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are concerned about complying with IP laws in a simple way that can be readily documented (e.g., the purchase and use of site licenses for digital IP).

Journalists

The press has a special role in our society implied by the First Amendment to the Constitution. Journalists have some specific concerns with intellectual property and suffer intensely from the "multiple roles" problem described above. As authors, they are very concerned about control over their work; in particular, the efforts of newspapers and magazines to exercise broad, long-term control over that work—as a condition of publication—and with the incorporation of their own writings into the cultural record. As researchers, they share with educators, libraries, and the research community concerns about the availability of the public record, government information, and factual information; accountability as it is operationalized by the archiving of the cultural record; freedom of speech (including the ability to use copyrighted materials freely for criticism and for news reporting); and fair use.

Standards Organizations

Standards organizations play an important role in the continuing evolution and health of the information infrastructure. They make extensive use of copyright to ensure control over their works, the integrity of these works, and the continuity of access to these works. In this regard, they are much like other producers and distributors of intellectual property. Standards organizations also have some specific concerns related to patents and their interaction with the standards development process; the incorporation of a patented technology into a standard may give an unfair advantage to the patent holder or raise the difficult issue of licensing terms. Standards organizations must also operate under certain expectations of openness of participation and information flow associated with antitrust law.



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