Table 8-1. Typical Expressions of Concern About an Innovation

Stage of Concern

Expression of Concern

6. Refocusing

I have some ideas about something that would work even better.

5. Collaboration

How can I relate what I am doing to what others are doing?

4. Consequence

How is my use affecting learners? How can I refine it to have more impact?

3. Management

I seem to be spending all my time getting materials ready.

2. Personal

How will using it affect me?

1. Informational

I would like to know more about it.

0. Awareness

I am not concerned about it.

Adapted from Hord et al., 1987. Taking Charge of Change. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

leaders can effectively select the types of support that will be the most useful to teachers as they experience this process. It is not a coincidence that this bears some resemblance to the inquiry process itself.


Changes implemented by individual teachers can succeed and endure only with simultaneous changes in the district, school, or department in which the teacher is working. Research has demonstrated that the ability of individuals in a system to change their teaching behavior is dictated to a large degree by the underlying structures in the organization such as rewards, policies, and the overall culture of the organization (O’Day and Smith, 1993). Effective change thus requires that a school adopt new approaches to support individual teachers. The remainder of this chapter discusses a number of these strategies.

Professional development. As described in Chapter 5, professional development comes in many forms (Loucks-Horsley et al., 1998). If teachers do not have access to such opportunities, administrators can help teachers find them or can create them in the school or in cooperation with other schools. Many of the rich variety of potential learning experiences for teachers will not occur in an organized, formal class.

Every school has a measure of expertise and experience that can be tapped. Even if formal arrangements for assistance include outside help, administrators or teacher leaders can facilitate internal support mechanisms such as the study groups described in

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