C

California, 81

Center for Applied Linguistics, 61

Chicago, Illinois, 78-79

Clinton, William, 93

Community District 2 (New York), 49, 76-77, 84

Computerized feedback, 18

Connecticut, 27-29

Content standards, vii, 4, 8, 24-32

administrators, 26

curriculum issues, 25, 28

defined, 4, 24, 27, 28

English-language learners, 61, 62

fairness, 27

instructional methods, 24-25, 26

mathematics, 24, 27, 30-32

professional development, 82

recommendations, 26-27

science, 24, 27-29

state-level, 1, 10, 24, 25, 26, 27-32, 43

validity issues, 25-26

Cost and cost-benefit factors, vi, 2, 11, 16

alignment, tests and standards, 45

Title I, general, 1, 7-8

Council for Basic Education, 25

Council of Chief State School Officers, 61

CRESST, see National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing

Curriculum and curriculum design, 5, 15, 19, 23, 54-55, 77

accountability, 17, 92

alignment, iv, vii, x, 2, 15, 17, 20, 26, 43-45, 75

content standards, 25, 28

flexibility, 9, 17, 18, 92

professional development and, 79, 81

test-taking skills and, 8

see also Instructional methods

D

Department of Education, vi, 61, 96

Disabled students, see Students with disabilities

Disaggregating data, 71-73, 78

District-level assessment, see School district assessment; specific districts

E

Early childhood education (K-3), 4, 14, 21, 24, 39-41, 50-55

accountability, 50, 51-52

assessment strategies, 4, 14, 21, 24, 39-41, 50-55, 57

federal role, 4, 50

multiple measures, 53, 54

school district assessment, 79, 81

special education, 51, 52

state government role, 50-55

teachers, 52, 53

validity issues, 52, 54

Economic factors, v

incentives and penalties, 3, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 89, 92, 96-97

poverty, 10, 23-24, 47, 66, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 88

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Funding

Educational Testing Service, 52

Education improvement systems, 3-6, 12, 20-22

accountability, 6, 12-13, 20, 22

assessment strategies, 4-5, 12-13, 20, 21

instructional methods, 3, 4, 5-6, 21, 22

performance standards, 3, 4, 5, 21

reporting requirements, 21

standards, general, 3-6, 20, 21

state government role, 3, 5, 12, 21

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Title I), see Federal government

Elementary education, 10, 50

mathematics standards, 36-37

science standards, 24, 28-29

Title I students, number of, 1, 7

yearly progress requirements, 87, 89

see also Early childhood education

English-language learners, 5, 10, 21, 38-41, 61-66, 72, 73

accommodations, 61-66 (passim)

accountability, 63-64, 65

assessment strategies, 5, 10, 21, 38-41, 61-66

content standards, 61, 62

federal government role, 60, 61, 63

multiple measures, 63, 66

performance standards, 38-39

school district role, 62, 63, 64, 65-66

standards, general, 61-62

state government role, 61, 62, 63, 64-65

validity issues, 61, 63, 64

Evaluation, see Accountability; Assessment strategies; Standards



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