APPENDIX B
Summary of Welfare Reform Projects



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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work APPENDIX B Summary of Welfare Reform Projects

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work TABLE B-1 Summary of Welfare Reform Projects Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Abt Associates, Inc.       Arizona's EMPOWER Program AZ Longitudional survey of participants Experimental design; random assignment Evaluation of Alabama ASSETS program 3 counties in AL Administrative data Quasi-experimental design; each of 3 counties matched with another county in Alabama running standard AFDC programs Evaluation of Delaware's A Better Chance program DE Administrative data; survey data; aggregate cost data Experimental design; random assignment Evaluation of Electronic Benefits Transfer in Maryland MD Transaction data   Evaluation of Indiana Manpower Placement and Comprehensive Training Program IN Administrative data; client survey; interviews of administrators and staff Experimental design; random assignment Evaluation of NY State Child Assistance Program 7 counties in NY Administrative; survey data Experimental design at 3 localities

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Evaluation of New York Community Access Network (process and cost study too) New York City after sample entry Telephone surveys—3 months Pre-, post-design Evaluation of Ohio Transitions to Independence demonstration 15 counties in OH Administrative data Experimental design; random assignment Evaluation of to Strengthen Michigan's Families Welfare Reform program MI Administrative data Experimental design; random assignment National Study of Low Income Child Care 25 communities in 5 to 10 states     American Public Human Services Association and National Conference of State Legislatures       State efforts to track and follow-up on welfare recipients All states APHSA and NCSL, with the National Governors' Association, are keeping track of leavers studies   Center for Law and Social Policy and Center for Budget and Policy Priorities       State Policy Documentation Project All 50 states and DC   Monitor, document and analyze state welfare, health, and family support programs

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Center for Urban Poverty and Social Change at Case Western Reserve University       Study for Federation for Community Planning Cleveland, OH     Study to aid county Department of Human Services Cuyahoga County, OH     Transportation barriers to welfare recipients       Urban Change project with MDRC Cuyahoga County, OH   Neighborhood indicators study Urban Institute's National Neighborhood Indicators project Cleveland Will assist other communities in developing similar studies of inner-city welfare recipients' barriers to employment   Chapin Hall Center for Children       The dynamics of AFDC, Medicaid and food stamp use IL State-level administrative data Description and event-history analysis

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design The impact of welfare reforms on children's well-being IL Administrative data to track outcomes of families and children Technical assistance to Illinois Department of Public Aid Integrated Data Base on Children's Services IL Administrative data from child welfare, TANF, Medicaid, food stamps, special education, corrections, and mental health   Massachusetts Longitudinal Database for Research on Child Support Enforcement and Social Service Agencies MA Constructing a longitudinal database of administrative data from TANF, Medicaid, food stamps, child enforcement, wage reporting, and new hires Also developing outcome indicators Monitoring child and family social program utilization: Before and after welfare reform in 4 states CA, IL, MA, NC Individual-level administrative Monitoring data The State of the Child IL   Monitoring study of child well-being Child Trends       Measuring child outcomes under state welfare waivers (support for project from DHHS, NICHD, and other private sources) CA, CT, FL, IL, IN, IA, MI, MN, OH, OR, VT, VA Aggregate state-level data on child well-being indicators Monitoring

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Welfare-to-Work (JOBS) National valuation of Child Outcomes Study with MDRC (funded by DHHS) Fulton County, GA; Grand Rapids, MI; Riverside, CA 3,000 families; 790 in Fulton County, GA; survey of mothers and children 2 years after enrollment in JOBS program; administrative records Mothers randomly assigned to program or control group JOBS Observational Study Atlanta, GA In-home observational study of 250 mothers and children Mothers randomly assigned to program or control group New Chance Observational Study of Teen-Mothers with MDRC 16 locations in 10 states Observational study of 290 teen mothers and children who are on welfare Voluntary program participation Measurement of the impacts on children in evaluations of state welfare reforms (with DHHS funding) CT, FL, IN, IA, MN   Technical support to states to develop measures of child outcomes Assessing the New Federalism (part of Urban Institute's Project) AL, CA, CO, FL, MA, MI, MN, MS, NJ, NY, TX, WA, WI Child Trends is responsible for conceptualizing and designing ways to measure changes in child well-being as a result of policy changes  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Department of Health and Human Services: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, and Administration for Children and Families       Analyzing the employment and wage patterns of welfare recipients (see MPR) CA, IL, OR, TX NLSY and post-employment services demonstration   Assessing effective Welfare-to-Work strategies for domestic violence victims and survivors in the Options/Opciones Project (Taylor Institute) North Lawndale community of Chicago   Study effective strategies of addressing needs of abused women Assisting states to design and conduct follow-up studies of recipients who leave welfare (NGA, NCSL, and APHSA) Conference in 1998 Report as issue brief—Tracking Welfare Reform: Designing Followup Studies of Recipients who Leave Welfare   Baseline data on Aid to Families with Dependent Children All states   Descriptive historical tables of families using AFDC Child Care Research Partnerships 5 research partnership sites Field-initiated research on child care policies especially for low-income families  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Child outcomes study of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (see Child Trends)       Domestic Violence and Welfare: An Early Assessment (see Urban Institute)   Implementation study of states; implementation of the TANF Family Violence Option and child support enforcement responses   Employment Retention and Advancement Project CA, IL, MD, NJ, NC, OH, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, WI Planning grants Programs are required to utilize random assignment, experimental designs Evaluation of community-based job retention programs (the Pittsburgh Foundation) Pittsburgh, PA   Implementation study; monitor outcomes Evaluating the feasibility of using food stamp administrative data to track welfare leavers   Examining the possibility of tracking welfare leavers using linked federal quality control and state automated data systems   Evaluation of Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN (see MDRC) Los Angeles, CA    

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Evaluation of New Jersey Substance Abuse Research NJ   Will compare 2 models for providing services for substance abusing welfare recipients Front-Line Management and Practice Study (see Rockefeller Center-SUNY Albany) Part of 20-state study In-depth observations of three local offices in four states Implementation study Improving States' Capabilities to Evaluate Child Care Policy Options as Components of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (Urban Institute/Mathematica Policy Research)   Development of expanded simulation model for state welfare administrators to consider interactions between child care assistance and welfare policies   Integration of Welfare and Workforce Development Systems 5-8 sites Case studies   Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families (see MDRC)       Mandatory review and modification of child support orders in TANF cases. (see IRP)     Fiscal impact on state and federal governments of optional child support case modification of child support review under PRWORA

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Measurement of impacts on children in evaluations of state welfare reforms (see Child Trends and Chapin Hall Center for Children) Phase I: CA, CT, FL, IL, IN, IA, MI, MN, OH, OR, VT, VA Phase I: Planning phase; Technical assistance to states to develop data collection ability Phase II: CT, FL, IN, IA, MN Phase II: Large-scale data collection activities to expand states' abilities to measure and track child outcomes for impact analyses     Modified State Welfare Reform Projects -13 states funded to continue evaluations of welfare reform demonstrations in place prior to TANF CA, IL, IA, MD, MN, NE, NH, NC, ND, OH, SC, VA Sources of data vary at each site Some experimental designs; site some nonexperimental designs Multi-Site Evaluation of Welfare to Work Grants Sites to be selected 4 study components: descriptive assessment of all grantees; net impact and cost-effectiveness analyses with process/implementation analyses; process/implementation analyses only; and study of Tribal Welfare to Work   National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (see MDRC)      

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design National Study of Low Income Child Care (see Abt Associates) National study     National Longitudinal Study of Children and Families in the Child Welfare System   Longitudinal survey data; sample representative of children and families who enter the child welfare system; over 6,000 children; 1st interview in Spring 1999; 3 annual follow-up rounds planned   Neighborhoods, Service Providers and Welfare Reform in Los Angeles County (see RAND) Los Angeles County     Partner and Father Involvement in the Lives of Low-Income First Time Mothers-- Children's Hospital, Denver, CO Elmira, NY; Memphis, TN; Denver, CO Longitudinal study Experimental design; random assignment Policy Implications of Welfare Reform: Technical Assistance to States for Serving People with Disabilities (with Urban Institute and SSA) All states Review of state efforts to provide welfare services to those with disabilities; also case study series   The Role of Child Care in Low Income Families' Labor Market Participation (Urban Institute/Mathematica Policy Research)   Project will develop optional research designs to identify and address child care services needed; working paper series  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Cross-state study of time-limited welfare CT, FL, VT Focus groups and in-person interviews of 100 current welfare recipients Implementation component and monitoring component Florida's Family Transition Program 2 counties in FL 2,800 computerized records of monthly AFDC/TANF, food stamps and quarterly earnings; follow-up survey to 600 recipients 2 years later Randomly assigned to AFDC or FTP; longitudinal for part of sample Jobs-Plus Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families—Employment Demonstration Program Public housing developments in 7 cities   Individual household study plus public housing project study Los Angeles Jobs First GAIN Program Los Angeles, CA Administrative data for almost 21,000 households Experimental design with random assignment to program Minnesota Family Investment Program MN—3 urban and 4 rural counties. 1994–1996 baseline data, administrative data, 12 -and 36-month client surveys, staff attitude surveys, and field research 14,639 families randomly assigned to one of 4 research groups National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies 7 sites nationwide 55,000 sample members; in some sites telephone and in-person interviews Random assignment; process, implementation, and impact study components

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design New Chance Demonstration and Observational Study 16 locations in 10 states Young moms in 10 States (n = 2,322); observational study has videotapes of 290 mother/child combinations Individual data and the coding of mother/child interactions New Hope Project Milwaukee Linked administrative data; 2-year follow-up survey of all applicants Experimental design; applicants randomly assigned to program Ohio's Learning, Earning and Parenting Program OH—12 counties Teen mothers on welfare: survey of 1, 118 teens 1 year after randomly assigned to program; review 263 participant cases; survey of 913 teens 3 years after randomly assigned Case reviews, survey, random assignment Oregon's Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work program OR Administrative data on 5,547 single-parent AFDC applicants and recipients aged 21+ who attended orientation between 10/93 and 10/94 Experimental design Parent's Fair Share 7 counties across the country Administrative data and survey data Experimental design; randomly assigned to program

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Project on Devolution and Urban Change L.A., Miami, Cleveland, Philadelphia Survey of households—two cohorts of AFDC/TANF single mothers.; in-depth interviews; Welfare office site visits; Interviews with community institutions and service agencies, neighborhood-level indicators 5 components: individual impact study, implementation study, neighborhood indicators study, ethnographic study, institutional study ReWORKing Welfare   Guidance to planning and implementing welfare reform   Vermont's Welfare Restructuring Project 6 districts in VT     Winning New Jobs 3 California sites     Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.       Addressing Barriers to Employment for Welfare Recipients      

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project 17 diverse communities 3 rounds of site visits, program documents, parent services follow-up interviews, child care observations, staff surveys, parent report, direct assessments of children, observations of children, videotape coding of parent-child interactions, interviews of parents Experimental design: implementation study, impact evaluation, local research studies, policy studies, guide to EHS programs Evaluation of Iowa's Family Investment Program and Limited Benefit Plan Iowa Surveyed 137 families; case records of over 4,000 families Experimental design; process study; impact study; cost-benefit study; client focus-group discussions Evaluating Welfare Reform: New Freedom, New Challenges for States CA, CO, MI, MN, WI Advice to states in evaluating welfare reform   Expanding Health Insurance Coverage for Low Income People: Experiments in 5 States with Urban Institute HI, MD, OK, RI, TN Current Population Survey; interviews with local and state officials, managed care reps, health care providers, consumers; focus groups with consumers and providers Implementation study National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Grants Program: State and local sites     (a) Descriptive assessment of program designs All sites Surveys to grantees; about 35 site visits  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design (b) Impact and cost-effectiveness 8–10 sites that agree to participate   Experimental design; random assignment (c) Process and implementation study 12–15 sites Site visits, discussion with staff, focus groups with participants, program observations   Post-Employment Services Demonstration Chicago, Portland, Riverside, San Antonio Survey of about 300 in each site; participants administrative data for full sample of participants Experimental design: random assignment Teenage Parent Demonstration Camden, Newark, and South Chicago Site observations, interviews and case reviews with program staff, program data, state records data, baseline and follow-up interviews with teens, focus groups, in-depth semi-structured interviews Experimental design; n= 6,000; late 1987–1991 Welfare Reform: New Requirements for Teen Parents Welfare waiver states     Youth Fair Chance Program 17 sites in high-poverty areas Telephone survey of youth in target areas  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Michigan Women's Employment Survey An urban county in MI Simple random sample of 753 single mothers with children who received cash assistance in Feb. 1997; face-to-face interviews; in total, 3 waves of data to be collected   National Center for Children in Poverty—Columbia University       Research Forum on Children, Families and the New Federalism   Three purposes: promote monitoring and evaluation research; promote collaboration among key stakeholders; information exchange that includes a clearinghouse for welfare research projects   National Governors' Association       Tracking Welfare Reform: Designing Follow-up Studies of Recipients Who Leave Welfare All states NGA, with National Conference of State Legislatures and American of Public Human Service Association, is keeping track of leavers studies   Summaries of Selected Elements of State Programs for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) All states Keeping track of state welfare policies  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Working Out of Poverty: Employment Retention and Career Advancement for Welfare Recipients   Explores promising welfare-to-work programs and practices of states and localities   Summary of state welfare-to-work plans All States Summarizes state plans   RAND       Los Angeles Survey of Families and Communities 65 neighborhoods (census tracts) in L.A. County Stratified random sample of neighborhoods with oversample of poor neighborhoods and of households with children under age 18; 4-year panel study Annual household survey and annual neighborhood survey: household survey contains program participation questions and questions on child outcomes; neighborhood survey collects administrative data and interviews key neighborhood informants

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Statewide CalWORKS evaluation — 5 components to study: State-level process study; county-level process study; implementation study; statewide impact and cost-benefit study; county-level impact and cost-benefit study 58 California counties For the corresponding 5 components: (1, 2, and 3) all-county implementation survey with county and state site visits; (4, 5) administrative data from the state and counties, household survey in 6 focus counties, first in 9/99 and again a year later, plus data from components 1–3 of study. Observational study—standard regression approach and case-control design; process and implementation analyses Rockefeller Institute of Government Federalism Research Group       State Capacity Study & Implementing PRWORA (SUNY Albany) 20 sample states Implementation and process study of institutions administering social welfare programs Field research evaluation University of California Data Archive and Technical Assistance (UC-Data)       CA Work Pays Demonstration Project (with California Department of Social Services Research) California State-level administrative records for AFDC, Medical, UI, other state and federal assistance programs, and employment tax files; county-level administrative records for AFDC and food stamp programs; nonautomated client records at county  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design     welfare offices; and telephone interviews with AFDC recipients   Advisory Panel for Research Uses of Administrative Data—with JCPR   Published in January 1998   CAL—Learn Program Evaluation CA—4 counties 3 cohorts of AFDC teens n = 4,900 Random assignment; 2-way factorial design of the 2 program elements. Inventory of state effort to use administrative data for welfare research (funded by ASPE) 28 states Interviews with state-level data system managers, administrators, and researchers to determine how each state use administrative data records for monitoring evaluation and research   University of Maryland, School of Social Work, Welfare and Child Support Research and Training Unit      

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Life After Welfare Study Maryland Matched administrative records; 5% random sample of closed cases taken every month for a year (2,156 cases); survey of former recipients   Examining Customer Pathways and Assessment Practices Maryland In-person staff interviews, site visits, case record review, observation of worker-customer interactions Process analysis of Maryland's welfare program, which is state supervised, locally administered Urban Institute: Assessing the New Federalism       State indicators All 50 states Compiled data on income security, social services, health, child and youth well-being, taxes, etc. Aggregate state-level data State case studies of policy and programs AL, CA, CO, FL, MA, MI, MN, MS, NJ, NY, TX, WA, WI Collecting data in base year (1996) and again in following years Development and implementation of policies National Survey of America's Families AL, CA, CO, FL, MA, MI, MN, MS, NJ, NY, TX, WA, WI Survey of over 40,000 households in 1997; follow-up survey of second cross-section in 1999 Well-being changes of two cross-sections to be analyzed Child Well-Being, with Child Trends (see above) All 50 states Tracks legislation at federal and state level. Child Trends is developing ways to measure changes in child well-being  

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Evaluating Welfare Reform: A Framework and Review of Current Work Project Title and Investigators State/Locality Studied Data Used Study Design Understanding the Impact of TANF and Other Laws on Immigrant Families Los Angeles and New York City Large-scale study of immigrants and communities   Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study       Various researchers across country Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio Longitudinal data on 2,800 households; developmental study of 800 children in 2,800 households; comparative ethnographies of 170 families Cohort design