CHAPTER 7
Educational Profile of 3- to 8-Year-Old Children of Immigrants1

Christine Winquist Nord and James A. Griffin

This chapter provides a broad overview of the educational experiences of young children of immigrants and contrasts their experiences with those of children of native-born parents using data from a 1996 national survey, the National Household Education Survey, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education (Nolin et al., 1997). The profile is restricted to children 3 to 8 years old who live with at least one biological, adoptive, step-, or foster parent. As in other chapters of this volume, children are classified as children of immigrants if they have at least one parent who was not born in the United States or in a territory of the United States. Children of immigrants who were foreign born are referred to as foreign-born or immigrant children. Children of immigrants who were born in the United States or one of its territories are referred to as native-born children of immigrants.

Children of immigrants are expected to account for more than half the growth in the school-aged population between 1990 and 2010 (Passel and Fix, 1995). Despite their growing numbers, relatively little is known about their educational experiences (Portes

1  

 This paper is intended to promote the exchange of ideas among researchers and policy makers. The views expressed in it are part of ongoing research and analysis and do not necessarily reflect the position of the U.S. Department of Education.



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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance CHAPTER 7 Educational Profile of 3- to 8-Year-Old Children of Immigrants1 Christine Winquist Nord and James A. Griffin This chapter provides a broad overview of the educational experiences of young children of immigrants and contrasts their experiences with those of children of native-born parents using data from a 1996 national survey, the National Household Education Survey, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education (Nolin et al., 1997). The profile is restricted to children 3 to 8 years old who live with at least one biological, adoptive, step-, or foster parent. As in other chapters of this volume, children are classified as children of immigrants if they have at least one parent who was not born in the United States or in a territory of the United States. Children of immigrants who were foreign born are referred to as foreign-born or immigrant children. Children of immigrants who were born in the United States or one of its territories are referred to as native-born children of immigrants. Children of immigrants are expected to account for more than half the growth in the school-aged population between 1990 and 2010 (Passel and Fix, 1995). Despite their growing numbers, relatively little is known about their educational experiences (Portes 1    This paper is intended to promote the exchange of ideas among researchers and policy makers. The views expressed in it are part of ongoing research and analysis and do not necessarily reflect the position of the U.S. Department of Education.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance and MacLeod, 1996). Information about young children of immigrants is particularly scarce (Board on Children and Families, 1995). Yet the early childhood years are critical for children's cognitive and social development. It is during these years that children begin to develop and expand their ability to communicate effectively with others and begin to acquire reading and math skills that lay the foundation for their future school success and ultimately their success in the work force. The years before children enter formal schooling are especially important in preparing them for school, as is recognized in Goal One of the National Education Goals, which states that ''by the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn" (National Education Goals Panel, 1996). This goal reminds us that how children do in school is determined in part by things that have happened before they ever set foot in a classroom. Learning more about the family circumstances and educational experiences of children of immigrants during these important early years will enable educators and policy makers to develop better ways of serving these children and their families. Researchers have consistently found that certain family characteristics, such as family composition (e.g., number and type of parents, number of siblings), economic well-being, and parental education, exert a strong influence on children's school success (Zill, 1996; Portes and MacLeod, 1996; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994; Featherman and Hauser, 1978; Blau and Duncan, 1967). Family involvement in children's lives, both at home and at school, also is important for children's school success (Nord et al., forthcoming; U.S. Department of Education, 1994; Henderson and Berla, 1994). A useful way of thinking about these and other family influences on children's development is to think of them as resources that parents offer their children. These resources can be grouped into three distinct types of capital: human, financial, and social (Lee, 1993; Muller, 1993; Coleman, 1991; Becker, 1981). Human capital is usually measured as parental education, though it encompasses other skills and specialized knowledge that parents have acquired. Financial capital is measured by the income and economic security of a family, which influences the quality of the environment that children are raised in; the types of schools they attend; and the types of educational materials that parents can

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance purchase for them such as books, extracurricular classes, or computers. Social capital taps both the direct interactions between parents and children and the indirect influences on children of parents' relationships with others in the family, with the children's schools, and with other persons and institutions that influence children. Parental involvement at home and at school falls within this domain. Some family characteristics, such as family composition, span all three types of family resources. For example, the presence of two parents versus one influences family income as well as the number of adults present to interact with children. Moreover, many single-parent families are maintained by mothers with relatively low levels of education (Rawlings, 1994; Zill and Nord, 1994). The three types of family resources described above influence children from birth throughout their school careers. Young children not only learn from their parents and other family members at home but also benefit from exposure to early childhood programs prior to first grade (Boocock, 1995; Howes, 1988). Early childhood programs (e.g., Head Start) are especially beneficial for children from disadvantaged backgrounds (Boocock, 1995; Hofferth et al., 1994). Such programs help prepare children to be "ready to learn" when they enter formal schooling (Zill and Wolpow, 1991). Once children enter formal schooling, schools also exert a strong influence on children's cognitive and social development (Alexander and Entwisle, 1996; Coleman et al., 1982; Rutter et al., 1979). This chapter provides information on family resources that children of immigrants have that may influence their later school success. It also provides information on the extent to which they attend early childhood programs, characteristics of the schools they attend, and their experiences at school. Detailed tables on these topics are contained in the appendix. The tables provide information on whether the children were native or foreign born and on the children's races and ethnicities.2 Due to sample size 2    Throughout this chapter Hispanic children are designated as such and are not included in other racial or ethnic categories. Thus, white children are white non-Hispanic children, black children are black non-Hispanic children, and Asian children are Asian non-Hispanic children.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance constraints, not all categories of race and ethnicity could be used for both children of immigrants and children of native-born parents. Information is shown for Hispanic, Asian, and white children of immigrants.3 There were too few black children in immigrant families to show separately. Information is shown for white, black, and Hispanic children of native-born parents. There were too few children of native-born parents who were Asian to show separately. In the discussion below, selected information from the appendix tables is highlighted; refer to the tables for additional information. THE NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD EDUCATION SURVEY The data presented in this chapter were collected as part of the 1996 National Household Education Survey (NHES:96) sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (Collins et al., 1997). The NHES is a random digit dial telephone survey that uses computer-assisted telephone interviewing technology to collect data on high-priority topics that could not be addressed adequately through school-or institution-based surveys. NHES:96 was conducted from January to April 1996 and included interviews with parents of 20,792 children 3 years old through grade 12. This chapter focuses on the 7,717 children who were 3 to 8 years old and their parents. More details on NHES:96 are provided in Appendix 7A. According to data from NHES:96, there are nearly 23 million children ages 3 to 8 who live with at least one biological, adoptive, step-, or foster parent. Of these, over 3 million or 14 percent 3   It was not possible to determine the countries of origin of any of the children of immigrants in the survey. In 1996 immigrants from Mexico accounted for over a quarter of the foreign-born population in the United States (Hansen and Faber, 1997). Twelve percent of the foreign-born population in 1996 was from Central or South America. Approximately 25 percent of the foreign-born population was from Asia, which includes persons from the Philippines, China, India, Vietnam, Korea, and other Asian countries. Just over 10 percent of the foreign-born population was from one of the Caribbean islands, including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. Seventeen percent of the foreign-born population was from Europe. Some of the foreign-born population immigrated recently, while others have lived in the United States for many years.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance live with at least one parent who is not a native of the United States (see Table 7A-1). Most young children of immigrants are native born (2.8 million or 87 percent), although approximately 430,000 are foreign born. Immigrant children tend to be somewhat older than native-born children of immigrants. Only 21 percent of immigrant children are 3 or 4 years old compared to 38 percent of native-born children of immigrants and 33 percent of children of native-born parents. The majority of immigrants' children 3 to 8 years old are Hispanic (54 percent). Twenty-six percent are white, 9 percent are black, 7 percent are Asian,4 and 4 percent are some other race or ethnicity. In contrast, 72 percent of children of native-born parents are white, 17 percent are black, 8 percent are Hispanic, less than 1 percent are Asian, and 3 percent are some other race or ethnicity. Family Resources Children of immigrants and children of native-born parents often have very different family backgrounds. However, the differences are not always to the advantage of the children of native-born parents. Family Composition Number of Parents. Children who grow up with two biological parents fare better in a wide variety of domains, including school, 4   The Asian children of immigrants interviewed in the NHES may not be representative of all Asian children of immigrants. Bilingual interviewers were available for Spanish-speaking households but not for households that spoke other foreign languages. Thus, Asian households in which no adult spoke English would not have been interviewed. For this reason the Asian sample may be biased toward families that have at least one English speaker. Such families may tend to have higher incomes. As shown later, however, approximately one-third of Asian children of immigrants are in households with incomes below the poverty threshold. According to data from the Current Population Survey, in 1993 about 12 percent of Asian and Pacific Islander families had incomes below the poverty threshold (Bureau of the Census, 1994). Typically, families with children are more apt to be poor. Thus, the Asian sample in the NHES:96 does not appear to be unduly biased toward high-income families.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance compared to children who live apart from one or both of their parents (McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994; Rumbaut, this volume). In this respect, children of immigrants have an advantage over children of native-born parents because they are more likely to live with both their biological parents: 77 percent of children of immigrants live with both their biological parents compared to 63 percent of children of native-born parents. Among children of immigrants, whether the children were native or foreign born makes no difference in the likelihood that they live with both their biological parents. However, Asian and white children of immigrants are more likely than Hispanic children of immigrants to live with both their biological parents (88 percent each versus 72 percent). The proportion of Hispanic children of immigrants, however, who live with both their biological parents is virtually the same as that of white children of native-born parents (72 versus 73 percent), much higher than the 49 percent of Hispanic children of native-born parents who live with both biological parents. Presence of Siblings. Children from smaller families tend to go further and do better in school than children from larger families (Blake, 1989). Children of immigrants are somewhat less likely than children of native-born parents to have no siblings in their households and are more likely to have three or more siblings in their households. Hispanic children of immigrants are particularly likely to have three or more siblings. Twenty-six percent of Hispanic children of immigrants have three or more siblings. In contrast, 15 percent of Hispanic children of native-born parents, 11 percent of Asian, and 9 percent of white children of immigrants, and 13 and 17 percent, respectively, of white and black children of native-born parents have that many siblings. Human and Financial Capital Parental Education. The diversity of the immigrant population is reflected in the education levels of children's parents (see Figure 7-1). Children of immigrants are more likely than children of native-born parents to live in a household in which the most highly educated parent has less than a high school education (23 versus 7 percent). On the other hand, children of immigrants are as likely

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance FIGURE 7-1 Percentage of children ages 3 to 8 years by selected levels of parental education. NOTE: Hispanic children are designated as such and are not included in any other racial or ethnic categories. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1996 National Household Education Survey.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance as children of native-born parents to have a parent with graduate or professional school experience (14 and 12 percent, respectively). Hispanic children of immigrants are substantially more likely than other children of immigrants or children of native-born parents to live in households in which the most educated parent has less than a high school education. Thirty-six percent of Hispanic children of immigrants live in such households, compared to 17 percent of Hispanic children of native-born parents and 4 percent each of white children of native-born parents and Asian children of immigrants. Asian and white children of immigrants, on the other hand, are substantially more likely than Hispanic children of immigrants or children of native-born parents to live in households in which a parent has graduate or professional school experience. Twenty-eight percent of Asian and 27 percent of white children of immigrants live in such households compared to 15 percent of white children of native-born parents, 6 percent of Hispanic children of native-born parents, and 4 percent each of Hispanic children of immigrants and black children of native-born parents. Language Spoken at Home. Language acquisition is one of the most notable accomplishments of young children. How well they learn to speak English may affect how well they adapt to school. A study of eighth graders found that students who mostly or always spoke a language other than English at home scored lower on standardized math and reading tests than students who spoke English at home (Kao, this volume). Moreover, the students tended to feel more alienated from their peers and had a lower sense of self-esteem and locus of control than students who spoke English at home. Children learn to speak through listening to and interacting with their parents and others around them. Many young children of immigrants have parents who do not usually speak English at home (49 percent). Hispanic and Asian children are particularly likely to live with parents who do not usually speak English at home (71 and 68 percent, respectively), while only 12 percent of white children of immigrants have parents who usually speak some other language at home. In contrast, 99 percent of children of native-born parents have parents who usually speak English at home. However, 10 percent of Hispanic children

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance of native-born parents have parents who do not usually speak English at home. The differences between children of native-born parents and children of immigrants in the languages that they hear at home means that upon entering school children of immigrants may not know English as well as their peers do. Poverty Status. Poverty is associated with poor educational outcomes for children, including low achievement test scores, grade repetition, problem behaviors that result in suspension or expulsion, and dropping out of school (Zill et al., 1995b; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994). Although children of immigrants are more likely than children of native-born parents to live in poverty (36 versus 24 percent), the majority do not. There are differences in the likelihood of living in poverty by children's races and ethnicities. Fifty-three percent of Hispanic children of immigrants live in poverty compared to 32 percent of Asian and 11 percent of white children of immigrants. Hispanic children of immigrants are more likely to live in poverty than Hispanic children of native-born parents (53 versus 36 percent) and are as likely as black children of native-born parents to live in poverty (53 versus 52 percent). In contrast, only 15 percent of white children of native-born parents live in poverty. Social Capital In recognition of the importance of parents to young children's learning, one objective of Goal One of the National Education Goals states that parents should be their children's first teachers, devoting time each day to helping their preschool children learn (National Education Goals Panel, 1996; see Table 7A-2). Although this goal focuses on preschool children, parental involvement in children's education is known to be important for older children as well. This section examines the extent to which immigrant and native-born families are involved with their children's learning at home and at school.5 5   The information presented here is based on parent reports. It is possible that parents have a tendency to give the "socially desirable" response and thus overstate the extent to which they engage in different activities with their children or

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Parent Involvement at Home. Among the things that parents can do that help their children's later school success are teaching their young children letters and numbers; reading to them; working on projects with them; taking them to museums, zoos, and other educational outings; and sharing day-to-day activities with them (Bredekamp, 1987). The NHES:96 data show that most parents of young children are serving as their children's first teachers: 93 percent of children 3 years old through kindergarten have parents or other family members who taught them letters, words, or numbers in the past week. Children of immigrants and children of native-born parents are essentially the same in this regard.6 Ninety-four percent of native-born children have parents or other family members who taught them letters, words, or numbers in the past week, compared to 92 percent of children of immigrants. There are some differences when children of immigrants are examined by their races and ethnicities. Asian children of immigrants are more likely than Hispanic children of immigrants to have been taught letters, numbers, or words by family members in the past week. Ninety-seven percent of Asian children of immigrants not yet enrolled in grade 1 or higher were taught letters, words, or numbers by their parents or other family members in the previous week compared to 90 percent of Hispanic children of immigrants. Most young children ages 3 to 8, regardless of whether they are children of immigrants or native-born parents, were told a story in the past week by someone in their family. Seventy-six percent of children of immigrants and 77 percent of children of native-born parents had been told a story in the past week. Asian     are involved in their children's schools. However, even if there is a tendency for parents to be overly positive about their involvement in their children's lives, group differences probably reflect true differences because there is no a priori reason to believe that one group of parents is more likely than another to give the socially desirable response. 6    The NHES:96 did not ask what language the parents or other family members used when they taught their children words, letters, or numbers or what language they used when they told their children stories or read to them. Some immigrant family members may have been using their native tongues when teaching and reading to their children.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance and white children of immigrants are more likely than Hispanic children of immigrants to have been told a story in the previous week (83 and 84 percent, respectively, versus 71 percent). Among native-born children, 79 percent of Hispanic children, 78 percent of white children, and 73 percent of black children had been told a story by a family member in the past week. Most young children were also read to in the previous week: 89 percent of children of immigrants ages 3 through third grade were read to by someone in their family at least once in the past week, as were 93 percent of children of native-born parents. A much smaller, though not insubstantial, proportion were read to every day (see Figure 7-2). Children of immigrants were less likely than children of native-born parents to be read to every day (37 versus 45 percent). There are also differences by children's races and ethnicities. Asian and white children of immigrants FIGURE 7-2 Percentage of children, ages 3 to 8 years, who were read to every day in the past week by a family member. NOTE: Hispanic children are designated as such and are not included in any other racial or ethnic categories. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1996 National Household Education Survey.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance   Children of Immigrants Characteristic Foreign-Born Hispanic Asian White Total (thousands) 430 1,734 239 837 Attends an early childhood programa 27% 31% 35% 57% Attends government-sponsored early childhood programb e 76 e 19 Proportion of eligible children attending Head Starta,c 20 25 22 18 School Characteristicsd         Public school         Assigned 72 80 64 59 Chosen 17 15 16 13 Private school:         Religious affiliation 7 4 13 16 No religious affiliation 4 1 7 13 Size of school         < 300 students 14 16 42 31 300-599 43 47 34 47 600-999 20 20 16 17 > 1,000 23 17 8 5

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance   Children of Native-Born Characteristic Total White Black Hispanic Total (thousands) 19,746 14,166 3,326 1,652 Attends an early childhood programa 58% 58% 66% 47% Attends government-sponsored early childhood programb 32 23 58 46 Proportion of eligible children attending Head Starta,c 46 33 62 33 School Characteristicsd         Public school         Assigned 71 72 67 68 Chosen 17 14 25 22 Private school         Religious affiliation 10 11 6 10 No religious affiliation 3 3 3 < 1 Size of school         < 300 students 26 28 22 19 300-599 47 47 48 47 600-999 19 18 20 22 > 1,000 8 8 10 12 a Restricted to children not enrolled in kindergarten or higher grade. b Restricted to children enrolled in an early childhood program. c Estimate obtained by dividing the proportion of children enrolled in Head Start by the proportion of children whose household incomes were below the poverty threshold. d Restricted to children enrolled in kindergarten or higher grade. e Too few cases to reliably estimate. NOTE: Hispanic children are designated as such and are not included in any of the other racial or ethnic categories. The Total columns include children of other races and ethnicities not shown. Because of rounding, percentages may not sum to 100. SOURCE. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1996 National Household Education Survey.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Table 7A-4 Follows

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 7A-4 Percentage of Children by Their School Environments, Practices of Schools to Involve Their Parents, and by Immigrant Status and Child's Race and Ethnicity: Children Ages 3 to 8, 1996   Total: Children Ages 3-8 Children of Immigrants Characteristic Total Native-Born Total (thousands) 22,959 3,213 2,782 School Environmenta       Strongly agree that:       Teachers maintain discipline in classroom 52% 47% 48% Principal maintains discipline in school 51 48 50 Teachers and students respect each other 45 38 40 School Practices       Strongly agree that:       School welcomes family's involvement 63 53 55 School makes involvement easya 56 45 47 School is understanding of needs of families who don't speak Englisha,c (Yes) 95 95 94 How often school provides newsletters, memos, or notices to all parents       0 times 5 8 8 1-2 times 8 9 9 3 or more times 87 82 82 How well school has been doing at:       Letting parent know how child is doing in school/program       Very well 68 71 70 Could do better 23 21 21 Doesn't do well 9 8 9 Helping parent understand developmental stages of children       Very well 53 57 56 Could do better 30 28 29 Doesn't do 17 15 15 Letting parent know of volunteer opportunities at school       Very well 73 67 67 Could do better 19 23 23 Doesn't do 8 10 10

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance   Children of Immigrants Characteristic Foreign-Born Hispanic Asian White Total (thousands) 430 1,734 239 837 School Environmenta         Strong agree that:         Teachers maintain discipline in classroom 40% 36% 48% 62% Principal maintains discipline in school 42 39 57 64 Teachers and students respect each other 33 30 37 52 School Practices         Strong agree that:         School welcomes family's involvement 40 39 60 70 School makes involvement easya 38 38 40 58 School is understanding of needs of families who don't speak Englisha,b (Yes) 99 97 95 c How often school provides newsletters, memos, or notices to all parents         0 times 7 10 12 6 1-2 times 10 10 10 7 3 or more times 83 80 77 88 How well school has been doing at:         Letting parent know how child is doing in school/Program         Very well 76 73 61 68 Could do better 20 19 32 22 Doesn't do well 4 7 7 9 Helping parent understand development stages of children         Very well 64 64 53 49 Could do better 23 24 39 34 Doesn't do 13 12 8 17 Letting parent know of volunteer opportunities at school         Very well 72 64 60 74 Could do better 21 25 35 17 Doesn't do 7 11 5 9

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance   Total: Children Ages 3-8 Children of Immigrants Characteristic Total Native-Born Providing information about how to help child with homeworka       Very well 54% 65% 63% Could do better 29 25 26 Doesn't do 17 11 11 Providing information about why child is placed in particular groups or classesa       Very well 48 53 52 Could do better 24 21 21 Doesn't do 28 26 27   Children of Native-Born Characteristic Total White Black Hispanic Total (thousands) 19,746 14,166 3,326 1,652 School Environmenta         Strongly agree that:         Teachers maintain discipline in classroom 53% 55% 43% 49% Principal maintains discipline in school 51 54 44 45 Teachers and students respect each other 46 48 36 44 School Practices         Strongly agree that:         School welcomes family's involvement 65 67 56 58 School makes involvement easya 57 60 49 52

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance   Children of Immigrants Characteristic Foreign-Born Hispanic Asian White Providing information about how to help child with homeworka         Very well 73% 73% 58% 51% Could do better 19 21 29 28 Doesn't do 8 6 13 17 Providing information about why child is placed in particular groups or classesa         Very well 61 57 43 51 Could do better 17 18 38 23 Doesn't do 21 24 20 26   Children of Native-Born Characteristic Total White Black Hispanic School is understanding of needs of families who don't speak Englisha,b (Yes) c c c c How often school provides newsletters, memos, or notices to all parents         0 times 4% 4% 6% 7% 1-2 times 8 6 11 12 3 or more times 88 90 83 81 How well school has been doing at:         Letting parent know how child is doing in school/program         Very well 68 66 72 72 Could do better 23 24 21 20 Doesn't do well 9 9 7 8

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance   Children of Native-Born Characteristic Total White Black Hispanic Helping parent understand developmental stages of children         Very well 52% 50% 58% 52% Could do better 31 32 25 32 Doesn't do 17 18 17 16 Letting parent know of volunteer opportunities at school         Very well 74 75 72 74 Could do better 18 18 20 16 Doesn't do 8 8 9 10 Providing information about how to help child with homeworka         Very well 53 50 59 57 Could do better 30 33 22 24 Doesn't do 17 17 19 19 Providing information about why child is placed in particular groups or classesa         Very well 47 45 51 58 Could do better 25 27 19 20 Doesn't do 28 28 31 22 a Applies only to children in grade 1 and above. b Only asked if household respondent spoke a language other than English. c Too few cases to reliably estimate. NOTE: Hispanic children are designated as such and are not included in any of the other racial or ethnic categories. The Total columns include children of other races and ethnicities not shown. Because of rounding, percentages may not add to 100. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1996 National Household Education Survey.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance Table 7A-5 Follows

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance TABLE 7A-5 Percentage of Children with Selected Student Outcomes by Immigrant Status and Children's Race and Ethnicity: Children Ages 3 to 8, 1996   Total: Children Ages 3-8 Children of Immigrants Characteristic Total Native-Born Total (thousands) 22,959 3,213 2,782 Student Outcome       Child gets mostly A'sa 58% 54% 54% Child enjoys schoola 50 45 46 Child participates in extracurricular activitiesb 74 63 65 Child experienced problems at schoolb 29 25 26 Child ever repeated a gradeb 5 5 5   Children of Native-Born Characteristic Total White Black Hispanic Total (thousands) 19,746 14,166 3,326 1,652 Student Outcome         Child gets mostly A'sa 58% 43% 38% 40% Child enjoys schoola 51 52 47 48 Child participates in extracurricular activitiesb 76 79 71 57 Child experienced problems at schoolb 29 27 39 31 Child ever repeated a gradeb 5 4 6 7 NOTE: Hispanic children are designated as such and are not included in any of the other racial or ethnic categories. The Total columns include children of other races and ethnicities not shown. Because of rounding, percentages may not sum to 100. a Applies to children in grades 1 and above. b Applies to children in kindergarten and higher grades. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1996 National Household Education Survey.

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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance   Children of Immigrants Characteristic Foreign-Born Hispanic Asian White Total (thousands) 430 1,734 239 837 Student Outcome         Child gets mostly A'sa 53% 41% 63% 51% Child enjoys schoola 37 37 51 56 Child participates in extracurricular activitiesb 56 49 78 79 Child experienced problems at schoolb 24 30 17 22 Child ever repeated a gradeb 6 8 3 3