American Astronomical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Physical Society.

CHARLES W. CARLSON received his BA from the University of Minnesota and a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. He has 30 years' experience in magnetospheric and space plasma physics research and more than 85 publications. He has also developed many of the plasma instruments currently used in this area of research, including numerous sounding rockets to study plasmas in the auroral zone and equatorial ionosphere as well as in the Giotto mission to comet Halley, AMPTE, and Mars Observer. He is currently the principal investigator for the FAST/SMEX mission and a co-investigator on the Wind, Polar, and Cluster missions. He holds the position of senior space fellow at the Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.

ROBERT L. CAROVILLANO received a PhD in theoretical physics from Indiana University (1959). He joined the Boston College faculty as an assistant professor in 1959, was promoted to professor in 1966, and chaired the Department of Physics from 1969 to 1982. In space physics research, Dr. Carovillano has publicized on a broad spectrum of topics in pure theory and data analysis. These include magnetospheric energy theorems, wave-particle interactions, magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling processes, ionospheric electric fields and currents, substorm modeling, analysis of satellite measurements and images of auroral activity, hydromagnetic waves and plasma resonances, solar wind propagation and structure, ring current and radiation belt energetics and dynamics, and related topics. Dr. Carovillano has served on national advisory committees of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) and has chaired several such advisory committees. He has been an officer and trustee of the Universities Space Research Association, where he has also twice served as chairman of the Council of Institutions, and an officer of the American Geophysical Union. Dr. Carovillano has been principal investigator on many research grants and contracts funded by the NSF, NASA, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force. Since July 1994, Dr. Carovillano has been a visiting senior scientist at NASA Headquarters in the Office of Space Science. At NASA he has been responsible for the supervision of several programs and research initiatives in space physics but has been most deeply engaged in optimizing mission scientific accomplishments and opportunities.

TAMAS I. GOMBOSI, a native of Hungary, was educated in theoretical physics. In the mid 1970s he was the first foreign national to do postdoctoral research at the Space Research Institute in Moscow, where he participated in the data interpretation of the Venera-9 and Venera-10 Venus orbiters. A few years later he came to the United States to participate in theoretical work related to NASA's Venus exploration. In the early 1980s he played a leading role in the planning and implementation of the international VEGA mission to Venus and Halley's comet. As project scientist for Hungary he actively participated in the design of several instruments (such as the imaging system, the energetic particle detector, and the plasma spectrometer), and he also played a leading role in modeling of the cometary nucleus and its environment. His scientific contributions span topics ranging from the propagation of cosmic rays and energetic solar particles to the the exploration of Venus and comets, to the development of the first time-dependent models of the terrestrial polar wind.

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