as “leading indicators” that provide evidence of progress in advance of progress on tests and other performance measures, in the same way that data on factory orders show growth in the economy in advance of increases in the employment rate.
Moving the Distribution. The goal should be to enable all students to reach the desired level; therefore, any definition of progress should include success in reducing the number of students at the lower levels of achievement as well as increasing the number attaining the standards.
Continuous Progress. Progress measurements should encourage all schools to improve continuously; however, states should acknowledge schools that reach high levels of achievement.
Reduction of Error. If states in their adequate progress measures use cross-sectional measures of achievement—comparing this year's 4th graders to last year's—they should measure progress over at least a two-year period, in order to reduce the sampling error that could occur because of shifts in student populations in schools. If states assess each student each year and measure