ing, the factors that are influencing the changes, and the characteristics of an occupational analysis system that provides human resources personnel with the opportunity to make effective decisions in the face of change.

The impetus for the work of the committee was the recognition by the Army that advances in approaches to occupational analysis and classification might assist personnel managers in the Army to be more responsive to changes in the military work environment and thus more effective in the selection, training, and deployment of enlisted personnel and officers. Since many of the forces influencing work in the civilian sector are also influencing work in the military—such as advances in technology, the introduction of a more diverse workforce, and the extension of missions into new areas—it seemed useful to examine trends and developments in the civilian sector as a source of guidance. A key concern was to assess the applicability of the latest developments in occupational analysis and classification technology to building an effective, flexible, forward-looking system for the Army, one that could be used to monitor changes in the nature of work and assist in the design of new jobs.

This volume presents a framework that integrates sources of occupational change with a generally accepted conceptualization of how occupational analysis reflects and affects the nature of work. It suggests that changes in the content and structure of work are shaped by environmental trends that include changes in markets, technologies, and workforce demographics. Although these forces sometimes affect the content and structure of work directly, they also have indirect effects insofar as they create pressures for organizational restructuring and change in employment relationships. The content and structure of work, in turn, both dictate the kinds of knowledge, skills, and abilities that employees are likely to require and also affect important outcomes, such as the quantity, quality, and efficiency of work; the performance of organizations; and the psychological, social, and economic rewards people achieve through work.

Work structures and occupations are also shaped by the tools and systems of occupational analysis that are used to describe and measure the structure and content of work and to design jobs. To be useful, these systems must be updated frequently enough



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