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Appendix Regulations for Packaging and Shipping Viable Microbial Cultures Most organisms used in industrial or biosynthetic processes are not known to cause animal or plant diseases, but even those that can cause disease have not been ignored in their application to such processes. In addition, disease- control programs may require shipments of disease-causing microbe cultures for identification or testing. Consequently, packaging of microbial cultures to be shipped either domestically or internationally has been regulated in many countries. In the United States, for example, cultures must be packaged and shipped in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 49, CAB82, Tariff 6-D. International shipments must also comply with International Air Transport Association Regulation 736, Packaging Note 695. The appropriate portion of the Code of Federal Regulations can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, U.S.A. The International Air Transport Association Regulations may be pur- chased from the IATA, P.O.Box 160, Geneva, Switzerland. If laboratories in developing nations want to ship cultures to the United States or to develop regulations in their own countries, it would be helpful to become acquainted with these rules. Regulations for packaging and shipping of cultures vary greatly according to the country. Some countries (for instance, New Zealand, Canada, and Australia) require permits before any culture may be shipped into the coun- try. The United States requires that export licenses be obtained from the Department of Commerce before bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and viruses may be shipped out of the country. Cultures classified as etiologic agents (defined as a microorganism or its toxin that causes or may cause human disease) must be properly packaged to withstand leakage of contents, shocks, pressure changes, and other conditions incident to ordinary handling in transportation. The package must be marked, including an etiologic agent/biomedical material label as specified by the Public Health Service of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. In addition, properly prepared forms for restricted articles must accompany the shipment. Certain microbe strains also require permits from 191

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192 MICROBIAL PROCESSES the U.S. Department of Agriculture and/or the U.S. Public Health Service before shipment can be made. importation of cultures into the United States is regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Public Health Service. It has been USDA policy not to permit the importation (except to Plum Island Animal Disease Center) of pathogens that cause the following diseases: rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, hog cholera, swine vesicular disease, African horse sickness, Rift Valley fever, Teschen, Nairobi sheep disease, lumpy skin disease, looping ill, bovine infectious petechial fever, Newcastle disease (Asiatic strains), sheep pox, camel pox, goat pox, ephemeral fever, vesicular exanthema, Borna disease, Wesselsbron disease, and a variety of organisms of lesser importance. The shipment of cultures to other countries, as noted above, is similarly controlled by the local laws in those countries. Therefore, it is essential for culture collection personnel to know what permits may be required to trans- mit cultures to the countries of scientists requesting their cultures.

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Boarcl on Science and Technology for International Development DAVID PIMENTEL, Professor, Department of Entomology and Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, Chairman Members RUTH ADAMS, Editor, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Chicago, Illinois (member through December 1977) EDWARD S. AYENSU, Director, Office of Biological Conservation, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. PEDRO BARBOSA, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland DWIGHT S . B ROTHERS, International Economist and Consultant, Fairhaven Hill, Concord, Massachusetts (member through December 1978) JOHN H. BRYANT, Chairman, Committee on International Health, Institute of Medicine, ax-officio (through July 1978) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brook- lyn, New York (member through December 1978) DORIS GALLOWAY, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California ELIZABETH COLSON, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, California CHARLES DENNISON, Consultant, New York, New York, (member through December 1977) BREWSTER C. DENNY, Dean, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington HERBERT I. FUSFELD, Director, Center for Science and Technology Policy, Graduate School of Public Administration, New York University, New York, New York JOHN H. GIBBO NS, Director, Environment Center, University of Tennessee, Knox- ~rille, Tennessee (member January 1979-June 1979) MARTIN GOLAND, President, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas JAMES P. GRANT, President, Overseas Development Council, Washington, D.C. GEORGE S. HAMMOND, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, ex- officio (through June 1978) N. BRUCE HANNAY, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, ex~fficio GEORGE R. HERBERT, President, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina WILLIAM N. HUBBARD, JR ., President, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan 193

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WILLIAM A. W. KREBS, Vice President, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massa- chusetts (member through December 1977) THOMAS F. MALONE, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, ex- officio FRANCIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forests, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut FREDERICK T. MO ORE, Economic Advisor, International Bank for Reconstruc- tion and Development, Washington, D.C. (member through December 1978) W. HENRY MOSLEY, Director, Cholera Research Laboratory, Dacca, Bangladesh, and Associate, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (member through December 1978) RODNEY W. NICHOLS, Vice President, Rockefeller University, New York, New York DANIEL A. OKUN, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina E. RAY PARISER, Senior Research Scientist, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts JOSEPH PETTIT, President, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (member through December 1977) JO SEPH ~ . PLATT, President, Claremont University Center, Claremont, C~i- fornia (member through December 1977) HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida JAMES BRIAN QUINN, Amos Tuck School of Business Administration, Dart- mouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire PRISCILLA C. REINING, Director, Project on Desertif~cation, International Divi- sion, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. RALPH W. RICHARDSON, JR., Department of Horticulture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania FREDERICK SEITZ, President Emeritus, Rockefeller University, New York New York H. GUYFORD STEVER, Consultant, Washington, D.C. VICTOR RABINOWITCH,Director MICHAEL G. C. McDONALD DOW, Deputy Director JOHN G. HURLEY, Deputy Director 194 1

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Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brook- lyn, New York (Chairman through December 1978) HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Chairman Members HAROLD DREGNE, Director, International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas ANDREW HAY, President, Calvert-Peat, Inc., New York, New York CYRUS McKELL, Institute of Land Rehabilitation, Utah State University, Logan, Utah FRAN;OIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry, School of Forestry and Envi- ronmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut E. RAY PARISER, Semor Research Scientist, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (member through 1977) CHARLES A. ROSEN, Staff Scientist, Stanford Research Institute, NIenlo Park, California (member through 1977) VIRGINIA WALBOT, Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (member through 1977) 195

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Board on Science and Technology for International Development Commission on International Relations National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418, USA Advisory Studies and Special Reports Reports published by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development are sponsored in most instances by the U.S. Agency for International Development and are in- tended for free distribution primarily to readers in developing countries. A limited number of copies is available for distribution on a courtesy basis to readers in the United States and other industrialized countries who have institutional affiliation with government, education, or re- search and who have professional interest in the subject areas treated by the reports. Single copies of published reports listed below are available free while the supplies last. Requests should be made on your organization's letterhead. Other interested readers may buy the reports listed here from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) whose address appears below. 5. The Role of U.S. Engineering Schools in Development Assistance. 1976. 30 pp. Ex- amines opportunities and constraints facing U.S. engineering schools in mobilizing their re- sources to aid developing countries. NTIS Accession No. PB 267~55. $4.50 7. U.S. International Firms and R,D & E in Developing Countries. 1973. 92 pp. Discusses aims and interests of international firms and developing-country hosts and suggests that dif- ferences could be mitigated by sustained efforts by the firms to strengthen local R,D & E capabilities. NTIS Accession No. PB 222-787. $6.00 8. Ferrocement: Applications in Developing Countries. 1973. 89 pp. Assesses state of the art and cites applications of particular interest to developing countries-boat-building, construc- tion, food and water storage facilities, etc. NTIS Accession No. PB 220-825. $6.50 14. More Water for Arid Lands: Promising Technologies and Research Opportunities. 1974. 153 pp. Outlines little-known but promising technolgies to supply and conserve water in arid areas. NTIS Accession No. PB 239~72. $8.00 (French-language edition is available from Office of Science and Technology, Development Support Bureau, Agency for International Develop- ment Washington, D.C. 20523 or through NTIS, Accession No. PB 274-612. $8.00.) 18. Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value. 1975. 187 pp. De- scribes 36 little-known tropical plants that, with research, could become important cash and food crops in the future. Includes cereals, roots and tubers, vegetables, fruits, oilseeds, forage plants, and others. NTIS Accession No. PB 251~56. $9.00 17. The Winged Bean: A High Protein Crop for the Tropics. 1975. 43 pp. Describes a neglected tropical legume from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea that appears to have promise for combatting malnutrition worldwide. NTIS Accession No. PB 243442. $4.50. 18. Energy for Rural Development: Renewable Resources and Alternative Technologies for Developing Countries. 1976. 305 pp. Examines energy technologies with power capabilities of 10-100 kilowatts at village or rural level in terms of short- and intermediate-term availability. Identifies specific research and development efforts needed to make intermediate-term applica- t~ons feasible in areas offering realistic promise. NTIS Accession No. PB 260~06. $1 1.75. (French-language edition is available from Office of Energy, Development Support Bureau Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523.) 19. Methane Generation from Human, Animal, and Agricultural Wastes. 1977. 131 pp. Discusses means by which natural process of anerobic fermentation can be controlled by man for his benefit, and how the methane generated can be used as a fuel. NTIS Accession No. PB 276-469. $7.25. 21. Making Aquatic Weeds Useful. Some Perspectives for Developing Countries. 1976. 175 pp. Describes ways to exploit aquatic weeds for grazing, and by harvesting and processing for use as compost, animal feed, pulp, paper, and fuel. Also describes utilization for sewage and industrial wastewater treatment. Examines certain plants with potential for aquaculture. NTIS Accession No. PB 265-161. $9.00. 22. Guayule: An Alternative Source of Natural Rubber. 1977. 80 pp. Describes a little- known bush that grows wild in deserts of North America and produces a rubber virtually identical with that from the rubber tree. Recommends funding for guayule development. NTIS Accession No. PB 264-170. $6.00 23. Resource Sensing from Space: Prospects for Developing Countries. 1977 203 pp. An examination of current and prospective applications of interest to the LDCs, certain implica- tions for long-term governance of a remote sensing system, and desirable technical cooperation initiatives to diffuse user capabilities. NTIS Accession No. PB 264-171. $9.25. 196

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25. Tropical Leguemes: Resources for the Future. 1979. 331 pp. Describes plants of the family Legum~nosae, Including root crops, pulses, fruits, forages, timber and wood products ornamentals, and others. NTIS Accession No. PB 298423. $12.00. 26. Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics. 1977. 118 pp. Describes Leucaena leucocephala, a little known Mexican plant with vigorously growing, bushy types that produce nutritious forage and organic fertilizer as well as tree types that produce timber, fire- wood, and pulp and paper. The plant is also useful for revegetating hillslopes and providing f~rebreaks, shade, and city beautification. NTIS Accession No. PB 268-124. $7.25. 28. Microbial Processes: Promising Technologies for Developing Countnes. 1979. 200 pp. 29. Postharvest Food Losses in Developing Counbies. 1978. 202 pp. Assesses potential and l~rn~tat~ons of food loss reduction efforts; summarizes existing work and information about losses of major food crops and fish; discusses economic and social factors involved identifies major areas of need; and suggests policy and program options for developing countries and technical assistance agencies. NTIS Accession No. PB 290-421. $9.25. 30. U.S. Science and Technology for Development: Contributions to the UN Conference. 1978. 226 pp. Serves the U.S. Department of State as a major background document for the U.S. national paper, 1979 United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Develop- ment. Includes an overview section plus five substantive sections as follows: 1) industrialization 2) health, nutnt~on, and population; 3) food, climate, soil, and water; 4) energy, natural re- sources and environment; and 5) urbanization, transportation, and communication. Related Publications Other reports (prepared in cooperation with BOSTID) available from the above address are: An International Centre for Manatee Research. 1975. 34 pp. Describes the use of the manatee a large, almost extinct, marine mammal, to clear aquatic weeds from canals. Proposes a research laboratory to develop manatee reproduction and husbandry. Published by the National Science Research Council of Guyana. NTIS Accession No. PB 240-244. $4.50. Natural Products for Sn Lanka's Future. 1975. 53 pp. Report of a 1975 workshop with the National Science Council of Sri Lanka. Identifies neglected and unconventional plant products that can significantly contribute to Sri Lanka's economic development. Published by National Science Council of Sri Lanka. NTIS Accession No. PB 251-520 $5.25. Workshop on Solar Energy for the Villages of Tanzania. 1978. 167 pp. Report of a workshop with the Tanzania National Scientific Research Council, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Reviews state-of-the-art of small-scale solar energy devices, and suggests short- and long-range projects using them in villages. Published by Tanzania National Scientific Research Council. NTIS Acces- sion No. PB 282-941. $9.00. Out-of-Print Publications The following out-of-print BOSTID reports are available only from the National Technical Information Service unless otherwise noted. To order, send report title, NTIS Accession Num- ber, and amount indicated. (Note: Prices are current for April 1979 and are subject to change without notice.) Pay by NTIS Deposit Account, check, money order, or American Express ac- count. U.S. orders without prepayment are billed within 15 days, a $5.00 charge is added. Prices for foreign buyers are double the prices indicated below, and payment in full must be enclosed. Send order to: National Technical Information Service Springfield, Virginia 221 61, USA 1. East Pakistan Land and Water Development as Related to Agriculture. January 1971. 67 pp. Reviews World Bank proposed action program in land and water management. NTIS Accession No. PB 2 03-3 2 8. $ 5.25. 2. The International Development Institute. July 1971. 57 pp. Endorses concept of new science-based technical assistance agency as successor to AID, examines its character, purposes and functions. NTIS Accession No. PB 203-331. $5.25. 3. Solar Energy in Developing Countries: Perspectives and Prospects. March 1972.49 pp. Assesses state of art, identifies promising areas for R & D, and proposes multipurpose regional energy research institute for developing world. NTIS Accession No. PB 208-550. $5.25. 4. Scientific and Technical Information for Developing Countnes. April 1972. 80 pp. Ex- amines problem of developing world's access to scientific and technical information sources provides rationale for assistance in this field, and suggests programs for strengthening informa- t~on Infrastructure and promoting information transfer. NTIS Accession No. PB 210-107. $6.00. 197

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6. Research Management and Technical Entrepreneurship: A U.S. Role in Improving Skills In Developing Countries. 1973. 40 pp. Recommends initiation of a systematic program and Indicates pnor~ty elements. NTIS Accession No. PB 225-129. $4.50. 9. Mosquito Control: Some Perspectives for Developing Countnes. 1973. 63 pp. Examines biological control alternatives to conventional pesticides, evaluates state of knowledge and research potential of several approaches NTIS Accession No PB 224-749. $6.00. 10. Food Science in Developing Countnes: A Selection of Unsolved Problems. 1974. 81 pp. Describes 42 unsolved technical problems with background information, possible approaches to a solution, and information sources. NTIS Accession No. PB 235410. $6.00. 11. Aquatic Weed M?nagement: Some Perspectives for Guyana. 1973. 44 pp. Report of workshop with the National Science Research Council of Guyana describes new methods of aquatic weed control suitable for tropical developing countries. NTIS Accession No. PB 12. Roofing in Developing Countries: Research for New Technologies. 1974. 74 pp. Emphasizes the need for research on low cost roofs, particularly using materials available in developing countries. NTIS Accession No. PB 234-503. $6.00. 13. Meeting the Challenge of Industrialization: A Feasibility Study for an International Industrialization Institute. 1973. 133 pp. Advances concept of an independent, interdisci- plinary research institute to illuminate new policy options confronting all nations. NTIS Acces- sion No. PB 228-348. $7.25. 15. International Development Programs of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, by Harri- son Brown and Theresa Tellez. 1973. 68 pp. History and analysis, 1963-1973, lists staff/ participants and publications. NTIS Accession No. PB 230-543. $5.25. 20. Systems Analysis and Operations Research: A Tool for Policy and Program Planning for Developing Countries. 1976. 98 pp. Examines utility and limitations of SA/OR methodology for developing country application and means for acquiring indigenous capabilities. NTIS Ac- cession No. PB 251-639. $6.50. 24. Appropriate Technologies for Developing Countires. 1977. 140 pp. Examines funda- mental Issues and inter-relationships among economic, political and social factors relating to choice of technologies in developing countries. Discusses criteria of appropriateness and sug- gests policies for improving technical decisions. Available from Office of Publications, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.~. 20418 USA; please enclose payment of $6.25. Other out-of-print reports (prepared in cooperation with BOSTID) available from the National Technical Information Service are: Products from Jojoba: A Promising New Crop for Arid Lands. 1975. 30 pp. Describes the chemistry of the oil obtained from the North American desert shrub Simmondsia chinensis. NTIS Accession No. PB 253-126. $4.50. Aquatic Weed Management: Some prospects for the Sudan and the Nile Basin. 1975. 57 pp Report of a 1975 workshop with the Sudanese National Council for Research. Suggests modern and innovative methods for managing the water hyacinth. Published by National Council for Research-Agricultural Research Council of Sudan NTIS Accession No. PB 259-990. $5.25. Ferrocement, a Versatile Construction Material: Its Increasing Use in Asia. 1976. 106 pp. Report of a 1974 workshop with the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand. Sur- veys applications of ferrocement technology in Asia and the Pacific Islands. Includes construc- tion of grain silos, water tanks, roofs, and boats. Published by Asian Institute of Technology. NTIS Accession No. PB 261-818. $6.50. International Consultation on Ipil-Ipil Research. 1978. 1972 pp. Report of a 1976 conference sponsored with the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research, Los Banos Laguna, Philippines. Contains background papers and workshop session summary reports on ipil-ipil (Leucaena spp.). (Companion volume to report no. 26 above.) NTIS Accession No. PB 280-161. $8.00. Reports in Preparation (working titles) BOSTID will fill requests for single copies of reports in preparation upon publication as out- lined at the beginning of this section. 27. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. 31. Food, Fuel, and Fertilizer from Organic Wastes. 32. The Water Buffalo: Its Potential for Development. 33. The Potential for Alcohol Fuels in Developing Countries. 34. Revegetating the Range: Selected Research and Development Opportunities. 35. Aerial Seeding of Forests. 198