Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 373
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Protein and Amino Acids, 1999 Pp. 373-409. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press D Protein and Amino Acids—A Selected Bibliography On the following pages is a selection of references dealing with the role of protein and amino acids in sustaining and enhancing performance. This bibliography was compiled from the joint reference lists of the chapters in this report, selected references from a limited literature search, and references recommended by the invited speakers as background reading for workshop participants. As a result, references that are historical in nature are included in this listing along with the most current studies.
OCR for page 374
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Ahlers, S.T., J.R. Thomas, J. Schrot, and D. Shurtleff. 1994. Tyrosine and glucose modulation of cognitive deficits. Pp. 301-320 in Food Components to Enhance Performance, B. Marriott, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Albino, J.E., and R.B. Mateo. 1995. Nitric oxide. Pp. 99-123 in Amine Acid Metabolism and Therapy in Health and Nutritional Disease, L.A. Cynober, ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Allen, L.H., E.A. Oddoye, and S. Margen. 1979. Protein-induced hypercalciuria: A longer term study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:741-749. Allison, J.B., J.A. Anderson, and R.D. Seeley. 1947. Some effects of methionine on the utilization of nitrogen in the adult dog. J. Nutr. 33:361-370. Andersen, P., and B. Saltin. 1985. Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. J. Physiol. 366:233-249. Anderson, C.F., J.A. Velosa, P.P. Frohnert, V.E. Torres, K.P. Offord, J.P. Vogel, J.V. Donadio, Jr., and D.M. Wilson. 1985. The risks of unilateral nephrectomy: Status of kidney donors 10 to 20 years postoperatively. Mayo Clin. Proc. 60:367-374. Anderson, E.C. 1963. Three component body composition analysis based on potassium and water determinations. Ann NY Acad Sci. 110:189-212. Anderson, J.W., B.M. Johnstone, and M.E. Cooke-Newell. 1995. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N. Engl. J. Mad. 333(5): 276-282. Anderson, S., and B.M. Brenner. 1987. The aging kidney: structure, function, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 35:590-593. Anderson, S.A., and D.J. Raiten (eds.). 1992. Safety of amine acids as dietary supplements. Bethesda, Md.: Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology. Andrews, P.M., and S.B. Bates. 1986. Dietary protein prior to renal ischemia dramatically affects postischemic kidney damage. Kidney Int. 30:299-303. Anggard, E. 1994. Nitric oxide: Mediator, murderer and medicine. Lancet 343:1199-1206. AR (Army Regulation) 40-250. 1947. See U.S. Department of the Army, 1947. AR (Army Regulation) 40-25. 1985. See U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. AR (Army Regulation) 40-25. 1989. See U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, 1985. Ardawi, M.S.M., and E.A. Newsholme. 1983. Glutamine metabolism in lymphocytes of the rat. Biochem. J. 212:835-842. Artuson, G. 1961. Pathophysiological aspects of the bum syndrome. Acta Chirg. Scand. 274:7-64. Askew, E.W. 1989. Nutrition for a cold environment. Phys. Sportsmed. 17:77-89. Askew, E.W., J.R. Claybaugh, S.A. Cucinell, A.J. Young, and E.G. Szeto. 1986. Nutrient intakes and work performance of soldiers during seven days of exercise at 7,200 ft. altitude consuming the Meal, Ready-to-Eat ration. Technical Report No. T3-87. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Askew, E.W., I. Munro, M.A. Sharp, S. Siegel, R. Popper, M.S. Rose, R.W. Hoyt, K. Reynolds, H.R. Lieberman, D. Engell, and C.P. Shaw. 1987. Nutritional status and physical and mental performance of soldiers consuming the Ration, Lightweight or the Meal, Ready-to-Eat military field ration during a 30 day field training exercise (RLW-30). Technical Report No. T7-87. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Atinmo, T., C.M.F. Mbofung, M.A. Hussain, and B.O. Osotimehin. 1985. Human protein requirements: Obligatory urinary and faecal nitrogen losses and the factorial estimation of protein needs of Nigerian male adults. Br. J. Nutr. 54:605-611. Atinmo, T., C.M.F. Mbofung, G. Eggum, and B.O. Osotimehin. 1988. Nitrogen balance study in young Nigerian adult males using four levels of protein intake. Br. J. Nutr. 60:451-458.
OCR for page 375
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Aulick, L.H., and D.W. Wilmore. 1979. Increased peripheral amino acid release following bum injury. Surgery 30:196-197. Baker-Fulco, C.J., J.C. Buchbinder, S.A. Torri, and E.W. Askew. 1992. Dietary Status of Marine Corps officer candidates. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. J. [FASEB J] 6(4):A1682. Baker-Fulco, C.J., S.A. Torri, J.E. Arsenault, and J.C. Buchbinder. 1994. Impact of menu changes designed to promote a training diet [abstract]. J. Am. Diet. Assn. 94:A9. Baker-Fulco, C.J. 1995. Overview of dietary intakes during military exercises. Pp. 121-149 in Not Eating Enough, Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations, B.M. Marriott, ed. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Balagopal, P., O.E. Rooyackers, D.B. Adey, P.A. Ades, and K.S. Nair. 1997. Effects of aging on in vivo synthesis of skeletal muscle myosin heavy-chain and sarcoplasmic protein in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 273:E790-E800 Ballevre, O., A. Cadenhead, A.G. Calder, W.D. Rees, G.E. Lobley, M.F. Fuller, and P.J. Garlick. 1990. Quantitative partition of threonine oxidation in pigs: Effect of dietary threonine. Am. J. Physiol. 259:E483-E491. Bams, J.L., and D.R. Miranda. 1985. Outcome and costs of intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 11:234-241. Banderet, L.E., and H.R. Lieberman. 1989. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res. Bull. 22:759-762. Banister, E.W., and B.J.C. Cameron. 1990. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia: Peripheral and central effects. Int. J. Sports Mad. 11:S129-S142. Bararc-Nieto, M., G.B. Spurr, H. Lotero, and M.G. Maksud. 1978. Body composition in chronic under nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31:23-41. Barbul, A., S.A. Lazarou, D.T. Efron, H.L. Wasserkrug, and G. Efron. 1990. Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses in humans . Surgery 108(2):331-336. Basile-Filho, A., L. Beaumier, A.E. El-Khoury, Y.M. Yu, M. Kenneway, R.E. Gleason, and V.R. Young. 1998. Twenty-four hour L-[L-13C]tyrosine and L-[3,3-2H]phenylalanine oral tracer aromatic amino acid requirements in adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 67:640-659 Baumgartner, R.N., W.C. Chumlea, and A.F. Roche. 1989. Estimation of body composition from bioelectric impedance of body segments. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50(2):221-226. Baumgartner R.N., R.L. Rhyne, P.J. Garry, S.B. Heymsfield. 1993. Imaging techniques and anatomical body composition in aging. J Nutr. 123:444-448. Baumgartner, R.N., R. Ross, S.B. Heymsfield, Z. Wang, D. Gallagher, Y. Martel, J. De Guise, W. Brooks. In Press. Cross-validation of DXA versus MRI methods of quantifying appendicular skeletal muscle. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. Bay, W.H., and L.A. Hebert. 1987. Kidney donors and protein intake [letter to the editor]. Ann. Intern. Med. 107:427. Bean, WB., J.B. Youmans, W.F. Ashe, N. Nelson, D.M. Bell, L.M. Richardson, C.E. French, C.R. Henderson, R.E. Johnson, G.M. Ashmore, K.N. Halverson, and J. Wright. 1944. Project No. 30: Test of Acceptability and Adequacy of U.S. Army C, K, and 10-in-1, and Canadian Army Mess Tin Rations. Fort Knox, Ky.: Armored Medical Research Laboratory. Bean, W.B., C.R. Henderson, R.E. Johnson, and L.M. Richardson. 1946. Nutrition Survey in Pacific Theater of Operations. Report to the Surgeon General. Bull. U.S. Army Med. Dept. 5(6):697. Begum, A., A.N. Radhakrishnan, and S.M. Pereira. 1970. Effect of amino acid composition of cereal-based diets on growth of preschool children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23:1175-1183. Beisel, W.R. 1992. Metabolic responses of the host to infections. Pp. 1-13 in Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Vol. I, 3rd ed., R.D. Feigin and J.D. Cherry, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
OCR for page 376
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Beisel, W.R., W.D. Sawyer, E.D. Ryll, and D. Crozier. 1967. Metabolic effects of intracellular infection in man. Ann. Int. Med. 67:744-779. Belcher, H.J., D. Mercer, K.C. Judkins, S. Shalaby, S. Wise, V. Marks, and N.S. Tanner. 1989. Biosynthetic human growth hormone in burned patients: A pilot study. Burns 15:99-107. Bender, A.E. 1961. Determination of the nutritive value of proteins by chemical analysis. Pp. 407-415 in Progress in Meeting Protein Needs of Infants and Preschool Children. Pub. 843. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council. Benevenga, N.J., and R.D. Steele. 1984. Adverse effects of excessive consumption of amine acids. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 4:157-181. Benevenga, N.J., M.J. Gahl, T.D. Crenshaw, and M.D. Fink. 1994. Protein and amine acid requirements for maintenance and growth of laboratory rats. J. Nutr. 124:451-453. Bergström, J., and E. Hültman. 1967. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: An enhancing factor localized to the muscle cells in man. Nature 201:309-310. Bergström, J., P. Fürst, and E. Vinnars. 1990. Effect of a test meal, without and with protein, on muscle and plasma free amine acids. Clin. Sci. 79:331-337. Berneis, K., R. Ninnis, J. Girard, B.M. Frey, and U. Keller. 1997. Effects of insulin-like growth factor I combined with growth hormone on glucocorticoid-induced whole-body protein catabolism in man. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:2528-2534. Bessey, P.Q., and K.A. Lowe. 1993. Early hormonal changes affect the catabolic response to trauma. Ann. Surg. 218:476-489. Bessey, P.Q., J.M. Watters, T.T. Aoki, and D.W. Wilmore. 1984. Combined hormonal infusions simulate the metabolic response to injury. Ann. Surg. 200:264-281. Betz, A.L., G.W. Goldstein, and R. Katzman. 1994. Blood-brain-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. Pp. 681-698 in Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects, 5th ed., G.J. Siegel, ed. New York: Raven Press Bhasin, S., T. Storer, N. Berman, C. Callegari, B. Clevenger, J. Phillips, T.J. Bunell, R. Tricker, A. Shirari, and R. Casaburi. 1996. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:1-7. Bier, D.M., D.E. Matthews, and V.R. Young. 1985. Interpretation of amine acid kinetic studies in the context of whole body protein metabolism. Pp. 27-36 in Substrate and Energy Metabolism in Man, J.S. Garrow and D. Halliday, eds. London and Paris: John Libbey. Bingham, S., B. Pignatelli, J. Pollock, A. Ellul, C. Mallaveille, G. Gross, S. Runswick, J.H. Cummings, and I.K. O'Neill. 1996. Does increased formation of endogenous N nitroso compounds in the human colon explain the association between red meat and colon cancer? Carcinogenesis 17:515-523. Biolo, G., R.Y.D. Fleming, S.P. Maggi, and R.R. Wolfe. 1995a. Transmembrane transport and intracellular kinetics of amine acids in human skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 268(31):E75-E84. Biolo, G., R.Y.D. Fleming, and R.R. Wolfe. 1995b. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amine acids in human skeletal muscle. J. Clin. Invest. 95:811-819. Biolo, G., S.P. Maggi, B.D. Williams, K.D. Tipton, and R.R. Wolfe. 1995c. Increased rates of muscle protein turnover and amine acid transport after resistance exercise in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 268:E514-E520. Black, P.R., D.C. Brooks, P.Q. Bessey, R.R. Wolfe, and D.W. Wilmore. 1982. Mechanisms of insulin resistance following surgery. Ann. Surg. 196:420-435. Block, G.D., R.J. Wood, and L.H. Allen. 1980. A comparison of the effects of feeding sulfur amine acids and protein on urine calcium in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33:2128-2136.
OCR for page 377
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Blomstrand, E., and E. A. Newsholme. 1996. Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on plasma and muscle concentrations of amino acids during prolonged submaximal exercise. Nutrition 12:485-490. Blomstrand, E., P. Hassmén, B. Ekblom, and E.A. Newsholme. 1991. Administration of branched-chain amino acids during sustained exercise-Effects on performance and on plasma concentration of some amino acids. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 63:83-88. Blomstrand, E., S. Andersson, P. Hassmén, B. Ekblom, and E.A. Newsholme. 1995. Effect of branched-chain amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in human subjects. Acta Physiol. Scand. 153:87-96. Blomstrand, E., P. Hassmén, S. Ek, B. Ekblom, and E.A. Newsholme. 1997. Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on perceived exertion during exercise. Acta Physiol. Scand. 159:41-49. Bodwell, C.E., E.M. Schuster, E. Kyle, B. Brooks, M. Womack, P. Steele, and R. Ahrens. 1979. Obligatory urinary and fecal nitrogen losses in young women, older men and young men: Factorial estimation of adult human protein requirements. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:2450-2459. Bolourchi, S., C.M. Friedeman, and O. Mickelson. 1968. Wheat flour as a source of protein for adult human subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr 21:827-835. Borchers, J., and G.E. Butterfield. 1992. The effect of meal composition on protein utilization following an exercise bout. Med. Sci. Sports. Exer. 24:S51. Bortz W.M. II. 1982. Disuse and aging. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 248:1203-1208 Bourgoignie, J.J., G. Gayellas, S.G. Sabnis, and T.T. Antonovych. 1994. Effect of protein diets on the renal function of baboons (Papio hamadryas) with remnant kidneys: A 5-year follow-up. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 23:199-204. Bovée, K.C. 1991. Influence of dietary protein on renal function in dogs. J. Nutr. 121:S128-S139. Brenner, B.M., T.W. Meyer, and T.W. Hostetter. 1982. Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: The role of hemodynamically moderated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation and intrinsic renal disease. New Engl. J. Med. 307:652-659. Brenner, I.K.M., P.N. Shek, and R.J. Shepherd. 1994. Infection in athletes. Sports Med. 17:86-107. Breslau, N.A., L. Brinkley, K.D. Hill, and C.Y.C. Pak. 1988. Relationship of animal protein-rich diet to kidney stone formation and calcium metabolism. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 66:140-146. Brodsky, I.G., P. Balagopal, and K.S. Nair. 1996. Effects of testosterone replacement on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis in hypogonadal men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 81:3469-3475. Brotherhood, J.R. 1984. Nutrition and sports performance. Sports Med. 1:350-389. Brzezinski, A., J. Wurtman, R.J. Wurtman, R. Gleason, T. Nader, and B. Laferrere. 1990. d-Fenfluramine suppresses the increased calorie and carbohydrate intakes and improves the mood of women with premenstrual syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 76:206-211. Bucci, L.R. 1989. Nutritional ergogenic aids. Pp. 107-184 in Nutrition in Exercise and Sport, J.F. Hickson, Jr., and I. Wolinsky, eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Burkinshaw, L., G.L. Hill, D.B. Morgan. 1978. Assessment of the distribution of protein in the human body by in-vivo neutron activation analysis. International Symposium on Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Association. Burns, J.E., and H. Kacser. 1987. Genetic effects on susceptibility to histidine induced teratogenesis in the mouse. Genet. Res. 50(2): 147-153.
OCR for page 378
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Buskirk, E.R. 1993. Energetics and climate with emphasis on heat: A historical perspective. Pp. 97-116 in Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. B.M. Marriott, ed. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Buskirk, E.R. 1996. Exercise. Pp. 420-429, Chapter 41 in Present Knowledge in Nutrition, E.E. Ziegler and L.J. Filer, Jr., eds. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press. Butterfield, G.E. 1987. Whole-body protein utilization in humans. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 19:S157-165. Butterfield, G.E. 1996. Maintenance of body weight at high altitudes: In search of 500 kcal/day. Pp. 357-378 in Nutritional Needs in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments, B.M. Marriott and S.J. Carlson, eds. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Butterfield, G.E., and D.H. Calloway. 1984. Physical activity improves protein utilization in young men. Br. J. Nutr. 11:171-184. Butterfield, G.E., J. Gates, S. Fleming, G.A. Brooks, J.R. Sutton, and J.T. Reeves. 1992. Increased energy intake minimizes weight loss in men at high altitude. J. Appl. Physiol. 72:1741-1748. Butterfield, G.E., J. Thompson, M.J. Rennie, R. Marcus, R.L. Hintz and A.R. Hoffman. 1997. Effect of rhGH and IGF-I treatment on protein utilization in elderly women. Am. J. Physiol. 272:E94-E99. Calloway, D.H. 1975. Nitrogen balance of men with marginal intakes of protein and energy. J. Nutr. 105:914-923. Calloway, D.H., and S. Margen. 1971. Variation in endogenous nitrogen excretion and dietary nitrogen utilization as determinants of human protein requirements. L Nutr. 101:205-216. Calloway, D.H., and H. Spector. 1954. Nitrogen balance as related to caloric and protein intake in active young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2:405-412. Calloway, D.H., A.C.F. Odell, and S.J. Margen. 1971. Sweat and miscellaneous nitrogen losses in human balance studies. J. Nutr. 101:775-786. Cameron, J. R., J. Sorenson. 1963. Measurement of bone mineral in vivo. Science 42:230-32. Campbell, W.W., M.C. Crim, V.R. Young, L.J. Joseph, and W. Evans. 1995. Effects of resistance training and dietary protein intake on protein metabolism in older adults. Am. J. Physiol. 268:E1143-1153. Cannon, J.G., R.G. Tompkins, J.A. Gelfand, H.R. Michie, G.G. Stanford, J.W.M. van der Meer, S. Endres, G. Lonnemann, J. Corsetti, B. Chernow, D.W. Wilmore, S.M. Wolff, J.F. Burke, and C.A. Dinarello. 1990. Circulating interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor in septic shock and experimental endotoxin fever. J. Infect. Dis. 161:79-84. Carlson, D.E., T.B. Dugan, J.C. Buchbinder, J.D. Allegretto, and D.D. Schnakenberg. 1987. Nutritional assessment of the Ft. Riley Non-commissioned Officer Academy dining facility. Technical Report T14-87. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Carraro, F., W.H. Hartl, C.A. Stuart, D.K. Layman, F. Jahoor, and R.R. Wolfe. 1990. Whole body and plasma protein synthesis in exercise and recovery in human subjects. J. Appl. Physiol. 258:E821-E831. Castell, L.M., J.R. Poortmans, and E.A. Newsholme. 1996. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infection in animals. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 13:488-490. Celejowa, I., and M. Homa. 1970. Food intake, nitrogen, and energy balance in Polish weightlifters during training camp. Nutr. Metab. 12:259-274. Champagne, C.M., J.P. Warber, and H.R. Allen. 1997. Dietary intake of U.S. Army Rangers: Estimation of nutrient intake before and after field training. Presented at the XVI International Congress of Nutrition, Montreal.
OCR for page 379
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Chang, F.C., and B. Herzog. 1976. Burn morbidity: A follow-up study of physical and psychological disability. Ann. Surg. 183:34-37. Chang, T.W., and A.L. Goldberg. 1978a. The origin of alanine produced in skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 253:3677-3684. Chang, T.W., and A.L. Goldberg. 1978b. The metabolic fates of amino acids and the formation of glutamine in skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 253:3685-3695. Chaouloff, F. 1989. Physical exercise and brain monoamines: a review. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 137:1-113. Chaouloff, F., J.L. Elghozi, Y. Guezennec, and D. Laude. 1985. Effect of conditioned running on plasma, liver and brain tryptophan and on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism of the rat. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 86:33-41. Charlton, M.R., D.B. Adey, and K.S. Nair. 1996. Evidence for a catabolic role of glucagon during an amino acid load. J. Clin. Invest. 98:90-99. Chesley, A., J.D. MacDougall, M.A. Tarnopolsky, S.A. Atkinson, and K. Smith. 1992. Changes in human muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 73:1383-1388. Chittenden, R.H. 1904. Physiological Economy of Nutrition. N.Y.: Frederick A. Stokes Co. Chittenden, R.H. 1907. The Nutrition of Man. London: Heinemann. Chumlea W.C. and S.S. Guo. 1994. Bioelectrical impedance and body composition: Present status and future directions. Nutr Rev. 52: 123-31. Churchill, D.N. 1987. Medical treatment to prevent recurrent calcium urolithiasis. Miner. Electrolyte Metab. 13:294-304. Clark, H.E., L.L. Reitz, T.S. Vacharotayan, and E.T. Mertz. 1962. Effect of certain factors on nitrogen retention and lysine requirements of adult human subjects. J. Nutr. 78:173-178. Clarke, J.T.R., and D.M. Bier. 1982. The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine in man. Direct measurement by continuous intravenous tracer infusions of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[l-13C]tyrosine in the postabsorptive state. Metabol. 31:999-1005. Clasey, J.L., M.L. Hartmen, J. Kanaley, L. Wideman, C.D. Teates, C. Bouchard, A. Weltman. 1997. Body composition by DEXA in older adults: Accuracy and influence of scan mode. Med Sci Sports Exerc.29:560-567. Cleare, A.J., and A.J. Bond. 1994. Effects of alterations in plasma tryptophan levels on aggressive feelings. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51(12):1004-1005. Cleare, A.J., and A.J. Bond. 1995. The effect of tryptophan depletion and enhancement on subjective and behavioral aggression in normal male subjects. Psychopharmacology 118(1):72-81. Cline, A.D., and A.E. Pusateri. 1996. Comparisons of iron status, physical activity, and nutritional intake of women entering Army officer and enlisted basic training. Proceedings of 21st National Nutrient Databank Conference, Baton Rouge, La. Cline, A.D., J.F. Patton, W.J. Tharion, S.R. Strowman, C.M. Champagne, J. Arsenault, K.L. Reynolds, J.P. Warber, C. Bsker-Fulco, J. Rood, R.T. Tulley, and H.R. Lieberman. 1998. Assessment of the relationship between iron status, dietary intake, performance, and mood state of female Army officers in a basic training population. Technical Report No. T98-24. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Cline, A.D., J.P. Warber, and C.M. Champagne. 1997. Assessment of meal consumption behaviors by physically active young men dining in a cafeteria setting. Presented at Experimental Biology Annual Meeting, New Orleans, La. FASEB J; 11:A184. Clugston, G., K.G. Dewey, C. Fjeld, J. Millward, P. Reeds, N.S. Scrimshaw, K. Tontisirin, J.C. Waterlow, and V.R. Young. 1996. Report of the working group on protein and amino acid requirements. Europ. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:S193-S195. Coe, F.L. 1978. Calcium-uric acid nephrolithiasis. Arch. Intern. Med. 138:1090-1093.
OCR for page 380
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Cohn, S.H., D. Vartsky, S. Yasumura, A. Sawitsky, I. Zanzi, A. Vaswani, K.J. Ellis. 1980. Compartmental body composition based on total-body nitrogen, potassium, and calcium. Am J Physiol. 39: E524-530. Coleman, G.L., W. Barthold, G.W. Osbaldiston, S.J. Foster, and A.M. Jonas. 1977. Pathological changes during aging in barrier-reared Fischer 344 male rats. J. Gerontol. 32:258-278. Coleman, W., and E.F. DuBois. 1915. Clinical calorimetry. VII. Calorimetric observations on the metabolism of typhoid patients with and without food. Ann. Int. Med. 15:887-938. Collins, D.M., C.T. Rezzo, J.B. Kopp, P. Ruiz, T.M. Coffman, and P.E. Klotman. 1990. Chronic high protein feeding does not produce glomerulonephrosis or renal insufficiency in the normal rat. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1:624. Collipp, P.J., J. Thomas, V. Curti, R.K. Sharma, V.T. Maddaiah, S.E. Cohn. 1973. Body composition changes in children receiving human growth hormone. Metabolism 22:589-595. Conlay, L.A., R.J. Wurtman, J.K. Blusztajan, I.L.G. Coviella, T.J. Maher, and G.E. Evoniuk. 1986. Marathon running decreases plasma choline concentrations. N. Engl. J. Med. 315:892. Consolazio, C.F., and R. Shapiro. 1964. Energy requirements of men in extreme heat. Pp. 121-124 in Environmental Physiology and Psychology in Arid Conditions: Proceedings of the Lucknow Symposium. Liege, Belgium: United Nations, UNESCO. Consolazio, C.F., H.L. Johnson, R.A. Nelson, R. Dowdy, and H.J. Krzywicki. 1979. The relationship of diet to the performance of the combat soldier's minimal calorie intake during combat patrols in a hot humid environment (Panama). Technical Report 76. San Francisco, Calif.: Letterman Army Institute of Research. Copeland, K.C., and K.S. Nair. 1994. Acute growth hormone effects on amine acid and lipid. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78:1040-1047. Costa, G., L. Ullrich, F. Kantor, and J.F. Holland. 1968. Production of elemental nitrogen by certain mammals including man. Nature 281:546-551. Cummings, J.H., S.A. Bingham, K.W. Heaton, and M.A. Eastwood. 1992. Quantitative estimates of bowel habit, bowel disease risk and the role of diet. Gastroenterol. 103:1783-1789. Curhan, G.C., W.C. Willett, E.B. Rimm, and M.J. Stampfer. 1993. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. New Engl. J. Med. 328:833-838. Cuneo, R.C., F. Salomon, C.M. Wiles, R. Hesp, P.H. Sonksen. 1991. Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone-deficient adults. II. Effects on exercise performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 70:695-700. Cuthbertson, D. and H.N. Munro. 1937. A study of the effect of over-feeding on the protein metabolism of man. III. The protein-saving effect of carbohydrate and fat when superimposed on a diet adequate for maintenance. Biochem. J. 31:694-705. Cuthbertson, D.P. 1932. Observations on disturbance of metabolism produced by injury to the limbs. Quart. J. Med. 25:233-246. Darmaun, D., D. Matthews, and D. Bier. 1986. Glutamine and glutamate kinetics in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 251:E117-E126. Davis, J.M., S.P. Bailey, J.A. Woods, F.J. Galiano, M.T. Hamilton, and W.P. Bartoli. 1992. Effects of carbohydrate feedings on plasma free tryptophan and branched chain amine acids during prolonged cycling. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 6:5:513-519. Deijen, J.B., and J.F. Orlebeke. 1994. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Res. Bull. 33:319-323. Delgado, P.L., D.S. Charney, L.H. Price, G.K. Aghajanian, H. Landis, and G.R. Heninger. 1990. Serotonin function and the mechanism of antidepressant action. Reversal of
OCR for page 381
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance antidepressant-induced remission by rapid depletion of plasma tryptophan.. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 47:411-418. Department of Health, Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. 1991. Report on Health and Social Subjects, Number 41. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Dewey, K.G., G. Beaton, C. Fjeld, B. Lonnerdal, and P. Reeds. 1996. Protein requirements of infants and children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50(Suppl. 1):S119-S147. Dohm, G.L., G.J. Kasperek, E.B. Tapscott, and G.R. Beecher. 1980. Effect of exercise on synthesis and degradation of muscle protein. Biochem. J. 188:255-262. Duncan, A.M., R.O. Ball, and P.B. Pencharz. 1996. Lysine requirement of adult males is not affected by decreasing dietary protein intake. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 64:718-725. Edwards, C.H., L.K. Booker, C.H. Rmphg, W.G. Wright, and S. Ganapathy. 1971. Utilization of wheat by adult man: Nitrogen metabolism, plasma amino acids and lipids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24:181-193. Edwards, J.S.A., D.E. Roberts, T.E. Morgan, and L.S. Lester. 1989. An evaluation of the nutritional intake and acceptability of the Meal, Ready-To-Eat consumed with and without a supplemental pack in a cold environment. Technical Report No. T18-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Edwards, J.S.A., E.W. Askew, N. King, C.S. Fulco, R.W. Hoyt, and J.P. DeLany. 1991. An assessment of the nutritional intake and energy expenditure of unacclimatized U.S. Army soldiers living and working at high altitude. Technical Report No. T10-91. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Elahi, D., M. McAloon-Dyke, N.K. Fukagawa, A.L. Sclater, G.A. Wong, R.P. Shannon, K.L. Minaker, J.M. Miles, A.H. Rubenstein, and C.J. Vandepol. 1993. Effects of recombinant human IGF-I on glucose and leucine kinetics in men. Am. J. Physiol. 265:E831-E838. Elia, M., A. Schlatmann, A. Goren, and S. Austin. 1989. Amino acid metabolism in muscle and in the whole body of man before and after ingestion of a single mixed meal. Am. J. Clin. Nut. 49:1203-1210. El-Khoury, A.E., N.K. Fukagawa, M. Sanchez, R.H. Tsay, R.E. Gleason, T.E. Chapman, and V.R. Young. 1994a. Validation of the tracer-balance concept with reference to leucine: 24-h intravenous tracer studies with l-[l-13C]leucine and [15N-15N]urea. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59(5):1000-1011. El-Khoury, A.E., N.K. Fukagawa, M. Sanchez, R.H. Tsay, R.E. Gleason, T.E. Chapman, and V.R. Young. 1994b. The 24-h pattern and rate of leucine oxidation, with particular reference to tracer estimates of leucine requirements in healthy adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59(5):1012-1020. El-Khoury, A.E., M. Sanchez, N.K. Fukagawa, R.E. Gleason, R.H. Tsay, and V.R. Young. 1995a. The 24-h kinetics of leucine oxidation in healthy adults receiving a generous leucine intake via three discrete meals. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62(3):579-590. El-Khoury, A.E., M. Sánchez, N.K. Fukagawa, and V.R. Young. 1995b. Whole body protein synthesis in healthy adult humans; 13CO2 technique vs. plasma precursor approach. Am. J. Physiol. 268:E174-E184. El-Khoury, A.E., A.M. Ajami, N.K. Fukagawa, T.E. Chapman, and V.R. Young. 1996. Diurnal pattern of the interrelationship among leucine oxidation, urea production, and hydrolysis in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 271:E563-E573. El-Khoury, A.E., A. Forslund, R. Olson, S. Branth, A. Sjodin, A. Andersson , A. Atkinson, A. Selvaraj, L. Hambraeus, and V.R. Young. 1997. Moderate exercise at energy balance does not affect 24 h leucine oxidation or nitrogen retention in healthy men. Am. J. Physiol. 273:E394-E407. El-Khoury, A.E., A. Basile, L. Beaumier, S.Y. Wang, H.A. AI-Amiri, A. Selvaraj, S. Wong, A. Atkinson, A.M. Ajami, and V.R. Young. 1998. Twenty-four hour intravenous and
OCR for page 382
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance oral tracer studies with l-[l-13C]-2-aminoadipic acid and l-[l-13C]lysine as tracers at generous nitrogen and lysine intakes in healthy adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68:827-839. Essen, B., and L. Kaijser. 1978. Regulation of glycolysis in intermittent exercise in man. J. Physiol. 281:499-511. Ettinger, B., J.T. Citron, A. Tang, and B. Livermore. 1985. Prophylaxis of calcium oxalate stones; Clinical trials of allopurinol, magnesium hydroxide, and chlorthalidone. Pp. 549-552 in Urolithiasis and Related Clinical Research, P.O. Schwille, L.H. Smith, W.G. Robertson, and W. Vahlensieck, eds. New York: Plenum. Fairbrother, B., R.E. Shippee, T.R. Kramer, E.W. Askew, and M.Z. Mays. 1995. Nutritional and immunological assessment of soldiers during the Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course. Report USARIEM-T95-22, AD-A299 556. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. FAO/IAEA/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/International Atomic Energy Agency/World Health Organization). 1996. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1973. Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO Ad Hoc expert committee. WHO Technical Report Series No. 522. Geneva: World Health Organization. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 1991. Protein Quality Evaluation. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 51. Rome: FAO. FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization/United Nations University). 1985. Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint expert consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva: World Health Organization. FASEB/LSRO. 1992. Safety of amine acids used as dietary supplements. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. FDA Contract No. 223-88-2124, Task No. 8. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1990. Evaluation of the safety of amine acids and related products; Announcement of study; Request for scientific data and information; Announcement of open meeting . Fed. Regist. 55:49141-49142. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1997. Current good manufacturing practice in manufacture, packing, or holding dietary supplements; Proposed rule. Fed. Regist. 62:5699-5709. Fellström, B., B.G. Danielson, B. Karlström, H. Lithell, S. Ljunghall, and B. Vessby. 1983. Dietary animal protein and urinary supersaturation in renal stone formers. Proc. Eur. Dial. Transplant. Assoc. 20:411-416. Fellström, B., B.G. Danielson, B. Karlström, H. Lithell, S.L. Ljunghall, B. Vessby, and L. Wide. 1984. Effects of high intake of dietary animal protein on mineral metabolism and urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate in renal stone formers. Brit. J. Urol. 56:263-269. Fereday, A., N.R. Gibson, M. Cox, D. Halliday, P.J. Pacy, and D.J. Millward. 1994. Postprandial utilization of wheat protein in normal adults. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 53:201a. Fereday, A., N.R. Gibson, M. Cox, D. Halliday, P.J. Pacy, and D.J. Millward. 1997a. Postprandial protein utilization of wheat protein from a single meal in normal adults. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 56:80a. Fereday A., N.R. Gibson, M. Cox, P.J. Pacy, and D.J. Millward. 1997b. Protein requirements and aging: Metabolic demand and efficiency of utilization. Brit. J. Nutr. 77:685-702. Fernstrom, J.D. 1990. Aromatic amine acids and monoamine synthesis in the central nervous system: Influence of the diet. J. Nutr. Biochem. 1:508-517.
OCR for page 383
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Fernstrom, J.D. 1994. Stress and monoamine neurons in the brain. Pp. 161-175 in Food Components to Enhance Performance, B.M. Marriott, ed. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Fernstrom, J.D., and M.J. Hirsch. 1975. Rapid repletion of brain serotonin in malnourished, corn-fed rats following L-tryptophan injection. Life Sciences 17:455-464. Fernstrom, J.D., and L.D. Lytle. 1976. Corn malnutrition, brain serotonin, and behavior. Nutr. Rev. 34:257-262. Fernstrom, J.D., and R.J. Wurtman. 1971. Brain serotonin content: Physiological dependence on plasma tryptophan levels. Science 173:149-152. Fernstrom, J.D., and R.J. Wurtman. 1972. Brain serotonin content: Physiological regulation by plasma neutral amino acids. Science 178:414-416. Fernstrom, M. H., and J.D. Fernstrom. 1995a. Brain tryptophan concentrations and serotonin synthesis remain responsive to food consumption after the ingestion of sequential meals. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61:312-319. Fernstrom, M.H., and J.D. Fernstrom. 1995b. Effect of chronic protein ingestion on rat central nervous system tyrosine levels and in vivo tyrosine hydroxylation rate. Brain Res. 672: 97-103. Ferrando, A.A., K.D. Tipton, D. Doyle, S.M. Phillips, J. Cortiella, R.R. Wolfe. 1998. Testosterone injection stimulates net protein synthesis but not tissue amino acid transport. Amer. J. of Physiol. 275:E864-871. Feskanich, D., W.C. Willett, M.J. Stampfer, and G.A. Colditz. 1996. Protein consumption and bone fractures in women. Am. J. Epidemiol. 143:472-479. Fielding, R.A., C.N. Meredith, K.P. O'Reilly, W.R. Fontera, J.G. Cannon and N.J. Evans. 1991. Enhanced protein breakdown after eccentric exercise in young and older men. J. Appl. Physiol. 11:674-679. Fisher H., M.K. Brush, and P. Griminger. 1969. Reassessment of amino acid requirements of young women on low nitrogen diets. 1. Lysine and tryptophan. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22:1190-1196. Fitts, R.H. 1994. Cellular mechanisms of muscle fatigue. Physiol. Rev. 74:49-94. Fliser, D., E. Franek, M. Joest, S. Block, E. Mutschler, and E. Ritz. 1997. Renal function in the elderly: Impact of hypertension and cardiac function. Kidney Int. 51:1196-1204. Forbes, G.B. 1973. Another source of error in the metabolic balance method. Nutr. Rev. 31:297-300. Forbes G.B., M.R. Brown, H.J.L. Griffiths. 1988. Ann muscle plus bone area: Anthropometry and CAT scan compared. Am J Clin Nutr. 47:929-931. Foster, M.A., J.M.S. Hutchison, J.R. Mallard, and M. Fuller. 1984. Nuclear magnetic resonance pulse sequence and discrimination of high- and low-fat tissues. Mag. Res. Imaging 2:187-192. Fouque, D., M. Laville, J.P. Boissel, R. Chifflet, M. Labeeuw, and P.Y. Zech. 1992. Controlled low protein diets and chronic renal insufficiency: Meta-analysis. Br. Med. J. 304:216-220. Frieder, B., and V.E. Grimm. 1984. Prenatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment given through the mother's diet causes behavioral deficits in rat offspring. Int. J. Neurosci. 23(2):117-126. Friedl, K.E. 1997. Variability of fat and lean tissue loss during physical exertion with energy deficit. Pp. 431-450 in Physiology, Stress, and Malnutrition: Functional Correlates, Nutritional Intervention, J.M. Kinney and H.N. Tucker, eds. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers. Friedman, M. 1991. Formation, nutritional value, and safety of d-amino acids. Pp. 447-482 in Nutritional and Toxicological Consequences of Food Processing. New York: Plenum Press.
OCR for page 400
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Rush, D., Z. Stein, and M.A. Susser. 1980. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics 65:683-697. Sahlin, K., A. Katz, and S. Broberg. 1990. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in human muscle during prolonged exercise. Am. J. Physiol. 159:C834-C841. Sahlin, K., L. Jorfeldt, and K.G. Henriksson. 1995. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates during incremental exercise in healthy subjects and in patients with McArdle's disease. Clin. Sci. 19:687-693. Said, A.K., and D.M. Hegsted. 1970. Response of adult rats to low dietary levels of essential amino acids. J. Nutr. 100:1363-1376. Sakurai, Y., and S. Klein. 1998. Metabolic alteration in patients with cancer. Nutritional implications. Surg. Today 28(3):247-257 Sakurai, Y., A. Aarsland, D.N. Herndon, D. L. Chinkes, E. Pierre, T.T. Nguyen, B.W. Patterson, and R.R. Wolfe. 1995. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by long-term insulin infusion in severely burned patients. Ann. Surg. 222(3):283-297. Salter, C. 1989. Dietary tyrosine as an aid to stress resistance among troops. Milit. Med. 154:144-146. Samuels, J.P., R.P. McDevitt, M.C. Bollman, W. Maclinn, L.M. Richardson, and L.G. Voss. 1947. Ration Development: A Report of Wartime Problems in Subsistence Research and Development, Vol. 12. Chicago, Ill.: Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces, Research and Development Branch, Office of the Quartermaster General. Sandage, B.W., Jr., L. Sabounjian, R. White, and R.J. Wurtman. 1992. Choline citrate may enhance athletic performance. Paper presented at the American Physiological Society Conference on Integrative Biology of Exercise, Colorado Springs, Colo. Santos, A.A., M.R. Scheltinga, E. Lynch, E.F. Brown, P. Lawton, E. Chambers, J. Browning, and C.A. Dinarello. 1993. Receptor antagonist is not attenuated by glucocorticoids after endotoxemia. Arch. Surg. 128(2):138-143. Saris, W.H.M. 1997. Limits of human endurance: Lessons from the Tour do France. Pp. 451-462 in Physiology, Stress, and Malnutrition: Functional Correlates, Nutritional Intervention, J.M. Kinney and H.N. Tucker, eds. New York: Lippincott-Raven Publishers. Sayegh, R., I. Schiff, J. Wurtman, P. Spiers, J. McDermott, and R.J. Wurtman. 1995. The effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage on mood, appetite, and cognitive function in women with premenstrual syndrome. Obstet. Gynecol. 86:520-528. Scheltinga, M.R., L.S. Young, K. Benfell, R.L. Bye, T.R. Ziegler, A.A. Santos, J.H. Antin, P.R. Schloerb, and D.W. Wilmore. 1991. Glutamine-enriched intravenous feedings attenuate extracellular fluid expansion after a standard stress. Ann. Surg. 214:385-393. Schimmel, P. 1993. GTP hydrolysis in protein synthesis: Two for tu? Science 259:1264-1265. Schneider, W., and E. Menden. 1988. [The effect of long-term increased protein administration on mineral metabolism and kidney function in the rat I. Renal and entered metabolism of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate and acid]. Z. Ernährungwiss. 27:170-185. Schuette, S.A., and H.M. Linkswiler. 1982. Effects on Ca and P metabolism in humans by adding meat, meat plus milk, or purified proteins plus Ca and P to a low protein diet J. Nutr. 112:338-349. Schuette, S.A., M. Hegsted, M.B. Zemel, and H.M. Linkswiler. 1981. Renal acid, urinary cyclic AMP, and hydroxyproline excretion as affected by the level of protein, sulfur amine acid, and phosphorus intake. J. Nutr. 111:2106-2116. Schwartz, R.S. 1995. Trophic factor supplementation: effect on the age-associated changes in body composition. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 50:151-156.
OCR for page 401
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Scrimshaw, N.S., M.A. Hussain, E. Murray, W.M. Rand, and V.R. Young. 1972. Protein requirements of man: Variations in obligatory urinary and fecal nitrogen losses in young men. J. Nutr. 102:1595-1604. Scrimshaw, N.S., Y. Taylor, and V.R. Young. 1973. Lysine supplementation of wheat gluten at adequate and restricted energy intakes in young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 26:965-972. Segura, R., and J.L. Ventura. 1988. Effect of l-tryptophan supplementation on exercise performance. Int. J. Sports Med. 9:301-305. Seltzer, S., D. Dewart, R. L. Pollack, and E. Jackson. 1983. The effects of dietary tryptophan on chronic maxillofacial pain and experimental pain tolerance. J. Psychiat. Res. 17(2):181-186. Shapses, S.A., S.P. Robins, E.I. Schwartz, and H. Chowdhury. 1995. Short-term changes in calcium but not protein intake alter the rate of bone resorption in healthy subjects as assessed by urinary pyridinium cross-link excretion. J. Nutr. 125:2814-2821. Sharp, T., S.R. Bramwell, and D.G. Grahame-Smith. 1992. Effect of acute administration of L-tryptophan on the release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus in relation to serotoninergic neuronal activity: An in vivo microdialysis study. Life Sci. 50:1215-1223. Shippee, R., E.W. Askew, M. Mays, B. Fairbrother, K. Friedl, J. Vogel, R. Hoyt, L. Marchitelli, B. Nindl, P. Frykman, L. Martinez-Lopez, E. Bernton, M. Kramer, R. Tulley, J. Rood, J. DeLany, D. Jezior, and J. Arsenault. 1994. Nutritional and immunological assessment of Ranger students with increased caloric intake. Technical Report No. T95-5. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Shippee, R.L., S. Wood, P. Anderson, T.R. Kramer, M. Neita, and K. Wolcott. 1995. Effects of glutamine supplementation on immunological responses of soldiers during the Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course [abstract]. FASEB J. 9:731. Shukitt-Hale, B., M.J. Stillman, and H.R. Lieberman. 1996. Tyrosine administration prevents hypoxia-induced decrements in learning and memory. Physiol. Behav. 59:867-871. Shurtleff, D., J.R. Thomas, S.T. Ahlers, and J. Schrot. 1993. Tyrosine ameliorates a cold-induced delayed matching-to-sample performance decrement in rats. Psychopharmacol. 112:228-232. Shurtleff, D., J.R. Thomas, J. Schrot, K. Kowalski, and R. Harford. 1994. Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 47(4):935-941. Sierakowski, R., B. Finlayson, R.R. Landes, C.D. Finlayson, and N. Sierakowski. 1978. The frequency of urolithiasis in hospital discharge diagnoses in the United States. Invest. Urol. 15:435-441. Simat, T., B. van Wickern, H. Eulitz, and H. Steinhart. 1996. Contaminants in biotechnologically manufactured l-tryptophan. J. Chromatogr. B. Biomed. 685:41-51. Singh, P.P., F. Hussain, R.C. Gupta, A.K. Pendse, R. Kiran, and R. Ghosh. 1993. Effect of dietary methionine and inorganic sulfate with and without calcium supplementation on urinary calcium excretion of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 31:96-97. Sipila S., H. Suominen. 1991. Ultrasound imaging of the quadriceps muscle in elderly athletes and untrained men. Muscle and Nerve 14:527-533. Sjöström, L.A. 1991. A computer-tomography based multicompartment body composition technique and anthropometric predictions of lean body mass, total and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Int J Obesity. 15:19-30. Smith, S.E., R.O. Pihl, S.N. Young, and F.R. Ervin. 1987. A test of possible cognitive and environmental influences on the mood lowering effect of tryptophan depletion in normal males. Psychopharmacology. 91:451-457. Snyder W.S., M.J. Cook. E.S. Nasset, L.R. Karhausen, G.P. Howells, I.H. Tipton. 1975. Report of the Task Group on Reference Man. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
OCR for page 402
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Soares, M.J., L.S. Piers, P.S. Shetty, S. Robinson, A.A. Jackson, and J.C. Waterlow. 1991. Basal metabolic rate, body composition and whole body protein turnover in Indian men with differing nutritional status. Clin. Sci. Colch. 81(3):419-425. Solomon, F., R.C. Cuneo, R. Hesp, and P.H. Sonksen. 1989. The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. New Engl. J. Med. 321:1797. Souba, W.W. 1991. Glutamine: A key substrate for the splanchnic bed. Ann. Rev. Nut. 11:285-308. Souba, W.W., and D.W. Wilmore. 1994. Diet and nutrition in the care of the patient with surgery, trauma, and sepsis. Pp. 1207-1240 in Modem Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th e., M.E. Shils, J.A. Olson, and M. Shike, eds. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Spencer, H., and L. Kramer. 1986. The calcium requirements and factors causing calcium loss. Fed. Proc. 45(12):2758-2762. Spencer, H., L. Kramer, and D. Osis. 1988. Do protein and phosphorus cause calcium loss? J. Nutr. 118:657-660. Spring, B. 1984. Recent research on the behavioral effects of tryptophan and carbohydrate. Nutr. Health 3:55-67. Starnes, H.F., R.S. Warren, M. Jeevanandam, J.L. Gabrilove, W. Larchian, H.F. Oettgen, and M.F. Brennan. 1988. Tumor necrosis factor and the acute metabolic response to tissue injury in man. J. Clin. Invest. 82:1321-1325. Stein, T.P., R.W. Hoyt, M.O. Toole, M.J. Leskiw, and M.D. Schluter. 1989. Protein and energy metabolism during prolonged exercise in trained athletes. Int. J. Sports Med. 10:311-316. Stensrud, T., F. Ingjer, H. Holm, and S.B. Strømme. 1992. l-Tryptophan supplementation does not improve running performance. Int. J. Sports Med. 13:481-485. Stephen, A.M., and J.H. Cummings. 1979. The influence of dietary fibre on fecal nitrogen excretion in man. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 38:141A. Stone, E. A. 1975. Stress and catecholamines. Pp. 31-71 in Catecholamines and Behavior, A.J. Freidhoff, ed. New York: Plenum Press. Stroud, M.A., A.A. Jackson, and J.C. Waterlow. 1996. Protein turnover rates of two human subjects during an unassisted crossing of Antarctica. Br. J. Nutr. 16:165-174. Struder, H.K., W. Hollmann, P. Platen, J. Duperly, H.G. Fischer, and K. Weber. 1996. Alterations in plasma-free tryptophan and large neutral amine acids. Int. J. Sports Med. 17:73-79. Stucky, W.P., and A.E. Harper. 1962. Effects of altering indispensable to dispensable amino acids in diets for rats. J. Nutr. 78:278-286. Svanberg, E., A.C. Moller-Loswick, D.E. Mathews, U. Korner, M. Andersson, and K. Lundholm. 1996. Effects of amine acids on synthesis and degradation of skeletal muscle proteins in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 271:E718-E724. Szeto, E.G., D.E. Carlson, T.B. Dugan, and J.C. Buchbinder. 1987. A comparison of nutrient intakes between a Ft. Riley contractor-operated and a Ft. Lewis military-operated garrison dining facility. Technical Report No. T2-88. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Szeto, E.G., T.B. Dugan, and J.A. Gallo. 1988. Assessment of habitual diners' nutrient intakes in a military-operated garrison dining facility, Ft. Devens I. Technical Report No. T3-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Szeto, E.G., J.A. Gallo, and K.W. Samonds. 1989. Passive nutrition intervention in a military-operated garrison dining facility, Ft. Devens II. Technical Report No. T7-89. Natick, Mass: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Tanaka, N., K. Kubo, K. Shiraki, H. Koishi, and H. Yoshimura. 1980. A pilot study on protein metabolism in the Papuan New Guinea highlanders. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 26:247-259.
OCR for page 403
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Tapp, D.C., S. Kobayashi, G. Fernandes, and M.A. Venkatachalam. 1989a. Protein restriction or calorie restriction? A critical assessment of the influence of selective calorie restriction on the progression of experimental renal disease [review]. Seminars in Nephrol. 9(4):343-353. Tapp, D.C., W.G. Wortham, J.F. Addison, D.N. Hammonds, J.L. Barnes, and M.A. Venkatachalam. 1989b. Food restriction retards body growth and prevents end-stage renal pathology in remnant kidney of rats regardless of protein intake. Lab. Invest. 60:184-195. Tarnopolsky, M.A., J.D. Mac Dougal, and S.A. Atkinson. 1988. Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass. J. Appl. Physiol. 64:187-193. Tarnopolsky, M.A., P.W.R. Lemon, J.D. MacDougall, and J.A. Atkinson. 1990a. Effect of body building exercise on protein requirements. Can. J. Sport Sci. 15:225-226. Tarnopolsky, L.J., J.D. MacDougall, S.A. Atkinson, M.A. Tarnopolsky, and J.R. Sutton. 1990b. Gender differences in substrate for endurance exercise . J. Appl. Physiol. 68:302-308. Tarnopolsky, M.A., S.A. Atkinson, S.M. Phillips, and J.D. Mac Dougal. 1995. Carbohydrate loading and metabolism during exercise in men and women. J. Appl. Physiol. 78:1360-1368. Taylor, H.L., E.R. Buskirk, J. Brozek, J.T. Anderson, and F. Grande. 1957. Performance capacity and effects of caloric restriction with hard physical work on young men. J. Appl. Physiol. 10:421-429. Tessari, P., S.L. Nissen, J. Miles, and M.W. Haymond. 1986. Inverse relationship of leucine flux and oxidation to flee fatty acid availability in vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 77:575-581. Tessari, P., M. Zanetti, R. Barazonni, M. Vettore, and F. Michielan. 1996. Mechanisms of postprandial protein accretion in human skeletal muscle. Insight from leucine and phenylalanine forearm kinetics. J. Clin. Invest. 98:1361-1372. Tharion, W.J., A.D. Cline, N. Hotson, W. Johnson, P. Niro, C.J. Baker-Fulco, S. McGraw, R.L. Shippee, T.M. Skibinski, R.W. Hoyt, J.P. Delany, R.E. Tulley, J. Rood, W.R. Santee, S.H.M. Boquist, M. Bordic, M. Kramer, S.H. Slade, and H.R. Lieberman. 1997. Nutritional challenges for field feeding in a desert environment: Use of the Unitized Group Ration (UGR) and a supplemental carbohydrate beverage. Technical Report No. T97-9. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Thomas, C.D., K.E. Friedl, M.Z. Mays, S.H. Mutter, R.J. Moore, D.A. Jezior, C.J. Baker-Fulco, L.J. Marchitelli, R.T. Tulley, and E.W. Askew. 1995. Nutrient intakes and nutritional status of soldiers consuming the Meal, Ready-To-Eat (MRE XIII) during a 30-day field training exercise. Technical Report No. T95-6. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Thompson, G.N., P.J.H. Pacy, H. Merritt, G.C. Ford, M.A. Read, K.N. Cheng, and D. Halliday. 1989. Rapid measurement of whole body and forearm protein turnover using a [2H5]phenylalanine model. Am. J. Physiol. 256:E631-E639. Tiao, G., S. Hobler, J.J. Wang, T.A. Meyer, F.A. Luchette, J.E. Fischer, and P-0. Hasselgren. 1997. Sepsis is associated with increased mRNAs of ubiquitin-proteosome proteolytic pathway in human skeletal muscle. J. Clin. Invest. 99:163-168. Tipton, K.D., and R.R. Wolfe. 1998. Exercise-induced changes in protein metabolism. Acta Physiol. Scand. 162(3):377-387. Tobin, J., and D. Spector. 1986. Dietary protein has no effect on future creatinine clearance. Gerontologist 25:59A. Todd, K.S., G.E. Butterfield, and D.H. Calloway. 1984. Nitrogen balance in men with adequate and deficient energy intake at three levels of work. J. Nutr. 114:2107-2118.
OCR for page 404
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Tolbert, B., and J.H. Watts. 1963. Phenylalanine requirements of women consuming a minimal tyrosine diet and the sparing effect of tyrosine on the phenylalanine requirement. J. Nut. 80, 111-117. Tollardona, D., C.I. Harris, E. Milne, and M.F. Fuller. 1994. The contribution of intestinal microflora to amino acid requirements in pigs. Pp. 245-248 in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, W.B. Souffran, and H. Hagemeister, eds. Dummerstorf, Germany: Forsch. Inst. Biol. Landwirtsch. Nutztiere. Tom, K., V.R. Young, T. Chapman, T. Masud, L. Akpele, and B.J. Maroni. 1995. Long-term adaptive responses to dietary restriction in chronic renal failure. Am. J. Physiol. 268:E668-E677. Tomlinson B.E., J.N. Walton, J.J. Rebeiz. 1969. The effects of aging and of cachexia upon skeletal muscle. A histopathological study. J Neurol Sci. 9:321-346. Trilok, G., and H.H. Draper. 1989. Sources of protein-induced endogenous acid production and excretion by human adults. Calcif. Tissue Int. 44:335-338. Trinchieri, A., A. Mandressi, P. Luongo, and E. Pisani. 1991. The influence of diet on urinary risk factors for stones in healthy subjects and idiopathic renal calcium stone formers. Brit. J. Urol. 67:230-236. Tschope, W., and E. Ritz. 1985. Sulfur-containing amino acids are the major determinant of urinary calcium. Mineral Electrolyte Metab. 11:137-139. Ungerstedt, U., C. Forster, M. Herrera-Marschitz, I. Hoffman, U. Junguelius, U. Tossman, and T. Zetterstrom. 1982. Brain dialysis: A new in vivo technique for studying neurotransmitter release and metabolism. Neuroscience Lett. 10(Suppl.):S493. Urban, R.J., Y.H. Bodenburg, C. Gilkison, J. Foxworth, R.R. Wolfe, and A. Ferrado. 1995. Testosterone administration to healthy elderly men increases muscle strength and protein synthesis. Am. J. Physiol. 296:E820-E826. Urivetzky, M., J. Motola, S. Braverman, and A.D. Smith. 1987. Dietary protein levels affect the excretion of oxalate and calcium in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria type II. J. Urol. 137:690-692. USACDEC/USARIEM (U.S. Army Combat Developments and Experimentation Center and U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine). 1986. Combat Field Feeding System-Force Development Test and Experimentation (CFFS-FDTE) Technical Report CDEC-TR-85-006A. Vol. 1, Basic Report; vol. 2, Appendix A; vol. 3, Appendixes B through L. Fort Ord, Calif.: U.S. Army Combat Developments and Experimentation Center. U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. 1992. Operational Rations of the Department of Defense. Natick PAM 30-2. Natick, Mass: U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. U.S. Department of the Army. 1947. Army Regulation 40-250. Nutrition. Washington, D.C. U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. 1985. Army Regulation 40-25/Naval Command Medical Instruction 10110.1/Air Force Regulation 160-95. Nutritional Allowances, Standards, and Education. May 15. Washington, D.C. U.S. War Department. 1944. Nutrition. War Department Circular No. 98. Washington, D.C. Van Acker, B.A.C, K.W.E. Hulsewé, A.J.M. Wagenmakers, N.E.P. Deutz, B.K. Van Kreel, P.B. Soeters, and M.F. Von Meijenfeldt. 1996. Measurement of glutamine metabolism in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Clin. Nutr. 15(Suppl. 1):1. Van der Hulst, R.R., B.K. van Kreel, M.F. von Meyenfeldt, R.J. Brummer, J.W. Arends, N.E. Deutz, and P.B. Soeters. 1993. Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet 341(8857):1363-1365. Van Hall, G. 1996. Amino acids, ammonia and exercise in man. Thesis, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
OCR for page 405
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Van Hall, G., J.S.H. Raaymakers, W.H.M. Saris, and A.J.M. Wagenmakers. 1995a. Ingestion of branched chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: Failure to affect performance. J. Physiol. Load. 186:789-794. Van Hall, G., B. Saltin, G.J. Van der Vusse, K. Söderlund, and A.J.M. Wagenmakers. 1995b. Deamination of amino acids as a source for ammonia production in human skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise. J. Physiol. 489:251-261. Van Hall, G., D.A. MacLean, B. Saltin, and A.J.M. Wagenmakers. 1996. Mechanisms of activation of muscle branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase during exercise in man. J. Physiol. 494:899-905. Varnier, M., G.P. Leese, J. Thompson, and M.J. Rennie. 1995. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 269:E309-E315. Varnier, M., P. Sarto, D. Martines, L. Lora, F. Carmignoto, G.P. Leese, and R. Naccarato. 1994. Effect of infusing branched-chain amino acids during incremental exercise with reduced muscle glycogen content. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 69:26-31. Vinnars, E., J. Bergström, and P. Fürst. 1975. Influence of the postoperative state on the intracellular free amino acids in human muscle tissue. Annals Surg. 182:665-671. Wagenmakers, A.J.M. 1996. Muscle glycogen depletion and fatigue. The Physiologist 39:A68. Wagenmakers, A.J.M., and P.B. Soeters. 1995. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Pp. 67-83 in Amino Acid Metabolism and Therapy in Health and Nutritional Disease, L.A. Cynober, ed. New York, CRC Press. Wagenmakers, A.J.M., H.J.M. Salden, and J.H. Veerkamp. 1985. The metabolic fate of branched-chain amino acids and 2-oxo acids in rat muscle homogenates and diaphragms. Int. J. Biochem. 17:957-965. Wagenmakers, A.J.M., J.H. Coakley, and R.H.T. Edwards. 1990. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and ammonia during exercise: Clues from McArdle's disease. Int. J. Sports Med. 11:S101-S113. Wagenmakers, A.J.M., E.J. Beckers, F. Brouns, H. Kuipers, P.B. Soeters, G.J. van der Vusse, and W.H.M. Saris. 1991. Carbohydrate supplementation, glycogen depletion, and amino acid metabolism during exercise. Am. J. Physiol. 260:E883-E890. Wagenmakers, A.J.M., G. Van Hall, and B. Saltin. 1996. Excessive muscle proteolysis during one leg exercise is exclusively attended by increased de novo synthesis of glutamine, not of alanine. Clin. Nutr. 15(Suppl. 1):1. Wagenmakers, A.J.M., G. Van Hall, P.A.I. Van de Schoor, and W.H.M. Sags. 1997. Glutamine does not stimulate glycogen resynthesis in human skeletal muscle. Med. Sci. Sport Ex. 29:S280 Wallace, W.M. 1959. Nitrogen content of the body and its relation to retention and loss of nitrogen. Fed. Proc. 18:1125-1130. Walser, M. 1961a. Calcium clearance as a function of sodium clearance in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 200:1099-1104. Walser, M. 1961b. Ion association. VII. Dependence of calciuresis on natriuresis during sulfate infusion. Am. J. Physiol. 201:769-773. Walser, M. 1986. The roles of urea production, ammonium excretion, and amino acid oxidation in acid-base balance. Am. J. Physiol. 250:F181-F188. Walser, M. 1992. Dietary proteins and their relationship to kidney disease. Pp. 168-178 in Dietary Proteins in Health and Disease, G.U. Liepa, ed. Champaign, Ill.: American Oil Chemists' Society. Walser, M., and A.A. Browder. 1959. Ion association. III. The effect of sulfate infusion on calcium excretion. J. Clin. Invest. 38:1404-1411. Walser, M., and J.R. Trounce. 1961. The effect of diuresis and diuretics upon the renal tubular transport of alkaline earth cations. Biochem. Pharmacol. 8:157.
OCR for page 406
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Walters, J.K., M. Davis, M.H. Sheard. 1979. Tryptophan-free diet: effects on the acoustic startle reflex in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 62(2):103-109. Wang, H., and P.A. Murphy. 1994. Isoflavone composition of American and Japanese soybeans in Iowa: Effects of variety, crop year and location. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1674-1677. Wang, T.C., and M.F. Fuller. 1989. The optimum dietary amino acid pattern for growing pigs. 1. Experiments by amino acid deletion. Br. J. Nutr. 62(1):77-89. Wang Z., R.N. Pierson Jr, and S.B. Heymsfield. 1992. The five-level model: A new approach to organizing body composition research. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56:19-28. Wang Z., S. Heshka, R. Pierson, S.B. Heymsfield. 1995. Systematic organization of body-composition methodology: An overview with emphasis on component-based methods. Am J Clin Nutr. 61: 457-65. Wang, Z., D. Gallagher, M. Nelson, D. Matthews, S.B. Heymsfield. 1996a. Total body skeletal muscle mass: Evaluation of 24 hour urinary creatinine excretion method by computerized axial tomography. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 63:863-869. Wang, Z., M. Visser, R. Ma, R. Baumgartner, D. Kotler, D. Gallagher, and S.B. Heymsfield. 1996b. Skeletal muscle mass: Evaluation of neutron activation and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry methods. J. Appl. Physiol. 80(3):824-831. Wang, Z., P. Deurenberg, D.E. Matthews, and S.B. Heymsfield. 1998. Urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion: Association with total body skeletal muscle mass by computerized axial tomography. J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 22(2): 82-86. Wannamacher, R.W., Jr. 1975. Protein metabolism (applied biochemistry). P. 133 in Total Parenteral Nutrition: Premises and Promises, H. Ghadimi, ed. New York: John Wiley. Warber, J.P., F.M. Kramer, S.M. McGraw, L.L. Lesher, W. Johnson, and A.D. Cline. 1996. The Army Food and Nutrition Survey, 1995-97. Technical Report. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Waterlow, J.C. 1996. The requirements of adult man for indispensable amino acids. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:S151-176. Waterlow, J.C., and D.J. Millward. 1989. Energy cost of turnover of protein and other cellular constituents. Pp. 277-282 in Energy Transformations in Cells and Organisms, W. Wieser and E. Gnaiger, eds. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. Waterlow, J.C., P.J. Garlick, and D.J. Millward. 1978. Protein Turnover in Mammalian Tissues and the Whole Body. Amsterdam: North Holland Elsevier. Watters, J.M., P.Q. Bessey, C.A. Dinarello, S.M. Wolf, and D.W. Wilmore. 1986. Both inflammatory and endocrine mediators stimulate host responses to sepsis. Arch. Surg. 121:179-190. Welle, S., C. Thornton, R. Jozefowicz, and M. Statt. 1993. Myofibrillar protein synthesis in young and old men. Am. J. Physiol. 264:E693-E698. Welle, S., C. Thornton, M. Statt, and B. McHenry. 1996. Growth hormone increases muscle mass and strength but does not rejuvenate myofibrillar protein synthesis in healthy subjects over 60 years old. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:3239-3243. Weller, L.A., D.H. Calloway, S. Margen. 1971. Nitrogen balance of men fed amino acid mixtures based on Rose's requirements, egg white protein, and serum free amino acid patterns . J. Nutr. 101(11):1499-1507. Wibom, R., and E. Hultman. 1990. ATP production rate in mitochondria isolated from microsamples of human muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 159:E204-E209. Williams, C. 1995. Macronutrients and performance. J. Sports Sci. 13(Spec. No.):S1-10. Williams, H.H., A.E. Harper, D.M. Hegsted, G. Arroyave, L.E. Hold, Jr. 1974. Nitrogen and amino acid requirements. Pp. 23-63 in Improvement of Protein Nutritive Value. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Wilmore, D.W. 1977. The Metabolic Management of the Critically Ill. New York: Plenum Medical.
OCR for page 407
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Wilmore, D.W. 1991. Catabolic illness: Strategies for enhancing recovery. N. Engl. J. Med. 325(10):695-702. Wilmore, D.W. 1997a. Glutamine saves lives! What does it mean? Nutrition 13(4):375-376. Wilmore, D.W. 1997b. Homeostasis: Bodily changes in trauma and surgery. Pp. 55-67 in Textbook of Surgery, 15th ed., D.C. Sabiston, ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Wilmore, D.W., J.A. Moylan, B.F. Bristow, H.D. Mason, Jr., and B.A. Pruitt, Jr. 1974. Anabolic effects of growth hormone and high caloric feedings following thermal injury. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 138:875-884. Wilmore, D.W., C.W. Goodwin, L.H. Aulick, M.C. Powanda, A.D. Mason, Jr., and B.A. Pruitt, Jr. 1980. Effect of injury and infection on visceral metabolism and circulation. Ann. Surg. 192:491-504. Windmueller, H.G., and A.E. Spaeth. 1974. Uptake and metabolism of plasma glutamine by the small intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 249:5070-5079. Wolf, R.F., D.B. Pearlstone, E. Newman, M.J. Heslin, A. Gonenne, M.E. Burg and M.F. Brennan. 1992. Growth hormone and insulin reverse net whole body and skeletal muscle protein catabolism in cancer patients. Ann. Surg. 216:280-288. Wood, S., J. Mortola, Y.F. Chan, F. Moossazadeh, and S. Yen. 1992. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with fluoxetine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Obstet. Gynecol. 80:339-344. Working Group (G. Clugston, K.G. Dewey, C. Field, J. Millward, P. Reeds, N.S. Scrimshaw, K. Tontisirin, J.C. Waterlow, and V.R. Young). 1996. Report of the working group on protein and amino acid requirements. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50(Suppl. 1):S193-S195. Wurtman, J.J., and J.D. Fernstrom. 1979. Free amino acid, protein and fat contents of breast milk from Guatemalan mothers consuming a corn-based diet. Early Human Development 3:67-77. Wurtman, R.J., F. Hefti, and E. Melamed. 1981. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacol. Rev. 32:315-335. Yanovski, S.Z., V.S. Hubbard, S.B. Heymsfield, H.C. Lukasksi. 1996. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Body Composition Measurement. Proceedings of a National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference. Bethesda, Maryland, December 12-14, 1994. Am. J. Clin Nutr. 64(3S):387-532S. Yarasheski, K.E., J.J. Zachwieja, T.J. Angelopoulos, and D.M. Bier DM. 1993a. Short term growth hormone treatment does not increase muscle protein synthesis in experienced weight lifters. J. Appl. Physiol. 74:3073-3076. Yarasheski, K.E., J.J. Zachwieja, and D.M. Bier. 1993b. Acute effects of resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis rate in young and elderly men and women. Am. J. Physiol. 265:E210-E214. Yarasheski, K.E., J.J. Zachwieja, J.A. Campell, and D.M. Bier. 1995. Effect of growth hormone and resistance training on muscle growth and strength in older men. Am. J. Physiol. 268:E268-E276. Yates, F.E., 1983. Contribution of statistics to ethics of science. Am. J. Physiol 13:R3-R5. Yeboah, N., E. Al-Sing, A. Bodalloo, T. Forrester, A. Jackson, and D.J. Millward. 1996. Transfer of 15N from urea to the circulating lysine pool in the human infant. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 55:37A. Yeghiayan, S.K., C. Amendola, T.H. Wu, T.J. Maher, and H.R. Lieberman. In press. Hyperthermia and tyrosine administration affect behavioral performance but not hippocampal catecholamines. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. Yoshida, A. 1983. Specificity of amino acids for the nutritional evaluation of proteins. Pp. 163-182 in Proceedings of the International Association of Cereal Chemists Symposium on Amino Acid Composition and Biological Value of Cereal Proteins, R. Lasztity and M. Hidvegi, eds. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.
OCR for page 408
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Yoshida, A. 1986. Nutritional aspects of amino acid oxidation. Pp. 378-382 in Proceedings of the XIII International Congress of Nutrition, T.G. Taylor and N.K. Jenkins, eds. London: John Libbey and Co., Ltd. Young, S. 1993. Use of diet and dietary components. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 18(5):235-244. Young, S.N. 1996. Behavioral effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors: Basic and clinical aspects. Neurosci. Behav. Rev. 20(2):313-323. Young, V.R. 1986. Nutritional balance studies: Indicators of human requirements or adaptive mechanisms. J. Nutr. 116:700-703. Young, V.R. 1987. McCollum Award Lecture: Kinetics of human amino acid metabolism: Nutritional implications and some lessons. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 46:709-725. Young, V.R. 1991a. Nutrient interactions with reference to amino acid and protein metabolism in nonruminants: Particular emphasis on protein-energy relations in man. Z. Ernährungwiss 30:239-267. Young, V.R. 1991b. Soy protein in relation to human and amino acid nutrition. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 91:828-835. Young, V.R. 1992. Protein and amino acid requirements in humans: Metabolic basis and current recommendations. Scand. J. Nutr. Naringsforskning 36:47-56. Young, V.R. 1994. Adult amino acid requirement: The case for a major revision in current recommendations. J. Nutr. 124:1517S-1523S. Young, V.R. 1997. Paper 5. Dietary protein standards can be halved (Chittenden, 1904). J. Nutr. 127:1025S-1027S. Young, V.R., and A. E. El-Khoury. 1995a. Can amino acid requirements for nutritional maintenance in adult humans be approximated from the amino acid composition of body mixed proteins? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 921:300-304. Young, V.R., and A.E. El-Khoury. 1995b. The notion of the nutritional essentiality of amino acids, revisited, with a note on the indispensable amino acid requirements in adults. Pp. 191-232 in Amino Acid Metabolism and Therapy in Health and Nutritional Disease, L.A. Cynober, ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Young, V.R., and A.E. El-Khoury. 1996. Human amino acid requirements: A re-evaluation. Food Nutr. Bull. 17:191-203. Young, V.R., and J.S. Marchini. 1990. Mechanisms and nutritional significance of metabolic responses to altered intakes of protein and amino acids, with reference to nutritional adaptation in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51:270-289. Young, V.R., and N.S. Scrimshaw. 1968. Endogenous nitrogen metabolism and plasma amino acids in young adults given a ''protein-free" diet. Br. J. Nutr. 22:9-20. Young, V.R., and P.L. Pellett. 1985. Wheat proteins in relation to protein requirements and availability of amino acids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41:1077-1090. Young, V.R., and P.L. Pellett. 1990. Current concepts concerning indispensable amino acid needs in adults and their implications for international nutrition planning. Food. Nutr. Bull. 12:289-300. Young, V.R., and Y.M. Yu. 1996. Protein and amino acid metabolism. Pp. 159-200 in Nutrition and Metabolism in the Surgical Patient, 2nd edition, Josef E. Fischer, ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Young, V.R., Y.S.M. Taylor, W.R. Rand, and N.S. Scrimshaw. 1973. Protein requirements of man: Efficiency of egg protein utilization at maintenance and sub-maintenance levels in young men. J. Nutr. 103:1164-1174. Young, V.R., L. Fajardo, E. Murray, W.M. Rand, and N.S. Scrimshaw. 1975. Protein requirements of man: Comparative nitrogen balance response within the submaintenance-to-maintenance range of intakes of wheat and beef proteins. J. Nutr. 105:534-544.
OCR for page 409
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Young, V.R., M. Puig, E. Queiroz, N.S. Scrimshaw, and W.M. Rand. 1984. Evaluation of the protein quality of an isolated soy protein in young men: Relative nitrogen requirements and effect of methionine supplementation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39:16-24. Young, V.R., D.M. Bier, and P.L. Pellet. 1989. A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acid requirements in adult man with experimental support Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:80-92. Young, V.R., N.S. Scrimshaw, and P.L. Pellett. 1998. Significance of dietary protein source in human nutrition: Animal or plant proteins. Pp. 205-212 in Feeding a World Population of More than Eight Billion People: A Challenge to Science, J.C. Waterlow, D.G. Armstrong, L. Fowden and R. Riley, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Zawadzki, K.M., B.B. Yaspelkis, and J.L. Ivy. 1992. Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 72:1854-1859. Zello, G.A., P.B. Pencharz, and R.O. Ball. 1990. Phenylalanine flux, oxidation and conversion to tyrosine in humans studied with l-[l13C]phenylalanine. Am. J. Physiol. 259:E835-E843. Zello, G.A., P.B. Pencharz, and R.O. Ball. 1992. Lysine requirement in young adult males. Am. J. Physiol. 264:E677-E685. Zello, G.A., P.B. Pencharz, and R.O. Ball. 1993. Dietary lysine requirement of young adult males determined by oxidation of l-[l-13C]phenylalanine. Am. J. Physiol. 264:E677-E685. Zello, G.A., L.J. Wykes, R.O. Ball, and B. Pencharz. 1995. Recent advances in methods of assessing dietary amino acid requirements for adult humans. J. Nutr. 125:2907-2915. Zemel, M.B. 1988. Calcium utilization: Effect of varying level and source of dietary protein. Am. J. Clin Nutr. 48:880-883. Zemel, M.B., S.A. Schuette, M. Hegsted, and H.M. Linkswiler. 1981. Role of sulfur-containing amino acids in protein-induced hypercalciuria in man. J. Nutr. 111:545-552. Zhao, X.H., Z.M. Wen, C.N. Meredith, D.E. Matthews, D.M. Bier, and V.R. Young. 1986. Threonine kinetics at graded threonine intakes in young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43:795-802. Ziegler, T.R., L.S. Young, K. Benfell, M. Scheltinga, K. Hortos, R. Bye, F.D. Morrow, D.O. Jacobs, R.J. Smith, J.H. Antin, and D.W. Wilmore. 1992. Clinical and metabolic efficacy of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation . A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann. Intern. Med. 116(10):821-828. Ziegler, T.R., R.L. Bye, R.L. Persinger, L.S. Young, J.H. Antin, and D.W. Wilmore. 1994. Glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrition increases circulating lymphocytes after bone marrow transplantation. J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 18:17S. Ziegler, T.R., M.P. Mantell, J.C. Chow, J.H. Rombeau, and R.J. Smith. 1996. Gut adaptation and the insulin-like growth factor system: Regulation by glutamine and IGF-I administration. Am. J. Physiol. 271:G866-G875. Ziegler, T.R., R.L. Bye, R.L. Persinger, L.S. Young, J.H. Antin, and D.W. Wilmore. 1998. Effects of glutamine supplementation on circulating lymphocytes after bone marrow transplantation: A pilot study. Am. J. Med. Sci. 315:4-10. Zurlo, F., K. Larson, C. Bogardus, and E. Ravussin. 1990. Skeletal muscle is a major determinant of resting energy expenditure. J. Clin. Invest. 86:1423-1427.
OCR for page 410
The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance This page in the original is blank.
Representative terms from entire chapter: