Index

A

Abbott v. Burke, 73, 110-111

Academic performance, 2, 16, 17, 19, 20

adequacy of education, 110, 115-116, 118-119, 122

disadvantaged students, 10, 211

education production, 136-137, 142, 152-153

incentives and, general, 3, 8, 9, 62

school-level factors, 6, 7, 10, 12, 24, 136-137, 145, 317-318

see also Educational achievement; Educational attainment; Performance standards; Test results

Accountability, 267, 272-273, 274-275

bureaucratization, 159-160

charter schools, 187

high-stakes testing, 180-181, 183

school-based, 9, 180-181, 182, 190, 320-321

special education, 224, 225, 226

state legislation, 110, 111

teachers/staff, 165, 224, 272-273

tests, use of, 180-182, 183

Adequacy, educational, 2, 7, 10, 16, 61, 101-133, 197-198, 264-265 , 266-267

academic performance and, 110, 115-116, 118-119, 122

class size, 106, 108, 118, 121

concept, general, 2, 6, 101-106, 112-114, 132, 133, 166, 264

cost-efficiency, 107-108, 116, 165

costs, 107-108, 109, 112, 114-131, 165, 265

costs, statistical analyses, 114, 115-118

court decisions, 6, 80, 101-102, 103, 106, 107-112, 122, 132-133, 166, 167

democratic threshold principle (Gutmann), 104, 105

distributive justice (Rawls), 103-104

district-level factors, 116-117, 118-120, 124, 128-131

educational achievement, 104, 105-106, 107-108, 114, 124, 131-132, 166, 265

education reform and, 135, 136, 140-147, 161

education standards, 2, 6, 101-103 (passim), 107-108, 112-113

performance standards, 110, 113, 115, 118-120, 122, 132, 166

equal opportunity, 104, 105-106, 110-111

equity vs, 101, 102, 103, 112, 131, 132-133, 264



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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools Index A Abbott v. Burke, 73, 110-111 Academic performance, 2, 16, 17, 19, 20 adequacy of education, 110, 115-116, 118-119, 122 disadvantaged students, 10, 211 education production, 136-137, 142, 152-153 incentives and, general, 3, 8, 9, 62 school-level factors, 6, 7, 10, 12, 24, 136-137, 145, 317-318 see also Educational achievement; Educational attainment; Performance standards; Test results Accountability, 267, 272-273, 274-275 bureaucratization, 159-160 charter schools, 187 high-stakes testing, 180-181, 183 school-based, 9, 180-181, 182, 190, 320-321 special education, 224, 225, 226 state legislation, 110, 111 teachers/staff, 165, 224, 272-273 tests, use of, 180-182, 183 Adequacy, educational, 2, 7, 10, 16, 61, 101-133, 197-198, 264-265 , 266-267 academic performance and, 110, 115-116, 118-119, 122 class size, 106, 108, 118, 121 concept, general, 2, 6, 101-106, 112-114, 132, 133, 166, 264 cost-efficiency, 107-108, 116, 165 costs, 107-108, 109, 112, 114-131, 165, 265 costs, statistical analyses, 114, 115-118 court decisions, 6, 80, 101-102, 103, 106, 107-112, 122, 132-133, 166, 167 democratic threshold principle (Gutmann), 104, 105 distributive justice (Rawls), 103-104 district-level factors, 116-117, 118-120, 124, 128-131 educational achievement, 104, 105-106, 107-108, 114, 124, 131-132, 166, 265 education reform and, 135, 136, 140-147, 161 education standards, 2, 6, 101-103 (passim), 107-108, 112-113 performance standards, 110, 113, 115, 118-120, 122, 132, 166 equal opportunity, 104, 105-106, 110-111 equity vs, 101, 102, 103, 112, 131, 132-133, 264

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools formulas for distributing funds, 103, 104, 124-133 (passim) foundation aid, 12, 59, 88, 106, 119-120, 131, 257, 261 inputs into education, general, 102-103, 104, 119, 121, 124-125, 126, 128, 166, 264 outcomes of education, 2, 102, 117-120, 122, 166, 264 political factors, 2, 103, 105, 110, 111, 112-113, 132, 133, 166 poverty, 103, 119-120, 125, 127, 128, 133, 198, 265 professional judgment model, 114, 120-123 quantitative vs qualitative, 103-104, 112 research on, 102, 114-130 school-based factors, individual schools, 102, 113, 118, 120(n.9), 130-131, 133 socioeconomic factors, general, 102, 103, 107, 109, 112, 115, 118, 120, 125 special-needs students, 110-111, 127, 265 state-level issues, 6, 80, 101-102, 103, 105, 107-111, 112, 114-131 (passim), 133, 166 court decisions, 6, 80, 101-102, 103, 106, 107-112, 122, 132-133, 166, 167 legislation, 110-111, 112, 122, 130-131, 133, 166 test results, 113-117 (passim), 120 urban areas, 103, 111, 128 whole-school designs, 114-115, 122, 123-124, 151, 153, 196, 213, 225 Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 58, 235 African Americans, see Black persons Alabama, 54, 97, 103, 107, 108, 111, 210-211 Alaska, 85, 121, 169 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 157 American Community Survey, 198, 323-324 Arizona, 85, 107, 111, 230, 245 Arkansas, 85, 90, 251 Attitudes, see Public opinion B Bagley v. Raymond School Department, 230 Bilingual education, 82, 86-87 Black persons, 43, 145 educational attainment, 45 poor, 21, 51 rural areas, 68 spending reforms, 91 test scores, 45-46 urban areas, 18, 47-51, 70 Brown v. Board of Education, 6, 18, 68, 70, 82, 99, 100 Bureaucracy, 18, 155, 156, 158-160, 174, 208 Burrus v. Wilkerson, 74 C California, 129 class size, 212 equity, 87 revenue raising, 58, 71, 72-74, 76, 235, 236, 245, 249-253, 254, 255-256, 258, 262 special education, 224 spending, 31, 87, 90, 98, 224, 249-253, 258 Serrano v. Priest, 71, 72-74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 87, 96, 250-253, 256 , 258, 318 teachers, 169 Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New York, 108 Campbell v. State, 109 Categorical programs, 6, 10-11, 60, 73, 81-82, 214, 259-260 gifted and talented programs, 82, 214 incentives, 10-11, 60

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools special education, 41-43, 82, 126-127, 196, 217-227 state, 6, 10-11, 81-82 see also Title I programs Chapter 1 programs, see Title I programs Charter schools, 8, 9, 29, 133, 185, 186-188, 189, 190, 191-192, 229, 231 Chittenden Town School District v. Vermont Department of Education , 230 Church schools, see Religious schools Cities, see Urban areas City of Pawtucket v. Sundlun, 110 Claremont v. Governor of New Hampshire, 109 Class size, 10, 167, 196, 197, 205, 254, 267, 273 adequacy of education, 106, 108, 118, 121 education production, 138, 141, 143-146 (passim), 160, 161 poverty, 210, 211-212 research on, 210-211, 212-213, 273 Coalition for Adequacy v. Chiles, 109-110 Coleman Report, see Equality of Educational Opportunity Committee for Educational Rights v. Edgar, 109 Compensatory education, 11-12, 27, 29, 46, 82, 83, 87, 202-206 see also Title I programs Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program, 150, 213, 216 Connecticut, 88, 90, 175, 251 Constitution of the U.S., see U.S. Constitution Contract schools, 9, 124, 153, 188-189, 267 Cost indices, 40-41, 93-94, 126, 128-129, 198 consumer price index, 40, 41, 126 urban areas, 52, 94 Cost of education, 93, 94 adequacy concept, 107-108, 109, 112, 114-131, 165, 197-199, 265 statistical analyses, 114, 115-118 adjustments for changes in, 40-41, 112, 126, 131 charter schools, 188 class size reductions, 212 cost-efficiency, 4, 8-9, 17, 22-23, 33, 34, 38, 40, 87, 136, 163, 168-176, 188, 247, 254-255 adequacy concept, 107-108, 116, 165 data needs, 198 early childhood education, 203 econometric studies, 127-128 empirical models, 114, 118-120 facilities, schools, 199-200 inflation, 40, 41, 93, 94, 112, 131 need-based adjustments, 197-199 poverty areas, 2, 198-199, 205, 259 professional judgment models, 114, 120-124 socioeconomic factors, general, 115, 118, 120 special education, 41-42, 217, 219, 222, 227 statistical models, adequacy concept, 115-118 teachers, 168-176 technology, educational, 201 urban areas, 52, 198, 199-200 whole-school designs, 114-115, 122, 123-124, 213 Court cases, 6, 31-32, 70-81, 90-91, 94, 95-103, 106-111, 257 Abbott v. Burke, 73, 110-111 Bagley v. Raymond School Department, 230 Brown v. Board of Education, 6, 19, 68, 70, 82, 99, 100 Burrus v. Wilkerson, 74 Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New York, 108 Campbell v. State, 109 Chittenden Town School District v. Vermont Department of Education , 230 City of Pawtucket v. Sundlun, 110

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools Claremont v. Governor of New Hampshire, 109 Coalition for Adequacy v. Chiles, 109-110 Committee for Educational Rights v. Edgar, 109 Danson v. Casey, 79 DeRolph v. Ohio, 108-109 East Jackson Public Schools v. State, 88 Edgewood v. Kirby, 80, 101, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112 Harper v. Hunt, 103 Jackson v. Benson, 229 Lau v. Nichols, 86-87 Leandro v. State of North Carolina, 109 McInnis v. Shapiro, 74 Milliken v. Bradley, 82-83, 88 Olsen v. State, 79 Pauley v. Kelly, 77, 78 Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Pennsylvania, 86 Robinson v. Cahill, 73, 77 Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District, 31, 82 Roosevelt Elementary School District v. Bishop, 108 Rose v. Council for Better Education, 81, 107 San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 72 Seattle v. State of Washington, 77, 78 Serrano v. Priest, 71, 72-74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 87, 96, 250-253, 256 , 258, 318 Simmons-Harris v. Goff, 229 Tennessee Small School Systems v. McWherter, 108 Thompson v Engelking, 78-79 Washakie v. Herschler, 109 Curriculum issues, 9, 15, 113, 123-124, 153, 155, 158, 177, 183, 188, 255 special education, 223, 224, 225, 226 D Damson v. Casey, 79 Data needs, 198, 315-325 Decentralization, 5, 8, 20, 32-33, 157-160, 271, 320 bureaucracy, 18, 155, 156, 158-160, 174, 208 charter schools, 8, 9, 29, 133, 185, 186-188, 189, 190, 191-192, 229, 231 contract schools, 9, 124, 153, 188-189, 267 parental school spending decisions, 9, 11, 29, 62, 105, 164, 165, 183-184, 190-195 school or site-based management (SBM), 9, 151-152, 157, 178, 185-186 vouchers, 9, 10, 11, 133, 192, 194, 229-231, 269, 273-274 see also School-based factors, individual schools Delaware, 59 Demographic factors, 18-19, 39 see also Minority groups; Poverty; Race, spending on education by; Socioeconomic factors; Urban areas DeRolph v. Ohio, 108-109 Desegregation, see Racial discrimination/segregation Disabled students, see Students with disabilities Disadvantaged students, see Poverty; Special-needs students District-level factors, 3, 11, 22-23, 27, 28-32, 62 adequacy of education, 116-117, 118-120, 124, 128-131 charter schools, 186-187, 229 concentration and decentralization, 28, 32-33 education production, 144, 152-153 facilities, schools, 199 federal aid, 83, 84, 85

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools interdistrict disparities, 11, 24, 29, 31, 46, 50, 74, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92-99 (passim), 110, 125, 128-129, 191, 196, 228, 231, 236-237, 247, 250-252, 260, 265 district power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256-258 , 265 intradistrict disparities, 6, 8, 11, 24, 29, 31, 99, 228-229, 231, 265, 320 NCES core data, 316 poverty areas, 6, 10, 20, 46-49, 51, 74, 76, 103, 198, 227, 259 property taxes, 233, 236-237, 238, 242, 247, 319-320 revenue raising, other, 5, 28-29, 53-55, 58, 79, 84, 233 guaranteed tax base, 59-60, 75, 80, 95-96 statistics by state, 30-31, 54-55 scale economies, 129-131 special education, 42-43, 225, 226 spending, 6, 30-32, 42, 46-47, 50, 88, 99, 105, 144, 225, 226 interdistrict disparities, 74, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92-99 (passim), 110, 196, 250-252, 257, 260, 265 state aid, 29, 53, 59-60, 92 state rewards/sanctions, 110, 156(n.6), 267 taxes, general, 248-249 see also "property taxes" supra see also Local factors; Rural areas; Suburban areas; Urban areas District power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256-258 , 265 see also Guaranteed tax base E Early childhood interventions, 10, 82, 196, 202-206, 321 class size, 212 see also Compensatory education East Jackson Public Schools v. State, 88 Econometric studies, 127-128 Economies of scale, see Scale economies Edgewood v. Kirby, 80, 101, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112 Educational achievement, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-9, 17, 34-47 adequacy concept, 104, 105-106, 107-108, 114, 124, 131-132, 166, 265 attainment and, 36-38 cost-efficiency, 33, 34-44, 165-195 education production, 137, 142 facilities, schools, 200 historical perspectives, 7, 20-21, 24, 44, 46, 71-72 international comparisons, 18, 21, 34, 37-38, 44, 194, 230 parental choice and, 190-194 school incentives, impact on, 182-183 school-or site-based management, 185-186, 190 school spending, 7, 46-47 student background and, 2, 5, 10-11, 17, 19-20, 33, 43-53, 61, 67, 125, 134, 140, 196-231, 265 Coleman Report, 7, 24, 46, 71-72, 74, 82, 140-141, 142, 161 teacher capacity and pay, 167-176, 178 urban schools, 33 see also Test results Educational attainment, 45-46 achievement and, 36-38 adequacy concept, 116 employment and, 20, 34-35, 44 parents', 43-44 student background and, 5, 45-46 Educational technology, see Technology, educational Education production, 2, 4, 9, 16, 65, 134-162 academic performance, 136-137, 142, 152-153 adequacy concept, 117-118, 166, 264 class size, 138, 141, 143-146 (passim), 160, 161

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools concept and measurement of, general, 135-139, 146 cost-efficiency, 4, 8-9, 17, 22-23, 33, 34, 38, 40, 87, 136, 163, 188, 247, 254-255 adequacy concept, 107-108, 116, 165 district-level, 144, 152-153 educational achievement and, 137, 142 education reform and, 135, 149-151, 154-161 effective educational practice, 147-153 equity, concept of, 70 facilities, schools, 200 federal government, 150, 156 funding adequacy, 2, 10 historical perspectives, 134-135, 140, 149-151, 155, 161 inputs into education, 136, 137, 140-147, 161 institutional environment, 153-161 outcomes, educational, 135, 136, 140-147, 161 performance standards, 148, 156-157 private sector, 135, 137, 142, 160-161 research on, 138-161 school-based factors, individual schools, 132, 136-137, 141-143, 145, 147, 150-154, 155 teachers, 138, 140, 141-142, 144, 145-146, 149, 152, 155, 156, 159 , 173-174 test results, 145, 149 Education reform, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 17-18, 24, 61, 62(n.9), 163, 164 adequacy concept, 110-111, 167 curriculum, 9, 15, 113, 123-124, 153, 155, 158 education production, 135, 149-151, 154-161 fairness, 6, 67 special education, 225, 227 spending, general, 67, 68-100, 268 Title I, 215-216 urban areas, 3, 10, 11, 228 whole-school designs, 114-115, 122, 123-124, 151, 153, 196, 213, 225 see also Adequacy, educational; Charter schools; Education standards; Equity concepts; Vouchers Education standards, 1, 3, 9, 15, 18, 21, 156-157, 255 adequacy standards, 2, 6, 101-103 (passim), 107-108, 112-113 capacity investment and, 167 special education, 223, 226 teacher certification, 106, 144, 168, 169, 170-171, 178, 210, 211, 255, 272 teachers, other, 271, 272-273 Title I programs, 216 see also Performance standards Efficiency, 4, 8-9, 17, 22-23, 33, 34, 38, 40, 87, 107-108, 116, 136, 163, 165, 187, 191, 200, 232 adequacy concept, 107-108, 116, 165 educational achievement, 33, 34-44, 165-195 property taxes, 234-235, 236, 240-241 revenue raising, 33, 34, 51, 57, 232 teachers, cost-efficiency, 168-176 Employment educational attainment and, 20, 34-35, 44 mothers working, 43, 44 teachers career ladders, 177 salaries, 8, 9, 39-40, 41, 94(n.12), 142, 165, 167-168, 169, 171-174 176-179, 197, 211, 272 training and professional development, 9, 142, 149, 150, 152, 156, 165, 167-168, 169, 174-176, 177, 183, 198, 210, 211, 216, 224, 225 , 270-272 English-language learners/second-language speakers, 33, 39, 49, 73 , 89, 125-128 (passim), 155, 187, 214, 221, 260

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools bilingual education, 82, 86-87 Enrollment factors, 27, 32-33, 36, 38, 41, 48, 135, 187, 191-192, 250-251 Equality of Educational Opportunity (Coleman Report), 7, 24, 46, 71-72, 74, 82, 140-141, 142, 161 Equal opportunity adequacy concept, 104, 105-106, 110-111 bilingual education, 86-87 Civil Rights Act, 82, 87 court cases, 6, 18, 68, 70, 82 equity concept, 68, 70, 82, 86-87 special-needs students, 41, 42, 86-87, 214, 218, 219(n.9), 220-221 Equal protection, 72-74, 76-81 Equity concepts, 16 adequacy vs, 101, 102, 103, 112, 131, 132-133, 264 concept of, 6, 67, 69-77, 165-166 court cases, 70-81, 90-91, 94, 95-101, 167 see also Serrano v. Priest education production, 70 equal opportunity provisions, 68, 70, 82, 86-87 federal efforts, 82-87, 259-260 finance equity, general, 2, 7, 8, 61, 70-81, 83-100 interdistrict disparities, 11, 24, 29, 31, 46, 50, 74, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92-99 (passim), 110, 125, 128-129, 191, 196, 228, 231, 236-237, 247, 250-252, 257, 260, 265 district power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256-258 , 265 intradistrict disparities, 6, 8, 11, 24, 29, 31, 99, 228-229, 231, 320 political factors, 70, 78, 96-97, 166, 197, 248-249, 253 poverty, 70, 74, 77, 86 research on, 74, 90-98, 319-320 spending, 67-100 state efforts, 53, 87-89 see also Court cases states court cases, 70-81, 90-91, 94, 95-101, 167 see also Serrano v. Priest disparities across, 6, 30-31, 47, 54-55, 69, 93, 94, 96, 97 legislation, 85, 87-88 taxpayers, 70, 71, 232, 236-237, 238, 240-241, 242, 247, 254 wealth-neutrality principle, 71-76, 77, 80, 81, 84-85, 88, 89, 90, 91, 95-99 (passim), 102, 103, 107, 109, 112, 125 see also Adequacy, educational Ex ante concepts, 70, 71, 75, 96, 103 Ex post concepts, 70, 71, 89, 103 F Facilities, schools, 82, 107, 108, 121, 140, 142, 167, 188, 197, 198, 199-201, 255 safety of school environment, 198, 208 special education, 225 see also Technology, educational Family factors, 2, 10-11, 19, 43-44, 52-53 Coleman Report, 7, 71-72, 82, 140-141, 142 see also Parental factors Federal government, 3, 82, 127 block grants, 83 categorical programs, 6, 10-11, 60, 81-82, 196, 214, 259-260 see also Title I programs compensatory programs, 11-12, 27, 29, 46, 83, 204, 206 see also Title I programs education production, 150, 156 equity provisions, 82-87, 259-260 foundation aid, 12, 261 impact aid, 82, 85 income taxes, 60, 233, 249 revenue raising, general, 11, 27, 29, 53, 60-61, 258-262 statistics by state, 30-31

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools special education, 27, 41, 42, 43, 214, 218, 219(n.9), 220-221, 223 -225, 226, 260, 261 spending, general, 1, 5, 11-12, 16, 17, 60-61, 82, 83-85, 93, 97-98 , 197, 208, 260 annual, 1, 15, 27, 38, 39, 260 state cooperation with, general, 15, 16, 83-86, 261, 262, 316-317, 323-324 technical assistance, 62, 85 value-added taxes, 233 see also Legislation, federal; U.S. Constitution; main heads beginning "Department. . ." Fiscal neutrality principle, see Wealth-neutrality principle Florida, 57, 109, 129, 166, 224, 230, 321 Foreign countries, see International perspectives Formulas for distributing funds, 10, 16, 31, 60, 85-86, 196, 197 adequacy concept, 103, 104, 124-133 (passim) democratic threshold principle (Gutmann), 104, 105 distributive justice (Rawls), 103-104 district power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256-258 , 265 expenditure-disparity test, 84-85 foundation aid, 12, 59, 88, 106, 119-120, 131, 257, 261 guaranteed tax base, 59-60, 75, 80, 95-96 special education, 221-222 wealth-neutrality principle, 59, 71-76, 77, 80, 81, 84-85, 88, 89, 90, 91, 95-99 (passim), 102, 103, 107, 109, 112, 125, 319-320 weights/weighting, students, 48, 86, 119, 125, 126-127, 128, 158, 224, 240, 249 Foundation aid, 12, 59, 88, 106, 119-120, 131, 257, 261 Foundations (private), grants from, 192, 207-209 G Geographic factors geographic uniformity principle, 74 interdistrict disparities, 11, 24, 29, 31, 46, 50, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92-99 (passim), 110, 125, 128-129, 191, 196, 228, 231, 236 -237, 247, 250-252, 260, 265 district power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256-258 , 265 guaranteed, 59-60, 75, 80, 95-96 intradistrict disparities, 6, 8, 11, 24, 29, 31, 99, 228-229, 231, 320 teachers, regional distribution of, 169-170 see also Rural areas; Suburban areas; Urban areas; specific states Gifted and talented programs, 82, 214 Guaranteed tax base, 59-60, 75, 80, 95-96 see also District power equalizing H Harper v. Hunt, 103 Hawaii, 29 Head Start, 204, 206 Hispanics educational attainment, 45 urban areas, 48, 51 Horizontal equity, 90 I Idaho, 78 Illinois, 74, 109, 119-120, 121, 122, 166, 241 Impact aid, 82, 85 Incentives, 3, 8, 9, 12, 16, 62, 85, 159, 164, 176-183, 195, 267 academic performance, general, 3, 8, 9, 62 categorical programs, 10-11, 60 outcomes, general, 9, 180 private schools, 182-183

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools research on, 182-183, 272-273 rewards/sanctions, 110, 156(n.6), 179, 182, 187, 267 special education, 222 teachers, see "incentives under Teachers/staff" urban areas, 12, 183 weighted-child formula, 86 Income taxes, 20, 57, 232, 239-241 federal provisions, 60, 233, 249 local, 239-241 parental income, impacts, 236 school-based factors, individual schools, 9, 156(n.6), 179-180, 182 -183 state, 54-57, 91, 233, 243-244, 247, 253-254 relief to poor, 91 statistics by state, 56-57 Individualized education programs, 41, 223, 224, 225 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 214, 218, 219(n.9), 220-221, 224, 225, 226, 260 Inflation, 93, 94, 112, 131 consumer price index, 40, 41, 126 Inputs into education, 2, 6, 8, 167, 261, 319 adequacy concept, 102-103, 104, 119, 121, 124-125, 126, 128, 166, 264 adjustments for changes over time, 40 education production and, 136, 137, 140-147, 161 incentives, general, 180 inflation, 40, 41, 93, 94, 112, 126, 131 see also Cost of education; Facilities, schools; Spending on education; Technology, educational Instruction, 9, 12, 196, 322 curriculum, 9, 15, 113, 123-124, 153, 155, 158, 177, 183, 188, 223 , 224, 225, 226, 255 decision making, 113, 123 education production, 146 see also Cost of education; Teachers/staff International perspectives, 18, 21, 34, 37-38, 44, 194, 230 J Jackson v. Benson, 229 K Kansas, 85 Kentucky, 54, 76, 80-81, 97, 101, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114 , 124, 175, 179, 181, 182 Kentucky Education Reform Act, 110, 207 L Language issues, see English-language learners/second-language speakers Lau v. Nichols, 86-87 Leandro v. State of North Carolina, 109 Legislation, federal Americans with Disabilities Act, 218(n.8) Civil Rights Act, 82, 87 compulsory attendance, disabled children, 68 Educational for All Handicapped Children Act, 41, 42, 86 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 207, 259, 260 see also Title I programs Emergency School Assistance Act, 82 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 15, 85 Government Performance and Results Act, 321 Improving America's Schools Act, 16, 207 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 214, 218, 219(n.9), 220-221, 224, 225, 226, 260 Vocational Rehabilitation Act, 218(n.)

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools Legislation, state accountability, 110, 111 adequacy concept, 110-111, 112, 122, 130-131, 133, 166 constitutional requirements, 5, 6, 72-81 (passim), 88, 101, 107, 109, 133 equity concept, 85, 87-88 property taxes, 250-251 vouchers, 229-230 see also Court cases Litigation, see Court cases Local factors, 3, 9 committee mandate, 4 control of education, 20, 26, 28-32, 96-97, 158-159 funding responsibilities, 5 income taxes, 239-241 revenue raising, general, 11, 20, 27, 53, 58, 79 statistics by state, 30-31 see also Property taxes; Sales taxes school-community linkages, 10, 152, 184-185, 196, 206-210 spending, 22-23, 27, 92, 93, 109, 256 see also Serrano v. Priest taxes, general, 248-249 urban tax bases, 20, 76, 200, 259 see also District-level factors; School-based factors, individual schools Longitudinal studies, 98, 143, 145, 146, 148, 216-217, 231, 256, 317, 321, 322 Lotteries, 245-246 Louisiana, 54, 107 M Maine, 85, 229-230 Maryland, 243 Massachusetts, 57, 107, 108, 179, 224, 242, 245 McInnis v. Shapiro, 74 Michigan desegregation, 82-83 district equalization, 88 impact aid, 85 revenue raising, 28-29, 57, 254 Milliken v. Bradley, 82-83, 88 Minnesota, 107, 110, 230, 242-243 Minority groups, 145 bilingual education, 82, 86-87 black persons, 18, 21, 43, 47-51, 68, 70, 91, 145 demographic shifts, 19, 39 educational attainment, 45 equity, concept of, 70 Hispanics, 45, 48, 51 spending disparities, 31, 47, 48-49, 273 teachers of minority students, 211 urban areas, 18, 47-51, 70 see also English-language learners/second-language speakers; Racial discrimination/segregation Mississippi, 57, 120(n.9), 122 Missouri, 85, 169 Montana, 80, 224 N National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 36-37, 45-46, 114, 157, 175 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 272 National Center for Education Statistics, 198, 315-325 academic performance data, 317-318 National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 169 National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 170 National Education Goals Panel, 157 A Nation at Risk, 34, 88, 134, 149 Nevada, 57 New American Schools, 123-124, 153 New Futures, 208, 209 New Hampshire adequacy of education, 107, 108, 109 revenue raising, 29, 54 New Jersey adequacy concept, 107

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools right to education, 77, 80 spending, 29, 73, 77, 80, 97 technical assistance from federal government, 85 New Mexico impact aid, 85 revenue raising, 29 New York City, 42, 128, 129, 152, 320 New York State adequacy of education, 107, 108, 116, 128-129 enrollment, 33 revenue raising, 57, 235, 239 special education spending, 42, 218 Non-English-speaking students, see English-language learners/second-language speakers North Carolina, 59, 107, 109, 175, 179, 181, 183 North Dakota, 224 O Obey-Porter, see Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program Ohio, 85, 107, 108-109, 111, 118-119, 120, 122, 229 Olsen v. State, 79 Oregon, 57, 79, 88 Outcomes, educational, 3, 16, 69, 70, 268 adequacy concept and, 2, 102, 117-120, 122, 166, 264 education production, 135, 136, 140-147, 161 incentives and, 9, 180 property tax limitations, 241 research recommendations, 12 school-based accountability, 9, 190 state-role in financing, 241, 254-257 teacher salaries and, 172-173 Outputs of education, 69, 102-103, 119, 137, 159-160, 166, 264 see also Academic performance; Education production; Outcomes, educational P Parental factors, 3, 8, 160 educational attainment of, 43-44 school/choice school spending decisions, 9, 11, 29, 62, 105, 164, 165, 183-184, 190-195, 196, 227-231 charter schools, 8, 9, 29, 133, 185, 186-188, 189, 190, 191-192, 229, 231 contract schools, 9, 124, 153, 188-189, 267 educational achievement of children and, 190-194 voucher programs, 9, 10, 11, 12, 133, 192, 194, 229-231, 269, 273274 school governance, 11, 29 spending on own children's education, 22 tax and parental income, 236 working mothers, 43, 44 Pauley v. Kelly, 77, 78 Peer effects, 136, 141 Pennsylvania, 54, 79, 86, 107, 113, 224 Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Pennsylvania, 86 Performance standards, 16-17 adequacy concept, 110, 113, 115, 118-120, 122, 132, 166 education production, 148, 156-157 see also Test results Per pupil spending, see Cost of education; Spending on education Political factors, 3, 22-24, 157, 271 adequacy of education, 2, 103, 105, 110, 111, 112-113, 132, 133, 166 attacks on public schools, 20-21, 34, 38 equity, 70, 78, 96-97, 166, 197, 248-249, 253 federal role in education, 12 funding models, 16 interest groups, 71, 84, 103, 111, 137, 155 property taxes, 236, 241

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools public opinion, 18, 20-21, 34, 38, 44, 136, 263-264 school-level assessment, 320-321 spending on education, general, 2, 16, 70, 75, 78, 96-97 testing (NAEP), 37 urban areas, 18, 228, 271 wealth-neutrality principle, 75 see also Public opinion Poverty, 3, 10, 18, 19, 43, 46, 97-98, 197, 210-214 adequacy concept, 103, 119-120, 125, 127, 128, 133, 198, 265 capacity investments, 167 class size, 210, 211-212 compensatory education, 11-12, 27, 29, 46, 82, 83, 87, 202-206 see also Title I programs cost of education of poor, 2, 198-199, 205, 259 early childhood interventions, 10, 82, 196, 202-206, 212 equity, 70, 74, 77, 86 facilities, schools, 198, 199 foundations (private), grants from, 192, 207-209 funding adequacy, 9, 198 see also ''equity" supra income taxes, state relief, 91 lotteries, 246 property taxes, 237(n.2), 242 sales taxes, 244 school-based factors, high poverty, 46, 83 teaching capacity, 210-212 urban areas, 20, 47, 48-49, 51, 74, 76, 103, 198, 227, 259 voucher programs, 273-274 war on poverty, 18, 83 Preschool interventions, see Early childhood interventions Private schools, 29, 82, 160, 178, 182, 184, 190 attitudes toward public schools, parents of children in private schools , 38 contract schools, 9, 124, 153, 185, 188-189, 267 enrollment, 27, 38, 41 foundations (private), grants from, 192, 207-209 incentives used in, 182-183 religious schools, 192, 193, 194, 229-230, 231 vouchers, 9, 10, 11, 12, 133, 192, 194, 229, 273-274 Private sector, 21, 182, 184, 188-189 education production, 135, 137, 142, 160-161 facilities, schools, 200 people with disabilities, 218 Project STAR, 145 Property taxes, 5, 20, 29, 53, 58, 59, 88, 91(n.8), 232-243, 247, 319-320 benefit-tax argument, 234-235 business property, 241-242 court cases, 71 district-level factors, 233, 236-237, 238, 242, 247, 319-320 efficiency considerations, 234-235, 236, 240-241 equity, 71, 232, 236-237, 319 federal income taxes and, 60 guaranteed tax base, 59-60, 75, 80, 95-96 outcomes, educational, 241 political factors, 236, 241 poverty and, 237(n.2), 242 state-level issues, 58, 88, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 241, 243, 245 , 246-247, 250-251, 253, 254, 255-256, 319-320 statistics by state, 54-55 tax capitalization, 236-237 Public opinion, 34, 44, 136, 263-264 attacks on public schools, 20-21, 34, 38 see also Political factors R Race/ethnicity, other, see Minority groups Race, spending on education by, 31, 47, 48-49, 273

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools Racial discrimination/segregation, 18, 19, 47-49, 82, 87, 99, 110, 227 Brown v. Board of Education, 6, 18, 68, 70, 82, 99, 100 Milliken v. Bradley, 82-83 Religious schools, 229-230, 231 Catholic, 192, 193, 194 Research, educational adequacy concept, 102, 114-130 class size, 210-211, 212-213, 273 Coleman Report, 7, 24, 46, 71-72, 74, 82, 140-141, 142, 161 contract schools, 189 data needs, 198, 315-325 early childhood education, 203-206 education production, 138-161 equity concept, 74, 90-98, 319-320 facilities, schools, 200 foundations (private), grants from, 208-209 incentives, 182-183, 272-273 longitudinal, 98, 143, 145, 146, 148, 216-217, 231, 256, 317, 321, 322 NCES data, 198, 315-325 parental choice, 192-194 qualitative studies, 139, 147-148 recommendations, 12, 198, 200, 204-205, 267-274, 315-325 school incentives, 182-183, 272-273 school-or site-based management, 186, 319 special education, 219-220, 221 state-role in financing, 241, 255-257 teachers, 171-177, 210-212, 222-223, 270-272 testing, 180-181 see also National Assessment of Educational Progress Title I programs, 215, 216-217 vouchers, 230-231, 269, 273-274 whole-school designs, 213 see also Statistical analyses Revenue for school finance, 2, 5, 15-16, 20, 48-49, 53-61, 232-262 California, 58, 71, 72-74, 76, 235, 236, 245, 249-253, 254, 255-256 , 258, 262 committee mandate, 4 district-level, 5, 28-29, 53-55, 58, 79, 84, 233 guaranteed tax base, 59-60, 75, 80, 95-96 statistics by state, 30-31, 54-55 see also Property taxes efficiency issues, 33, 34, 51, 57, 232 equity, general, 165, 167 fairness, 5, 11-12, 17, 33-34, 53-61, 232, 235-238, 247-248, 265-267 federal, general, 11, 27, 29, 53, 60-61, 258-262 statistics by state, 30-31 local, general, 11, 20, 27, 53, 58, 79 statistics by state, 30-31 see also Property taxes; Sales taxes; "district-level" supra by socioeconomic status, 47, 48-49 state-level, general, 28-29, 54-57, 58, 71, 72-74, 76, 88, 197, 235 , 236, 239, 245-258, 262 statistics by state, 30-31, 54-55 see also Income taxes; Property taxes; Sales taxes; Taxes, general Rhode Island, 54, 109-110, 166 Robinson v. Cahill, 73, 77 Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District, 31, 82 Roosevelt Elementary School District v. Bishop, 108 Rose v. Council for Better Education, 81, 107 Rural areas, 33, 45-46, 48, 67-68, 70, 228 S Safety of school environment, 198, 208 Sales taxes, 88, 232, 239-241, 243, 244-245, 246, 253-254 statistics by state, 56-57 SAT scores, 36, 44, 255-256 Scale economies, 129-131 School-based factors, individual schools, 15, 21, 70, 319, 320-322 academic performance, 6, 7, 10, 12, 24, 136-137, 317-318

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools accountability, 9, 180-181, 182, 190, 320-321 adequacy, 102, 113, 118, 120(n.9), 130-131, 133 community-school linkages, 10, 152, 184-185, 196, 206-210 education production, 132, 136-137, 141-143, 145, 147, 150-154, 155 high-poverty, 46, 83 high-stakes testing, 180-181 incentives, 9, 156(n.6), 179-180, 182-183 intradistrict disparities, 6, 8, 11, 24, 29, 31, 99, 228-229, 231, 265, 320 performance, 6, 7, 10, 12, 24, 132, 136-137, 145, 317-318 political factors, 320-321 rewards/sanctions, 156(n.6), 179, 182, 187, 267 spending, decision making, 3, 8, 11, 62, 105, 164, 183-190, 196, 227-231 charter schools, 8, 9, 29, 133, 185, 186-188, 189, 190, 191-192, 229, 231 contract schools, 9, 124, 153, 188-189, 267 vouchers, 9, 10, 11, 12, 133, 192, 194, 229-231, 269, 273-274 whole-school designs, 114-115, 122, 123-124, 151, 153, 196, 213, 225 School districts, see District-level factors School-or site-based management (SBM), 9, 151-152, 157, 178, 185-186 , 319 educational achievement and, 185-186, 190 Seattle v. State of Washington, 77, 78 Serrano v. Priest, 71, 72-74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 87, 96, 250-253, 256 , 258, 318 Simmons-Harris v. Goff, 229 Social factors, general, 18-19, 24, 67, 208 attacks on public schools, 20-21, 34, 38 early childhood education, 204 out-of-class learning, 168, 208 peer effects, 136, 141 school-community linkages, 10, 152, 184-185, 196, 206-210 see also Demographic factors; Family factors; Parental factors; Political factors; Public opinion; Race, spending on education by; Racial discrimination/segregation Socioeconomic factors, 1-2, 4, 6, 67-68 adequacy of education, 102, 103, 107, 109, 112, 115, 118, 120, 125 costs of education, 115, 118, 120 out-of-class learning, 168 revenue raising by socioeconomic status, general, 47, 48-49 student background and achievement, 2, 5, 10-11, 17, 19-20, 33, 43 -53, 61, 67, 125, 134, 140, 196-231, 265 Coleman Report, 7, 24, 46, 71-72, 74, 82, 140-141, 142, 161 tax and parental income, 236 tax deductions, 60-61 test scores, 46 urban areas, general, 68 wealth-neutrality principle, 59, 71-76, 77, 80, 81, 84-85, 88, 89, 90, 91, 95-99 (passim), 102, 103, 107, 109, 112, 125, 319-320 see also Poverty South Carolina, 107, 179 South Dakota, 85 Special education, 41-43, 82, 126-127, 196, 217-227 accountability, 224, 225, 226 costs of, 41-42, 217, 219, 222, 227 curriculum issues, 223, 224, 225, 226 district-level factors, 42-43, 225, 226 education reform, 225, 227 education standards, 223, 226 facilities, 225 federal government, 27, 41, 42, 43, 214, 218, 219(n.9), 220-221, 223-225, 226, 260, 261 formulas for distributing funds, 221-222

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools incentives, 222 individualized education programs, 41, 223, 224, 225 research on, 219-220, 221 spending, 6, 41-42, 217-218, 219, 221-222, 223-226 state-level factors, 42, 43, 218, 219, 223-224, 225, 226, 227 teachers, 224, 225 Title I, 223, 225 urban areas, 219 Special-needs students, 20, 39, 68, 73, 259, 269 adequacy concept, 110-111, 127, 265 class size, 212 community-school linkages, 206-210 equal opportunity provisions, 41, 42, 86-87, 214, 218, 219(n.9), 220-221 gifted and talented programs, 82, 214 litigation, 86-87 testing, 211 vouchers, 274 see also Categorical programs; English-language learners/second-language speakers; Poverty; Special education; Students with disabilities Spending on education, 1, 3, 4, 16, 18, 20, 27, 38-44, 67-100, 265 -267 district-level, 6, 30-32, 42, 46-47, 50, 88, 99, 105, 144, 225, 226 district power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256, 257-258, 265 early childhood education, 201, 204-205 education reform, general, 67, 68-100, 268 facilities, 82, 107, 108, 121, 140, 142, 167, 188, 197, 198, 199-201 , 208, 225, 255 federal, general, 1, 5, 11-12, 16, 17, 60-61, 82, 83-85, 93, 97-98 , 197, 208, 260 annual, 1, 15, 27, 38, 39, 260 foundations (private), grants from, 192, 207-209 interdistrict disparities, 11, 24, 29, 31, 46, 50, 74, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92-99 (passim), 110, 125, 128-129, 191, 196, 228, 231, 236-237, 247, 250-252, 257, 260, 265 district power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256-258 , 265 local, 22-23, 27, 92, 93, 109, 256 see also Serrano v. Priest; "district-level" supra political factors, 2, 16, 70, 75, 78, 96-97 racially based spending disparities, 31, 47, 48-49, 273 school-and parent-based decision making spending, 3, 8, 11, 62, 105 , 164, 183-190, 196, 227-231 charter schools, 8, 9, 29, 133, 185, 186-188, 189, 190, 191-192, 229, 231 contract schools, 9, 124, 153, 188-189, 267 vouchers, 9, 10, 11, 12, 133, 192, 194, 229-231, 269, 273-274 special education, 6, 41-42, 217-218, 219, 221-222, 223-226 technology, 8, 142, 147, 167, 197, 199, 201-202 Title I, 216-217 urban areas, 47, 48-52, 67-68, 76, 219, 227-228 see also Adequacy, educational; Cost indices; Cost of education; Equity concepts; Formulas for distributing funds Standards, see Education standards State government, 4 accountability legislation, 110, 111 adequacy of education, 6, 80, 101-102, 103, 105, 107-111, 112, 114 -131 (passim), 133, 166

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools court decisions, 6, 80, 101-102, 103, 106, 107-112, 122, 132-133, 166, 167 legislation, 110-111, 112, 122, 130-131, 133, 166 categorical programs, 6, 10-11, 81-82 compensatory education, 27, 87 constitutional requirements, 5, 6, 72-81 (passim), 88, 101, 107, 109, 133 disparities across states, 6, 30-31, 47, 54-55, 69, 93, 94, 96, 97 district power equalizing, 59, 75, 77, 84, 88, 96, 247, 253, 256258, 265 districts, aid to, 29, 53, 59-60, 92 guaranteed tax base, 59-60, 75, 80, 95-96 districts, rewards/sanctions, 110, 156(n.6), 267 education production, 156, 157-158 equal opportunity, court cases, 6, 18, 68, 70, 82 equal protection, 72-74, 76-81 equity concept court cases, 70-81, 90-91, 94, 95-101, 167 see also Serrano v. Priest disparities across, 6, 30-31, 47, 54-55, 69, 93, 94, 96, 97 legislation, 85, 87-88 facilities, schools, 199, 200 federal cooperation with, general, 15, 16, 83-86, 261, 262, 316-317 , 323-324 foundation aid, 59, 88, 106, 119-120, 131, 257 funding responsibilities, 5, 17, 72-82 (passim) income taxes, 54-57, 91, 233, 243-244, 247, 253-254 relief to poor, 91 statistics by state, 56-57 lotteries, 245-246 NCES core data, 316-317, 323-324 outcomes of education, role in financing, 241, 254-257 poverty, 198, 199 property taxes, 58, 88, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 241, 243, 245, 246 -247, 250-251, 253, 254, 255-256, 319-320 statistics by state, 54-55 research financing, state role, 241, 255-257 revenue raising, general, 11, 27, 28-29, 53-60, 71, 72-74, 76, 79, 88, 91, 111, 197, 235, 236, 239, 245-258, 262 statistics by state, 30-31, 54-55 sales taxes, 54-57, 233, 243, 244-245, 246, 253-254 statistics by state, 56-57 special education, 42, 43, 218, 219, 223-224, 225, 226, 227 spending, 27, 29-32, 42, 46, 47, 52, 69-82, 90-91, 93, 94, 96, 97, 199, 200, 219, 223-224, 225, 226, 227, 249-252, 257 taxes, 54-57, 58, 88, 197, 247-258 nontax revenue sources, 245-246 see also specific tax types supra teachers, 175, 179, 181, 183 certification, 106, 144, 168, 169, 170-171, 178, 210, 255, 272 urban areas, 52, 76 vouchers, 229-230 see also Court cases; Legislation, state; specific states Statistical analyses adequacy of education, costs, 114, 115-118 Coleman Report, 7, 24, 46, 71-72, 74, 82, 140-141, 142, 161 education production, 140-147 NAEP, 37 NCES data, 198, 315-325 Students with disabilities, 39, 41-43, 68 Americans with Disabilities Act, 218(n.8) compulsory attendance, 68 equity, concept of, 70, 73, 89, 127, 128 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 214, 218, 219(n.9), 220-221, 224, 225, 226, 260

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools litigation, 86-87 private sector, 218 see also Special education Student/teacher ratios, 42, 88, 106, 118, 141-142, 144, 203 see also Class size Suburban areas, 48-49, 51, 228 property tax, 234 urban/suburban disparities, 11, 20, 33, 46, 47, 48-49, 51-52, 76, 94(n.12), 227, 228-229 voucher programs, 273 T Taxes, general, 53, 90-91, 96, 232 district-and local-level, 248-249 equity considerations, 70, 71, 232, 236-237, 238, 240-241, 242, 247 , 254 state, 54-57, 58, 88, 197, 247-258 nontax revenue sources, 245-246 urban tax bases, 20, 76, 200, 259 value-added taxes, 233 see also Guaranteed tax base; Income taxes; Property taxes; Sales taxes Teachers/staff accountability, 165, 224, 272-273 capacity building, general, 12, 150, 165, 167-176, 210-213, 267, 270-272, 321 career ladders, 177 certification of teachers, 106, 144, 168, 169, 170-171, 178, 210, 211, 255, 272 competency pay, 178 cost-efficiency, 168-176 of disadvantaged students, 10, 210-212 early childhood education, 203-204 education achievement, teacher capacity and pay factors, 167-176, 178 education production, 138, 140, 141-142, 144, 145-146, 149, 152, 155, 156, 159, 173-174 education standards, other, 271, 272-273 see also "certification" supra gender differences, salaries, 171-172 incentives, 12, 165, 176-179, 195 see also "salaries" infra merit pay, 177 of minority students, 211 regional distribution of, 169-170 research on, 171-177, 210-212, 222-223, 270-272 salaries, 8, 9, 39-40, 41, 94(n.12), 142, 165, 167-168, 169, 171-174 , 176-179, 197, 211, 272 school-based reform, 152 special education, 224, 225 standards, 271, 272-273 see also "certification" supra state government role, 175, 179, 181, 183 see also "certification" supra student/teacher ratios, 42, 88, 106, 118, 141-142, 144, 203 see also Class size testing of, 211 see also "certification" supra Title I programs, 216 training and professional development, 9, 142, 149, 150, 152, 156, 165, 167-168, 169, 174-176, 177, 183, 198, 210, 211, 216, 224, 225 , 270-272 urban areas, 12, 169, 270 Technical assistance, federal desegregation, 62 state financial laws, 85 Technology, educational, 8, 142, 147, 167, 197, 199, 201-202 Tennessee, 57, 107, 108, 273 Tennessee Small School Systems v. McWherter, 108 Test results, 34, 36-37, 43-44 accountability, high-stakes testing, 180-182, 183 adequacy concept, 113-117 (passim), 120 black students, 45-46

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools contract schools, 189 disadvantaged students, 211 education production, 145, 149 NAEP, 36-37, 45-46, 114, 157, 175 political factors (NAEP), 37 research, 180-181 see also National Assessment of Educational Progress SAT, 36, 44, 255-256 school-based factors, individual schools, 180-181 spending disparities and, 47 urban students, 45-46 Texas, 72, 80, 85, 88, 97, 122, 144, 145, 179, 183, 210-211, 212 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 37-38 Thompson v Engelking, 78-79 Title I programs, 10-11, 27, 29, 46, 83, 84, 86, 127, 181, 213, 214 -217, 260, 318 special education, 223, 225 U Urban areas, 3, 5, 10, 11, 32-33, 47-52, 67-68, 99, 227-231 adequacy concept, 103, 111, 128 black students, 18, 47-51, 70 bureaucracy, 18 cost indices, 52, 94 cost of education, other, 52, 198, 199-200 education reform, 3, 10, 11, 228 enrollment, 33, 48 facilities, schools, 199 foundations (private), grants from, 207-209 Hispanics, 48, 51 incentives, 12, 183 minority groups in, 18, 47-51, 70 political factors, 18, 228, 271 poverty, 20, 47, 48-49, 51, 74, 76, 103, 198, 227, 259 research recommendations, 12, 267-270 special education, 219 spending, 47, 48-51, 67-68, 76, 219, 227-228 state role, 52, 76 suburban/urban disparities, 11, 20, 33, 46, 47, 48-49, 51-52, 76, 94(n.12), 227, 228-229 tax bases, 20, 76, 200, 259 teachers, 12, 169, 270 test scores, 45-46 voucher programs, 12 U.S. Constitution, 5, 16, 26, 58, 72, 73-75, 77, 78, 82, 86, 229, 230 Utah, 29, 129 V Value-added taxes, 233 Vermont revenue raising, 54 special education, 224 spending, 29-30, 224 Virginia, 77, 98 Vouchers, 9, 10, 11, 12, 133, 192, 194, 229-231, 269, 273-274 W War on poverty, 18, 83 Washakie v. Herschler, 109 Washington State, 57, 77, 78, 90, 107, 114, 169, 251 Wealth-neutrality principle, 59 adequacy concept and, 102, 103, 107, 109, 112, 125, 319-320 equity concept and, 71-76, 77, 80, 81, 84-85, 88, 89, 90, 91, 95-99 (passim), 102, 103, 107, 109, 112, 125 Weights/weighting, students, 48, 86, 119, 125, 126-127, 128, 158, 224, 240, 249 West Virginia, 73, 78, 107, 114 Whole-school designs, 114-115, 122, 123-124, 151, 153, 196, 213, 225 Wisconsin, 57, 85, 117, 229 Wyoming, 107, 108, 111, 112, 122, 123, 129, 133, 251