NIEHS, we estimate that a total of about $41 million was spent on the program; estimated expenditures are summarized as follows:

Estimated EMF-RAPID expenditures

Activity

Amount, in thousands of dollars

Percent of total dollars spent

Biologic research

25,553a

62

Estimated indirect costs for biologic research (38%)

9,710

24

Engineering projects

2,670b

6

Communication

3,350c

8

Total

41,283

100

a Total from appendix A.

b Total from appendix B.

c Total from appendix C.

Nearly all the biologic research was carried out under National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants, which normally are described in terms of "direct cost" dollars. Universities separately negotiate reimbursement of "indirect costs" with the government. To complete an estimate of the indirect costs associated with these direct costs, we assumed an average indirect cost rate of 38%. The engineering and other external activities were conducted under contracts, which include direct and indirect costs in the total amount. The Battelle MF-cancer-promotion biologic study was also conducted under a contract.

Despite the uncertainty in the figure for total EMF-RAPID expenditures, it is clear that the amount spent is much less than the $65 million authorized by the enabling legislation. About $20.5 million was actually provided from federal sources. If funded as planned, there would have been $13 million per year for 5 yr. Because a 50% matching with nonfederal dollars was required and because less than $32.5 million was allocated by federal sources, the total budget ($41 million) was 37% less than the $65 million planned.

Because the effective life of EMF-RAPID was four yr, annual funding averaged $10 million per year. (Funding came from FY 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998, suggesting a 5-yr program. However, FY 1994 funds were committed late in September 1994, and EMF-RAPID activities ended on December 31, 1998, in effect producing a 4-yr program). Before 1992, when EMF-RAPID was authorized, DOE, the Electric Power Research Institute, and a number of utilities were supporting a major research program on MF bioeffects. Although this committee does not have data on the total funding available at that time, EMF-RAPID might not have represented the major increase in funding that was expected when the authorizing legislation was approved.

The goal of EMF-RAPID was to conduct a special, focused program to provide the public with answers to the general question: "The matter having been intensively



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