order to maintain working relations with companies, industry associations, standards organizations, consortia, and government agencies; develop new activities and programs appropriate to the NIST mission in microelectronics-related fields; monitor technical accomplishments and expenditures on programs; serve as an information resource on microelectronics activities; represent NIST to external organizations as assigned by the NIST director; and be the point of contact for inquiries on microelectronic topics. The OMP carries out this mission by administering the NIST-wide National Semiconductor Metrology Program (NSMP) in support of metrology developments related to the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The NTRS is used in setting the priorities for NIST-wide work in silicon CMOS technology. The current portfolio of work includes 29 projects under way in five NIST laboratories: the EEEL, the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory, the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, the Physics Laboratory, and the Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory. Individual projects are managed by the staff in the laboratories in which they are located, and comments on these projects can therefore be found in the assessments of those laboratories. The OMP provides coordination and guidance for this wide array of work funded by the NSMP. During the review of the Semiconductor Electronics Division, the panel was shown a detailed description of about 30 percent of the OMP projects. Based on this partial review, the panel felt that the overall program of the OMP was responsive to the needs outlined in NTRS. OMP project topics not reviewed in detail also appeared to be appropriate for the needs of the industry and to demonstrate high quality and significant results. The matrix approach of OMP management is excellent, in that it facilitates the use of the full range of NIST expertise to address the metrology problems confronting the semiconductor industry. The panel recognized that the director of this office has made unique contributions in establishing and successfully operating this matrix management system within NIST in order to meet the needs of the cross-disciplinary

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 semiconductor industry. In view of the director's impending retirement, it is essential for the future health of this program that resources and adequate leadership be reestablished for OMP. Fiscal year 1997 funding for the operation of the OMP totaled $0.7 million, all from STRS. The total 1997 NSMP funding administered by OMP was $10.3 million STRS. The office has a paid staff of four, three of whom are technical professionals. Office of Law Enforcement Standards The mission of the Office of Law Enforcement Standards is to apply science and technology to the needs of the criminal justice community, including law enforcement, corrections, forensic science, and the fire service. The panel finds that the work of OLES continues to be well focused on this mission, and over the past year noteworthy expansion of funding has occurred through interactions with other agencies such as the Justice Department. The location of OLES within the EEEL continues to be of concern to the panel for two reasons. One is that OLES is limited in its ability to take on new projects because it is subject to the overall headcount limitations imposed on the EEEL as a whole. Another is the lack of correlation between the laboratory's mission to provide measurement capabilities to the electronics and electrical industries and the OLES mission to support standards in the justice and law enforcement communities. Although this placement is not currently causing serious limitations on the effectiveness of OLES programs, it would seem to be worthy of review by NIST management. Fiscal year 1997 funding for the Office of Law Enforcement Standards consisted of $2.1 million from the National Institute of Justice and $0.1 million from other agencies. The office has a paid staff of seven, five of whom are technical professionals. MAJOR OBSERVATIONS The panel presents the following observations. The technical merit of the programs in the EEEL is quite high. The mission is very broad, but given the availability of only a finite amount of resources, the laboratory has successfully focused its programs in areas in which it can do high-quality work and have a significant impact on the relevant U.S. industries. The panel noted various issues related to understaffing throughout the laboratory. Sometimes projects were dependent on a single individual; in other cases, efforts in particular fields were in danger of falling below critical mass. Overall, the panel perceived that having plans for hiring, retraining, and replacing retiring personnel is crucial. The panel continues to be concerned about various facilities issues noted in the 1997 assessment. Problems include safety and security, electrostatic discharge protection for instruments, and appropriate environmental control for precision measurements. Quality is an important issue at NIST, and the adoption of a quality assurance system by the Optoelectronics Division is laudable. Development of a quality assurance program at the laboratory or NIST-wide level could be more efficient and effective than having various

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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES Fiscal Year 1998 divisions developing quality programs independently. Laboratorycould yield a quality system that could be implemented uniformly in all the divisions. The OLES continues to perform high-quality work very much in keeping with NIST's mission. However, its work is less well aligned with the mission of the EEEL, and its placement within this laboratory is beginning to put administrative limits on its programmatic expansion. The OMP has been very successful at coordinating semiconductor-related research at NIST across divisional and laboratory boundaries. The panel supports the consideration of the formation of an Office of Optoelectronics Programs for a similar purpose.