Index

A

Administrators, xviii, 143, 144, 145-146, 147-149, 150, 152

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14, 79

Assessment of learning, 75-85

assessment of students, general, 22, 122, 150

assessors of students, 22, 96-97, 105

environments centered on, 122

formative, 76, 79, 80, 85

instructional materials assessment, outcomes, 176, 177, 178

knowledge, 77-78

non-English/second-language English students, 83-84, 150

portfolios, 82, 84

promoting inquiry, 150

purposes of, 76

questions used in, 76, 79, 81, 82;

see also Tests and testing

self-assessment by students, 48, 59, 80-81, 119

summative, 76-77, 83, 85

teacher education on, 96-97

of teachers, 22, 105, 144, 151-152

teaching standards, 22

understanding, 77-78

vignettes, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83

see also Outcomes of learning;

Research, educational

Attitudes and beliefs, 144, 145-146

instructional materials assessment, 177

research on, 117-118, 121, 139, 140

scientific, general, 14

students, xii, 34, 95, 117-118

teachers, xii, 23, 88-90, 94, 95-98, 139, 140, 148, 151

see also Motivation

B

Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 17, 124

C

Case studies

teacher professional development, use in, 104-105

see also Vignettes

Cognitive abilities, 18, 66, 72, 144, 164

research on, 116, 121-122

see also Logical thinking;

Problem-solving;

Skepticism;

Transfer of learning

Communication skills, xii, 8, 14, 43, 161, 165, 167, 171

community-centered environments, 122-123

content standards, 19, 20

K-4, 45-46, 103, 104, 161

non-English/second-language English students, 121-122, 125, 126, 133-134

assessment of, 83-84, 150

parents, 144

promoting inquiry, 144, 145

self-assessment and, 80, 81



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Index students, xii, 34, 95, 117-118 A teachers, xii, 23, 88-90, 94, 95-98, 139, 140, 148, 151 Administrators, xviii, 143, 144, 145-146, 147- see also Motivation 149, 150, 152 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14, 79 B Assessment of learning, 75-85 assessment of students, general, 22, 122, 150 Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs assessors of students, 22, 96-97, 105 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 17, environments centered on, 122 124 formative, 76, 79, 80, 85 instructional materials assessment, outcomes, 176, 177, 178 C knowledge, 77-78 non-English/second-language English Case studies students, 83-84, 150 teacher professional development, use in, portfolios, 82, 84 104-105 promoting inquiry, 150 see also Vignettes purposes of, 76 Cognitive abilities, 18, 66, 72, 144, 164 questions used in, 76, 79, 81, 82; see also research on, 116, 121-122 Tests and testing see also Logical thinking; Problem- self-assessment by students, 48, 59, 80- solving; Skepticism; Transfer of 81, 119 learning summative, 76-77, 83, 85 Communication skills, xii, 8, 14, 43, 161, 165, teacher education on, 96-97 167, 171 of teachers, 22, 105, 144, 151-152 community-centered environments, 122- teaching standards, 22 123 understanding, 77-78 content standards, 19, 20 vignettes, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, K-4, 45-46, 103, 104, 161 79, 83 non-English/second-language English see also Outcomes of learning; Research, students, 121-122, 125, 126, 133-134 educational assessment of, 83-84, 150 Attitudes and beliefs, 144, 145-146 parents, 144 instructional materials assessment, 177 promoting inquiry, 144, 145 research on, 117-118, 121, 139, 140 self-assessment and, 80, 81 scientific, general, 14 193 INDEX

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teacher professional development, 103, E 104, 150 teaching standards, 25, 27, 29, 30 Earth and space science standard (Grades 5- vignettes, 45-46, 59, 66, 69, 71-72, 103 8), 48, 58 vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133- Educational research, see Research, 134, 138 educational Computer-aided education, 164 Elementary education, see Kindergarten to see also Internet Grade 4 Constructed-response items, 82 Elementary Science Study, 17 Content and content standards, 14, 18-21 English as a second language/non-English equipment and supplies, 19, 20 speakers, 121-122, 125, 126, 133-134 grades 5 to 8, 19, 20, 48 assessment of, 83-84, 150 grades 9 to 12, 19, 20 Equipment and supplies, 43, 49-50, 162 instructional materials assessment, 176- content standards, 19, 20 177 instructional materials assessment, 179 investigations, 19, 20 teacher professional development, 90 K-4, 19, 20, 41 teaching standards, 22, 26 logical thinking, 19, 20 see also Instructional materials; mathematics, 19, 20 Technology, use of myths about inquiry-based learning, 36- Ethnic factors, see Minority cultures 37 Evaluation, see Assessment of students; pedagogical, 102-104 Research, educational skepticism, 20 Evidence-based explanations, 4, 8, 161, 164, student-generated models, 19, 20 167, 168, 169, 171 teacher professional development, 88 assessment of, 79 teaching standards, 22 content standards, 19, 20, 21 technology, use of, 19, 20 historical perspectives, 16 vignettes, 41, 59, 60, 70 teaching standards, 25-27, 29, 33 Council of Chief State School Officers, 83-84 vignettes, 44, 47, 48, 49, 53-57, 58-59, 63, Critical thinking, see Skepticism 64, 65, 66, 71, 72 Curriculum, 6, 35, 135-136 see also Experimentation; Investigations; administrators’ role, 147 Models, student-generated; assessment, 76 Observation skills historical perspectives, 16-18, 33-34, 124- Experimentation, 14, 164 125 historical perspectives, 16-17, 18 research on, 124-125, 127 teacher professional development, 90, 112 student-initiated investigations, 132 teachers’ role, 16-17, 33 teacher education, 93, 105-109, 113, 151- Explanations, 7, 14, 35, 89, 164, 165, 167 152 alternative, 14, 16, 19, 21, 25, 27, 55, 56- see also Models, instructional; Outcomes 57, 66, 71, 118, 127, 165, 167, 171, of learning 176 assessment of, 78-79 content standards, 19, 20, 21 D instructional materials assessment, 176 teaching standards, 25, 27, 29 Dewey, John, 14, 16, 34 testing, 10 Diagrams and drawings, 81 vignettes, 45-46, 48, 55-57, 58, 65, 66, 71 instructional materials assessment, 176 see also Evidence-based explanations; vignettes, 53, 54, 56, 57, 61-63, 72, 74 Models, student-generated; Discipline, 136 Transfer of learning teaching standards, 22 194 INDEX

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How People Learn, 116, 121 F Hypotheses, see Explanations Fact-based learning/memorization, xii, 14, 80, 116, 118, 127, 150 I vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133- 134, 138 Feedback and revision Inference, see Logical thinking student, 82, 84 Instructional materials, 15-16, 28, 138-139, teacher professional development, 89 144, 148-149, 191 Field experiences, 66-73, 150 kit-based instruction, 36, 148-149 museums, 92, 99-101, 102, 121, 149 myths about, 36 teacher professional development, 92, 99- safety concerns, 179 101, 102, 111-112 selection, 137, 173-179 Formative assessments, 76, 79, 80, 85 teachers’ guides, 175, 177, 178-179, 190 see also Questions technology, use of, 179 Funding textbooks, 15, 16, 96, 140, 148 National Science Foundation, 124, 138- video tapes, 90, 105, 106-107, 191 139 vignettes, 39, 40, 44-45 study at hand, xix see also Equipment and supplies Instruments, see Equipment and supplies Intermediate Science Curriculum Study, 17 Internet, 138, 176, 189-191 G Investigations, 10, 13, 14, 161, 163, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171 Grades 5 to 8 content standards, 19, 20 content standards, 19, 20, 48 frequently asked questions about inquiry, fundamental abilities, 163-165 131-132 fundamental understandings, 169-170 instructional materials assessment, 176 vignettes, 92, 99-101, 102, 111-112 student-initiated, 6-10, 131-132, 173, 176 Grades 9 to 12 teacher professional development, 89, 99- community-centered environments, 123 100 content standards, 19, 20 teaching standards, 22, 23 fundamental abilities, 165-167 vignettes, 7, 40, 44, 47, 51-54, 66, 69 fundamental understandings, 170-171 see also Evidence-based explanations; vignettes, 60-73 Experimentation; Vignettes H J Hands-on instruction, general, 138 Journals, student, 82 myths about, 36 vignettes, 67, 81 teacher education, 93, 106-109 see also Experimentation; Investigations Hebart, J., 33-34 K High school, see Grades 9 to 12 Historical perspectives, 14-18, 144 content standards, 20 Kindergarten to Grade 4, 43, 190 curricula, 16-18, 33-34, 124-125 assessment of, 81 instructional models, 16-17, 33-34, 124- content standards, 19, 20, 41 125, 126 fundamental abilities, 161-162 myths about inquiry-based learning, 36- fundamental understandings, 168 37 instructional models, 34 research on inquiry, 17, 34, 124-125 teacher professional development, 95-105 as teaching tool, 56-57, 58, 59, 170 vignettes, 40-48, 95-105 195 INDEX

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Kit-based instruction, 148-149 Motivation, xii, xiii myths about, 36 student-initiated investigations, 6-10, 131- 132, 173, 176 vignettes, 65 see also Attitudes and beliefs L Multiple-choice items, 82, 83 Museums, 92, 99-101, 102, 121, 149 Laboratory experiments, see Experimentation Language skills, see Communication skills N Learning outcomes, see Outcomes of learning Life-long learning, 87, 109-112 National Aeronautics and Space Logical thinking, 14, 164, 165, 171 Administration, xix content standards, 19, 20 National Science Education Standards, xii- research on, 117, 125 xviii, 8, 10 teaching standards, 26, 29 classroom assessment, 75-85 (passim) concepts vs principles, 132 content standards, 14, 18-21, 36-37, 48, 58, 60, 70 M fundamental abilities of inquiry, 161-167 Mathematics, 139-140, 164, 165, 166, 169, fundamental understandings of inquiry, 171 168-171, 177-178 content standards, 19, 20 instructional material selection, 173-187 national standards research, 127 laboratory experiments, 18 teacher education, 94, 107 myths about, 35-37 vignettes, 46, 66 nature of inquiry, 13-14 Memory and memorization, 14, 80, 116, 118, process skills, 134 127, 150 promoting inquiry, 115, 144 vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133- research related to, 117, 120, 126, 127 134, 138 teacher professional development, 87, 91, Middle School, see Grades 5 to 8 109, 113 Minority cultures, 121-122, 123, 126, 133-134 teaching standards, outlined and see also English as a second language/ explicated, 21-33, 134-135 non-English speakers traditional instructional materials, 138 Models, instructional, 6, 10, 13, 14, 21, 33-35 vignettes connected to, 48, 58, 64-65, 66, community-centered environments, 122- 70, 72 123 National Science Foundation, xix, 16, 95, 124, historical perspectives, 16-17, 33-34, 124- 138-139 125, 126 National Teachers Association, xvii teacher education, 93-94 New Standards Project, 79, 84 teaching standards, 20, 21, 22 Novel situations, see Transfer of learning traditional, 88, 91, 92, 109, 115, 135-136, 138, 143; see also Memory and memorization O transfer of learning, 35 vignettes, 39, 40, 47-48, 59, 65 Models, student-generated, 119, 164, 167 Observation skills, 7, 18, 25 content standards, 19, 20 journals, student, 67 diagrams and drawings, 53, 54, 56, 57, 61- vignettes, 47-48, 52, 59, 63, 49, 67 63, 72, 74, 81, 176 see also Evidence-based explanations teacher education, 94-95, 100 Organizational factors, 144-146 vignettes, 53-57, 58-59, 61-62, 71 administrators, xviii, 143, 144, 145-146, see also Hypotheses 147-149, 150, 152 196 INDEX

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Parent-Teacher Associations, 8 communication skills, 103, 104, 150 policy-makers, 115, 127-128, 139-140 content and content standards, 88 Outcomes of learning on curriculum, 93, 105-109, 113, 151-152 instructional materials assessment, 176, 177 experimentation laboratory, 90, 112 K-4, 40, 41-42, 46 field experiences, 92, 99-101, 102, 111-112 promoting inquiry, 150 hands-on instruction, general, 93, 106-109 student-initiated investigations, 132 investigations, 89, 99-100 teacher education, 112 mathematics, use of, 94, 107 vignettes, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, problem-solving, 106-108 79, 83 skills, development of in students, 89, 90 see also Assessment of learning; Content student-generated models, 94-95, 100 and content standards teachers’ guides, 175, 177, 178-179, 190 video tapes, 90, 105, 106-107, 191 vignettes, 88-113 (passim) Public-at-large, education of P assessment, role in, 82 promoting inquiry among, 149-150 Parents, xviii teaching standards, 22 promoting inquiry among, 115, 143, 144, 147, 149-150 teaching standards, 22 Q Parent-Teacher Associations, 8 Pedagogy, 17, 21-33, 103 instructional materials assessment, 177-178 Questions, 127, 161, 163, 165, 168, 169, 170 research and, 127 in classroom assessment, 76, 79, 81, 82 see also Models, instructional; Teachers frequently asked questions about inquiry, Physical Sciences Study Committee, 17, 124 131-141 Physics by Inquiry, 93, 190 on questions per se, 131, 136 Piaget, Jean, 34 instructional materials assessment, 176 Policy-makers instructional models, 35 barriers raised by, 139-140 myths about inquiry-based learning, 36 promoting inquiry, 115 nature of inquiry, 13-14 research and, 127-128 teacher professional development, 89 Portfolios, 82, 84 teaching standards, 24-25, 26-27, 28, 29 Predictions, 14, 164, 165 vignettes, 6, 42-44, 47, 50-51, 54, 55-56, 58, content standards, 19 60, 61, 63-64, 65, 66, 67, 71 Principles, see Administrators Problem-solving, xii, 43, 120 community-centered, 123 R motivation and, xiv promotion of, 151 Race/ethnicity, see Minority cultures research on, 116, 117 Research, educational, 115-118 teacher education on, 106-108 administrators, 143 see also Explanations; Transfer of attitudes and beliefs, 117-118, 121, 139, learning 140 Process skills, 125-126, 134 barriers to inquiry-oriented approach, cognitive abilities vs, 18 139-140 see also Experimentation; Observation cognitive abilities, 116, 121-122 skills curriculum, 124-125, 127 Professional development, teachers, xviii, historical perspectives, 17, 34, 124-125 23, 88-113, 137, 139, 140, 140-141, learning environments, 121-124 143, 146-148, 179 logical thinking, 117, 125 on assessment of students, 96-97 organizational factors, 143, 144-146 case studies used in, 104-105 policy and, 127-128 197 INDEX

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problem-solving, 116, 117 T social factors, 118-123 (passim), 144-145 transfer of learning, 116-117, 119-120, 122 Teachers, xviii, 21-33 Revision, see Feedback and revision assessment of, 22, 105, 144, 151-152 Rote learning, see Memory and assessment of students by, 22, 96-97, 105, memorization 122, 150 education on, 96-97 attitudes and beliefs, xii, 23, 88-90, 94, 95- S 98, 139, 140, 148, 151 essential features of classroom inquiry, Safety 24-28, 40, 46-47, 58-59 instructional materials assessment, 179 experimentation, role in, 16-17, 33, 90, student-initiated investigations, 132 112 teaching standards, 22 evaluation of Schwab, Joseph, 15 guides, 175, 177, 178-179, 190 Science Curriculum Improvement Study, 17, historical perspectives used by, 56-57, 58, 34, 124 59, 170 Self-assessment, 48, 59, 80-81, 119 instructional models, 35 Skepticism, 14, 164, 169 laboratory experiments, 15-16 alternative explanations, 14, 16, 19, 21, 25, life-long learning, 87, 109-112 27, 55, 56-57, 66, 71, 118, 127, 165, promoting inquiry among, 115, 143, 144, 167, 171, 176 145-146 content standards, 20 structure and guidance, extent provided teaching standards, 22 by, 28-33, 40, 136-137 Skills, general, xii-xiii, 13, 39 discipline, 22, 136 assessment of, 78 safety, 22, 132, 179 historical perspectives, 17 student-initiated investigations, 6-10, instructional materials assessment, 177 131-132, 173, 176 teacher professional development, 89, 90 see also Questions see also Cognitive abilities; standards, outlined, 22-23 Communication skills; Logical technology, role in use of, 16, 41-43, 105 thinking; Problem-solving; Process see also Assessment of learning; Models, skills instructional; Pedagogy; Social factors Professional development, barriers to inquiry-oriented approach, teachers; Vignettes; “vignettes” 139-140 subheads under other mainheads community-centered environments, 122- Technology, use of, 164, 166, 168, 169, 170 123 content standards, 19, 20 instructional materials assessment, 177 instructional materials assessment, 179 minority cultures, 121-122, 123, 126, 133- teachers’ role, 16, 41-43, 105 134 vignettes, 41-42, 43, 46, 48-50, 66, 102-103, research on, 118-123 (passim), 144-145 105 see also Communication skills; see also Equipment and supplies Organizational factors; Parents Tests and testing, 76, 77, 150 State Collaborative on Assessment and constructed-response items, 82 Student Standards, 83-84 multiple-choice items, 82, 83 Summative assessments, 76-77, 83, 85 teaching for understanding, 124 portfolios, 82, 84 see also Summative assessments see also Tests and testing Textbooks, 15, 16, 96, 140, 148 Summer Institute for Inservice Teachers, 95 Third International Mathematics Science Study (TIMSS), 135, 151 198 INDEX

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Transfer of learning, 132-133, 170 instructional materials, 39, 40, 44-45 instructional models, 35 instructional models, 39, 40, 47-48, 59, 65 research on, 116-117, 119-120, 122 investigations, 7, 40, 44, 47, 51-54, 66, 69 vignette, 60-61, 64-65 journals, student, 67, 81 K-4, 40-48, 95-105 mathematics, 46, 66 museums, 92, 99-101, 102 V observational skills, 47-48, 52, 59, 63, 49, 67; see also “explanations, evidence- Video tapes, teacher education, 90, 105, 106- based” supra 107, 191 outcomes of learning, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, Vignettes, xix 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83; see also assessment of learning, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, “assessment of learning” supra 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83 questions, use of, 6, 42-44, 47, 50-51, 54, classroom assessment, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 55-56, 58, 60, 61, 63-64, 65, 66, 67, 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83 71 communication skills, 45-46, 59, 66, 69, scientists, approach of, 1-5, 13, 15 71-72, 103 student-generated models, 53-57, 58-59, content and content standards, 41, 59, 60, 61-62, 71 70 teacher professional development, 88-113 diagrams and drawings, use of, 53, 54, 56, (passim) 57, 61-63, 72, 74 technology, use of, 41-42, 43, 46, 48-50, explanations, evidence-based, 44, 47, 48, 66, 102-103, 105 49, 53-57, 58-59, 63, 64, 65, 66, 71, transfer of learning, 60-61, 64-65 72 Vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133- explanations, general, 45-46, 48, 55-57, 58, 134, 138 65, 66, 71 field experiences, 66-73; see also “museums” infra W formative assessment, 76 Grades 5 to 8, 6-10, 13, 48-59 Grades 9 to 12, 60-73 World Wide Web, see Internet 199 INDEX