3

 

TRANSFORMATION AND TRANSITION

 

14

   

 The Digital Revolution in Spatial Data Handling,

 

14

   

 Geographic Information Systems: Background,

 

15

   

 The Nature of GIS,

 

16

   

 Computer Technology and Cartography: Background,

 

21

   

 NMD and Digital Cartography,

 

21

   

 Spatial Information and the Economy,

 

22

   

 Shifts in User Requirements,

 

22

   

 Transformation of Public Sector Requirements,

 

24

   

 Military Requirements,

 

24

   

 Federal Civilian Requirements,

 

25

   

 State and Local Government Requirements,

 

28

   

 Committee Research on Requirements,

 

28

   

 Transformation of Private Sector Requirements,

 

31

   

 Additional Base Data Needs,

 

31

   

 Private/Public Sector Relationships in Mapping,

 

33

   

 Other User Requirements,

 

34

   

 USGS/NMD Responses to Technological Transformation,

 

35

   

 Research,

 

38

4

 

TOMORROW

 

41

   

 NMD and Forces for Change,

 

41

   

 A Future for the National Mapping Division,

 

43

   

 Recommendations,

 

44

   

1. National Spatial Data Base,

 

44

   

2. Data Base Enhancement,

 

45

   

3. External Coordination Focus,

 

45

   

4. Standards Responsibility,

 

46

   

5. Data Base Structure and Operations,

 

47

   

6. Research Responsibility,

 

48

   

 A Vision for the Future,

 

49

 

 

REFERENCES AND NOTES

 

51

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

53

   

A   Committee Meetings and Agendas

 

55

   

B   Committee’s Survey and Interviews Concerning User Requirements and Satisfaction

 

68

   

C   National Mapping Division’s User Requirements Evaluation Process

 

72

   

D   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

 

75



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