Index

A.

Accommodations

English-language learners, 61-66 (passim)

students with disabilities, 5, 55-60 (passim)

Accountability, v, vi-vii, 2, 3, 10, 11-12, 73, 91-101

administrators, 6, 22, 92, 97, 98

curriculum design, 17, 92

early childhood education, 50, 51-52

education improvement systems, 6, 12-13, 20, 22

English-language learners, 63-64, 65

federal role, 13, 17, 85, 90, 91, 92-94

internal, 6, 19, 92-93, 98

multiple measures, 91-92, 95, 97, 98

multiple-purpose assessments, 47

school-level, 6, 15, 17, 19, 65, 86, 87, 88, 89, 92-101 (passim)

standards-based reform model, 16, 17-18

student, individual, 93-94

students with disabilities, 56

teachers, 6, 18, 19, 22, 52, 86, 92, 97, 98

yearly progress requirements, 85-90, 91

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Reporting requirements; Standards

Administrators and administration, vi, 20

accountability, 6, 22, 92, 97, 98

content standards, 26

instructional methods, 17, 76-77

reporting of results, 69

Alabama, 60

Alignment, iv, vii, x, 2, 15, 17, 20, 26, 43-45, 75

American Federation of Teachers, 25

Assessment strategies, v, vi-vii, 2, 11-12, 26, 42-73

alignment, iv, vii, x, 2, 15, 17, 20, 26, 43-45, 75

early childhood learners (K-3), 4, 14, 21, 24, 39-41, 50-55, 57

education improvement systems, 4-5, 12-13, 20, 21

English-language learners, 5, 10, 21, 38-41, 61-66

instructional sensitivity, 4, 46-49 (passim), 82, 94-95

international perspectives, 16

multiple measures, 9, 48, 53, 54, 58, 63, 65, 66, 68-69, 80, 87, 88, 89, 91-92, 95, 97, 98

multiple purpose, 46-47, 54

portfolios, 4, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 81, 82, 83

recommendations, 47-49

standards, general, 1, 9-10, 16-17, 18, 42-50

students with disabilities, 10, 21, 51, 55-60

teachers, 4, 5-6, 19-20, 47-48, 49-50, 53, 54-55

technical quality, 45, 46, 47

see also Reporting requirements; School district assessment; School-level assessment; Standards; Student assessment, individual

Attitudes, see Motivation

B

Boston, Massachusetts, 50

Brazosport, Texas, 76



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--> Index A. Accommodations English-language learners, 61-66 (passim) students with disabilities, 5, 55-60 (passim) Accountability, v, vi-vii, 2, 3, 10, 11-12, 73, 91-101 administrators, 6, 22, 92, 97, 98 curriculum design, 17, 92 early childhood education, 50, 51-52 education improvement systems, 6, 12-13, 20, 22 English-language learners, 63-64, 65 federal role, 13, 17, 85, 90, 91, 92-94 internal, 6, 19, 92-93, 98 multiple measures, 91-92, 95, 97, 98 multiple-purpose assessments, 47 school-level, 6, 15, 17, 19, 65, 86, 87, 88, 89, 92-101 (passim) standards-based reform model, 16, 17-18 student, individual, 93-94 students with disabilities, 56 teachers, 6, 18, 19, 22, 52, 86, 92, 97, 98 yearly progress requirements, 85-90, 91 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Reporting requirements; Standards Administrators and administration, vi, 20 accountability, 6, 22, 92, 97, 98 content standards, 26 instructional methods, 17, 76-77 reporting of results, 69 Alabama, 60 Alignment, iv, vii, x, 2, 15, 17, 20, 26, 43-45, 75 American Federation of Teachers, 25 Assessment strategies, v, vi-vii, 2, 11-12, 26, 42-73 alignment, iv, vii, x, 2, 15, 17, 20, 26, 43-45, 75 early childhood learners (K-3), 4, 14, 21, 24, 39-41, 50-55, 57 education improvement systems, 4-5, 12-13, 20, 21 English-language learners, 5, 10, 21, 38-41, 61-66 instructional sensitivity, 4, 46-49 (passim), 82, 94-95 international perspectives, 16 multiple measures, 9, 48, 53, 54, 58, 63, 65, 66, 68-69, 80, 87, 88, 89, 91-92, 95, 97, 98 multiple purpose, 46-47, 54 portfolios, 4, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 81, 82, 83 recommendations, 47-49 standards, general, 1, 9-10, 16-17, 18, 42-50 students with disabilities, 10, 21, 51, 55-60 teachers, 4, 5-6, 19-20, 47-48, 49-50, 53, 54-55 technical quality, 45, 46, 47 see also Reporting requirements; School district assessment; School-level assessment; Standards; Student assessment, individual Attitudes, see Motivation B Boston, Massachusetts, 50 Brazosport, Texas, 76

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--> C California, 81 Center for Applied Linguistics, 61 Chicago, Illinois, 78-79 Clinton, William, 93 Community District 2 (New York), 49, 76-77, 84 Computerized feedback, 18 Connecticut, 27-29 Content standards, vii, 4, 8, 24-32 administrators, 26 curriculum issues, 25, 28 defined, 4, 24, 27, 28 English-language learners, 61, 62 fairness, 27 instructional methods, 24-25, 26 mathematics, 24, 27, 30-32 professional development, 82 recommendations, 26-27 science, 24, 27-29 state-level, 1, 10, 24, 25, 26, 27-32, 43 validity issues, 25-26 Cost and cost-benefit factors, vi, 2, 11, 16 alignment, tests and standards, 45 Title I, general, 1, 7-8 Council for Basic Education, 25 Council of Chief State School Officers, 61 CRESST, see National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing Curriculum and curriculum design, 5, 15, 19, 23, 54-55, 77 accountability, 17, 92 alignment, iv, vii, x, 2, 15, 17, 20, 26, 43-45, 75 content standards, 25, 28 flexibility, 9, 17, 18, 92 professional development and, 79, 81 test-taking skills and, 8 see also Instructional methods D Department of Education, vi, 61, 96 Disabled students, see Students with disabilities Disaggregating data, 71-73, 78 District-level assessment, see School district assessment; specific districts E Early childhood education (K-3), 4, 14, 21, 24, 39-41, 50-55 accountability, 50, 51-52 assessment strategies, 4, 14, 21, 24, 39-41, 50-55, 57 federal role, 4, 50 multiple measures, 53, 54 school district assessment, 79, 81 special education, 51, 52 state government role, 50-55 teachers, 52, 53 validity issues, 52, 54 Economic factors, v incentives and penalties, 3, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 89, 92, 96-97 poverty, 10, 23-24, 47, 66, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 88 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Funding Educational Testing Service, 52 Education improvement systems, 3-6, 12, 20-22 accountability, 6, 12-13, 20, 22 assessment strategies, 4-5, 12-13, 20, 21 instructional methods, 3, 4, 5-6, 21, 22 performance standards, 3, 4, 5, 21 reporting requirements, 21 standards, general, 3-6, 20, 21 state government role, 3, 5, 12, 21 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Title I), see Federal government Elementary education, 10, 50 mathematics standards, 36-37 science standards, 24, 28-29 Title I students, number of, 1, 7 yearly progress requirements, 87, 89 see also Early childhood education English-language learners, 5, 10, 21, 38-41, 61-66, 72, 73 accommodations, 61-66 (passim) accountability, 63-64, 65 assessment strategies, 5, 10, 21, 38-41, 61-66 content standards, 61, 62 federal government role, 60, 61, 63 multiple measures, 63, 66 performance standards, 38-39 school district role, 62, 63, 64, 65-66 standards, general, 61-62 state government role, 61, 62, 63, 64-65 validity issues, 61, 63, 64 Evaluation, see Accountability; Assessment strategies; Standards

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--> F Fairness, 11 content standards, 27 performance standards, 35, 47, 49 Federal government, 7-8, 10, 42, 85 accountability, 13, 17, 85, 90, 91, 92-94 Department of Education, vi, 61, 96 early childhood education, 4, 50 education improvement systems, 6 English-language learners, 60, 61, 63 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 68, 99 National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, 45, 70 National Educational Goals Panel, 18, 33, 51 performance standards, 1, 10, 24, 42 reporting, 45, 55, 68, 70, 99 school-based assessments, 6 students with disabilities, 55, 56, 57, 58 Title I, funding and costs, 1, 7-8 Title I, general, iv-vii, 1-2, 7-11, 12, 15, 17, 19, 23, 41-43, 52 Title I students, number of, 1, 7 yearly progress requirements, 85, 90 Foreign countries, see International perspectives Foreign-language speakers, see English-language learners Funding, v professional development, 84 students with disabilities, 58 study at hand, vi Title I, general, 1, 7-8 G Goals 2000, 57 Government role, see Federal government; Funding; Local government; Political factors; State government I Incentives and penalties, 3, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 89, 92, 96-97, 98, 100 Individualized education programs, 55, 57, 59, 60 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 55, 56, 57 Instructional methods, vi, 23, 74-85, 92, 97 administrators, 17, 76-77 authentic pedagogy, 75 content standards, 24-25, 26 early childhood education, 51 education improvement systems, 3, 4, 5-6, 21, 22 federally mandated tests, 42 flexibility, 9, 17, 18, 92 performance standards, 33, 39-41 professional development, 80 reporting of results, 71 standards-based reform, other, 3, 17, 19, 74 test-taking skills and, 8 yearly progress requirements, 87-88 see also Curriculum and curriculum design Instructional sensitivity, 4, 46-49 (passim), 82, 94-95 Internal accountability, 6, 19, 92-93, 98 International perspectives, 16, 75 K Kentucky, 9, 81, 83, 86-87, 93, 95 L Language Assessment Scales, 65 Language issues, see English-language learners Local government, 2 education improvement systems, 3 standards-based reform, v, vi, vii, 2 see also School district assessment; specific cities Los Angeles, California, 70 M. Maryland, 59-60 Memphis, Tennessee, 19 Michigan, 75-76 Mississippi, 93 Missouri, 90 Motivation, 16, 20, 59, 93 see also Incentives and penalties Multiple-choice items, 12, 28, 43, 87 Multiple measures, 9, 48, 58, 65, 68-69, 80, 87, 88, 89 accountability, 91-92, 95, 97, 98 early childhood, 53, 54 English-language learners, 63, 66 yearly progress requirements, 87, 88, 89

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--> N National Assessment Governing Board, 68 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 68, 99 National Association for Bilingual Education, 61 National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, 45, 70 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards, 15, 24 National Educational Goals Panel, 18, 33, 51 National Governor's Association, 92 National Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teaching , 80 National Science Education Standards, 24 New Standards Performance Standards, 35-37 New York City, 18, 49, 76-77, 84 Norm-referenced testing, 7, 8, 42, 43, 44, 48, 66-67 North Carolina, 16, 18, 19, 27, 30-32, 89, 99 O Office of Bilingual Education and Language Minority Affairs, 61 P Penalties, see Incentives and penalties Performance standards, vii, 16-17, 23, 24, 33-41, 43, 91 CRESST, 45 defined, 4, 33-35 education improvement systems, 3, 4, 5, 21 English as a second language, 38-39 fairness, 35, 47, 49 federal role, 1, 10, 24, 42 instructional methods, 33, 39-41 mathematics, 15, 28, 33, 36-41 multiple-purpose assessments, 46-47 noneducational, 15-16 norm-referenced testing, 7, 8, 42, 43, 44, 48, 66-67 professional development, 82 recommendations, 34-35 reporting of results, 68-69 state government role, 1, 9, 16, 33, 43, 45, 77-78 Title I programs, 1, 10, 42 validity, 45 yearly progress requirements, 85-90 see also Content standards Pew Charitable Foundation, vi Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19, 65-66, 77 Political factors, v, 11, 25 Portfolios, 4, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 81, 82, 83 Poverty, 10, 23-24, 47, 66, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 88 Privacy, 73 Professional development, 3, 20, 24, 26, 49, 79-84, 95 curriculum, 79, 81 school districts, 80, 81-82, 84 state government role, 80, 81, 83 Promotion and retention in grade, 93-94 R Reporting requirements, 48, 64, 66-70 administrators, 69 disaggregating data, 71-73, 78 education improvement systems, 21 federal role, 45, 55, 68, 70, 99 performance standards, 68-69 privacy, 73 state government role, 68-70, 71, 72, 73 teachers, 69, 70 Retention in grade, see Promotion and retention in grade Rewards and sanctions, see Incentives and penalties S Sampling, 4, 88-89 San Antonio, Texas, 19 Sanctions and rewards, see Incentives and penalties School district assessment, 4, 19, 21, 49-50 accountability, 91, 96, 97, 100 content standards, 26, 29 early childhood education, 53, 57 English-language learners, 62, 63, 64, 65-66 individual student assessment, 55-56, 58-59 instructional methods, 76-79 reporting of results, 68-69, 71, 72 professional development, 80, 81-82, 84 students with disabilities, 55-56, 58-59 validity issues, 45 yearly progress requirements, 86, 89 see also specific districts School-level assessment, 4, 15, 17, 19, 23-24, 29, 73 accountability, 6, 15, 17, 19, 65, 86, 87, 88, 89, 92-101 (passim) disaggregation of data, 71-72

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--> instructional methods, 77, 78-79 internal accountability, 6, 19, 92-93, 98 professional development, 80 validity issues, 45-46 yearly progress requirements, 86-89 (passim) Secondary education science education standards, 24 students with disabilities, 60 Title I standards, 10 Title I students, number of, 1, 7 Second-language students, see English-language learners Skills, see Performance standards South Brunswick, New Jersey, 54 Special populations, 10, 14, 17 early childhood education, 51, 52 poor students, 10, 23-24, 47, 66, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 88 see also English-language learners; Students with disabilities Spencer Foundation, vi Standards, v alignment, iv, vii, x, 2, 15, 17, 20, 26, 43-45, 75 assessment strategies, general, 1, 9-10, 16-17, 18, 42-50 education improvement systems, 3-6, 20, 21 English-language learners, 61-62 international perspectives, 16, 75 reform, standards-based, general, v, 2-3, 8-9, 11, 15-20, 23-24, 43 , 74 reform, standards-based model, 16-18 reporting requirements, 21, 66-70 yearly progress requirements, 85-90 see also Accountability; Content standards; Performance standards Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 46-47 Stanford Achievement Test, 65 State government, 1, 2, 9, 12 accountability efforts, 86-87, 88, 89-90, 91, 93, 95, 96-97, 99-101 alignment, tests and standards, 43-45 content standards, 1, 10, 24, 25, 26, 27-32, 43 early childhood education, 50-55 education improvement systems, 3, 5, 12, 21 English-language learners, 61, 62, 63, 64-65 instructional methods, 75-78 performance standards, 1, 9, 16, 33, 43, 45, 77-78 professional development, 80, 81, 83 reporting of results, 68-70, 71, 72, 73 standards-based reform, other, v, vi, vii, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18 student accountability, 94 students with disabilities, 55-56, 57, 58-60 yearly progress requirements, 86-87, 88, 89-90 see also specific states Student assessment, individual, 4, 5, 8, 16, 21, 23-73, 77-78 accountability, 93-94 individualized education program, 55, 57 portfolios, 4, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 81, 82, 83 promotion and retention in grade, 93-94 sampling vs, 4 school districts, 55-56, 58-59 see also Content standards; English-language learners; Performance standards; Special populations; Students with disabilities Students with disabilities, 5, 10, 21, 51, 55-60 accountability, 56 assessment strategies, 10, 21, 51, 55-60 federal role, 55, 56, 57, 58 individualized education programs, 55, 57, 59, 60 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 55, 56, 57 state government role, 55-56, 57, 58-60 validity issues, 56-59 (passim) T Teachers, 19-20, 74, 75-76 accountability, 6, 18, 19, 22, 52, 86, 92, 97, 98 assessments, 4, 5-6, 19-20, 47-48, 49-50, 53, 54-55 early childhood education, 52, 53 professional development, 3, 20, 24, 26, 49, 79-84, 95 reporting of results, 69, 70 yearly progress requirements, 86 Teachers of English to Students of Other Languages, 35, 61 Teaching, 2, 11, 20 content standards, 26 performance standards, 39-41 test-taking skills, 8, 42 see also Instructional methods Texas, 16, 18, 19, 47, 65, 73, 99-101 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills, 65, 73, 99-101 Title I, see Federal government

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--> U University of Michigan, 54-55 V Validity, 9, 21, 45-46, 48-49, 61, 63, 64, 67, 86, 89 content standards, 25-26 early childhood testing, 52, 54 English-language learners, 61, 63, 64 performance standards, 45 school/school-district assessment, 45-46 students with disabilities, 56-59 (passim) see also Fairness Vermont, 81, 83 Virginia, 25 W Work Sampling System, 54-55 W.T. Grant Foundation, vi Y Yearly progress requirements, 85-90, 91