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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Study Committee and Workshop Speakers and Panelists STUDY COMMITTEE ROBERT J. SERAFIN (chair) is the director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Dr. Serafin began his career at Hazeltine Research Corporation, where he worked on the design and development of high-resolution radar systems. This was followed by 10 years at the IIT Research Institute and Illinois Institute of Technology. He then joined NCAR as manager of the Field Observing Facility in 1973 and in 1980 became director of the Atmospheric Technology Division, which is responsible for all of NCAR's observational research and research support facilities, used by scientists in universities and laboratories throughout the world. In 1989 he was appointed as NCAR's director. The holder of three patents, Dr. Serafin has published approximately 50 technical and scientific papers and established the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology and was its co-editor for several years. He has served on several National Research Council (NRC) panels and committees, and he chaired the NRC Committee on National Weather Service Modernization. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the American Meteorological Society, and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Dr. Serafin received the BS, MS, and PhD degrees in electrical engineering from Notre Dame University, Northwestern University, and Illinois Institute of Technology, respectively. I. TROTTER HARDY is a professor of law at the College of William & Mary School of Law, where he specializes in intellectual property law, law and computers, and tort law. He recently wrote a major report, “Sketching the Future of Copyright in a Networked World,” for the Copyright Office and has published extensively on issues relating to intellectual property law in the digital environment. Mr. Hardy holds a BA from the University of Virginia, an MS from American University, and a JD from Duke University, Order of the Coif. MAUREEN C. KELLY is vice president for planning at BIOSIS, the largest abstracting and indexing service for the life sciences community. She has worked in different capacities for BIOSIS since 1969. Previously she had production responsibility for the bibliographic and scientific content of BIOSIS products. While in that position, she led the team that developed the system for capturing and managing indexing data in support of BIOSIS's new relational indexing. Ms. Kelly has authored a number of papers on managing and accessing biological information. She is currently secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Section on Information, Computing, and Communication. She has served on various professional society research and publishing committees, including participating in the National Academy of Sciences E-Journal Summit meetings over the past two years. Ms. Kelly has a BA degree from Rutgers University.
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS PETER R. LEAVITT is a consultant and former chairman and chief executive officer of Weather Services Corp., where he has developed online real-time meteorological databases for national and international agricultural and commodity services. He has a BS in meteorology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. Leavitt served previously on two other NRC committees, as well as on several government advisory committees addressing data use and research issues in meteorology. LEE E. LIMBIRD is associate vice chancellor for research at Vanderbilt University and chair of the Department of Pharmacology. Her responsibilities as associate vice-chancellor include development of new intra- and interinstitutional initiatives for research, with a focus on research development in genetics and genomics; neuroscience; and structural biology, broadly defined to include biophysics and bioengineering. She is also responsible for the Office of Grants Management and Technology Transfer. Dr. Limbird received a BA in chemistry from the College of Wooster and a PhD in biochemistry from the University of North Carolina. Her area of research has been in the molecular pathways of signal transduction by G Protein-coupled receptors using biochemical, cellular, and genetic strategies, including genetically modified mice. PHILIP LOFTUS is vice president and director of Worldwide Information Services Architecture and Technology for Glaxo Wellcome, where he is responsible for both the information services infrastructure and global information management. From 1996 to 1998, he served as vice president and director of Worldwide R&D Information Systems and was responsible for developing and implementing a global information system strategy for R&D. Prior to that, he was executive director for Research Information Systems at Merck Research Laboratories, and from 1976 to 1993, he was a vice president for R&D Information Systems and a computational scientist at ICI. Dr. Loftus has a BSc in chemistry and a PhD in conformational isomerism from the University of Liverpool, and he was a Fullbright Hayes Postdoctoral Fellow at the California Institute of Technology in 1974-1975. He holds a postgraduate certificate in education from the University of Liverpool. He has published extensively in the area of information technology applications for pharmaceutical research. HARLAN J. ONSRUD is professor in the Department of Spatial Information Science and Engineering at the University of Maine and a research scientist with the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA). He received BS and MS degrees in civil engineering from the University of Wisconsin and a JD from the University of Wisconsin Law School. His research focuses on (1) analysis of legal and institutional issues affecting the creation and use of digital databases and the sharing of geographic information, (2) assessing utilization of GIS and the social impacts of the technology, and (3) developing and assessing strategies for supporting the diffusion of geographic information innovations. Mr. Onsrud has co-led major multiyear NCGIA research initiatives on the use and value of geographic information, institutions sharing geographic information, and law, information policy, and spatial databases. Mr. Onsrud is a licensed engineer, lawyer, and land surveyor. HARVEY S. PERLMAN is a professor of law and former dean of the University of Nebraska College of Law. He is an expert in trademark law and unfair competition law. In addition to writing many articles in these areas, Mr. Perlman has co-authored Legal Regulation of the
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS Competitive Process: Cases, Materials and Notes on Unfair Business Practices, which is now in its sixth edition under the title Intellectual Property and Unfair Competition (1998). He also was the co-reporter for the American Law Institute's Restatement (Third) of Unfair Competition and is a member of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, which is currently considering changes to the Uniform Commercial Code Article 2(B) regarding private contracts for intellectual property. Mr. Perlman received his BA and JD from the University of Nebraska in 1963 and 1966, respectively. ROBERTA P. SAXON is a patent agent at Skjerven, Morrill, MacPherson, Franklin & Friel, LLP, a law firm specializing in intellectual property in San Jose, California. Prior to that, she was director of the chemistry laboratory at SRI International, where she supervised research in advanced materials, atmospheric chemistry, computational chemistry, and atomic, molecular, and optical physics and performed research in those areas for more than 20 years. Dr. Saxon has a BA in chemistry from Cornell University and an MS and a PhD in chemical physics from the University of Chicago. She is vice chair of the Panel on Public Affairs for the American Physical Society, and she previously served on an NRC study for a research strategy for atomic, molecular, and optical sciences. SUZANNE SCOTCHMER is a professor of economics and public policy at the University of California, Berkeley. Her broad fields of research are in economic theory and industrial organization, with current emphasis on intellectual property, particularly as it relates to cumulative innovations, digital content, and decentralized mechanisms by which firms share information. Dr. Scotchmer received her PhD in economics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1980 and her MA in statistics in 1979. MARK STEFIK is a principal scientist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, where he focuses on trusted system approaches for creating, protecting, and reusing digital property in the network context. His current and past research activities include research on reasoning with constraints, and paradigms of programming, as well as applications of artificial intelligence and computer science to problems in molecular genetics, VLSI circuit design, configuration of computer systems, and systems for supporting collaborative processes in work groups. Dr. Stefik 's book, Internet Dreams: Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors, was published by MIT Press in 1996. Dr. Stefik received his BS and PhD from Stanford University. MARTHA E. WILLIAMS is director of the Information Retrieval Research Lab and a professor of information science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests include digital database management, online retrieval systems, systems analysis and design, chemical information systems, and electronic publishing. She has published widely on these topics and has been editor of the Annual Review of Information Sciences and Technology (since 1975), Computer Readable Databases: A Directory & Data Sourcebook (1976-1987), and Online Review (since 1977). Professor Williams was chair of the Board of Engineering Information, Inc., from 1980 to 1988, was appointed to the National Library of Medicine's Board of Regents from 1978 to 1981, and served as chair of the board in 1981. In addition, she served on several NRC committees, including the Numerical Data Advisory Board (1979-1982). She has an AB from Barat College and an MA from Loyola University.
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS STUDY DIRECTOR PAUL F. UHLIR is director of international scientific and technical information programs at the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (National Academies) in Washington, D.C., where he directs science and technology policy studies for the federal government. His current area of emphasis is issues at the interface of science, technology, and law, with primary focus on scientific data and information policy, and on the relationship of intellectual property law to R&D policy. Mr. Uhlir is also director of the U.S. National Committee for CODATA. From 1991 to 1998, he was associate executive director of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, and from 1985 to 1991 he was senior program officer at the Space Studies Board, where he worked on solar system exploration and Earth remote sensing studies for NASA. Before joining the National Academies, he was a foreign affairs officer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the Department of Commerce, where he worked on meteorological and land-remote sensing law and policy issues. He is the author or editor of more than 50 books, reports, and articles. Mr. Uhlir has a BA in history from the University of Oregon and a JD and an MA in international relations from the University of San Diego. WORKSHOP SPEAKERS AND PANELISTS ALLAN ADLER is vice president for legal and governmental affairs in the Washington, D.C., office of the Association of American Publishers (AAP), a national organization that represents the book and journal publishing industries. Prior to joining AAP in April 1996, Mr. Adler practiced law with Cohn and Marks, a Washington, D.C., communications law firm. His practice focused primarily on government relations in the area of federal law, regulation, and policy concerning information, telecommunications and technology. Prior to joining Cohn and Marks, he served as legislative counsel to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) from 1981 to 1989. Before representing the ACLU, Mr. Adler was a staff attorney with the Center for National Security Studies (1978-1981) and staff director for the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press (1977-1978). For the past 15 years, he has been the editor of annual editions of Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws, a popular attorney's handbook for which he received the Playboy Foundation's First Amendment Award for Book Publishing in 1991. Mr. Adler holds a BA in history from the State University of New York at Binghamton and a JD from the National Law Center of the George Washington University. PRUDENCE S. ADLER is the assistant executive director of the Association for Research Libraries. Her responsibilities include federal relations, with a focus on information policies, intellectual property rights, telecommunications, issues relating to access to government information, and project management for the ARL GIS Literacy Project. Prior to joining ARL in 1989, Ms. Adler was assistant project director, Communications and Information Technologies Program, for the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, where she worked on studies relating to government information, networking and supercomputer issues, and information
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS technologies and education. Ms. Adler has an MS in library science and an MA in American history from the Catholic University of America, and a BA in history from the George Washington University. She has participated in several advisory councils, including the Depository Library Council, the Board of Directors of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, the Advisory Committee for the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive, and the National Research Council's Steering Committee on Geolibraries. JONATHAN BAND is a partner in the Washington, D.C., office of Morrison & Foerster. Mr. Band's areas of practice include intellectual property, administrative litigation, and banking regulation. His intellectual property work has focused on appellate litigation in software copyright cases. Mr. Band is the author of Interfaces on Trial: Intellectual Property and Interoperability in the Global Software Industry (Westview Press, 1995). Mr. Band received a BA from Harvard College and a JD from Yale Law School. He is admitted to practice in the District of Columbia and California and before the U.S. Supreme Court and the U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Tenth and District of Columbia Circuits. JON BAUMGARTEN is a partner with the law firm of Proskauer Rose LLP, where his practice focuses on domestic and international copyright, trademark, licensing, contract litigation, and related matters pertaining to the publishing, motion picture, music and recording, communications, and arts communities. Prior to his return to private practice in 1979, Mr. Baumgarten served as general counsel to the United States Copyright Office from 1976 to 1979. During this period, he was a leading participant in the formulation of the new Copyright Act and was responsible for the preparation of the Copyright Office regulations and practices under the new law. He is the author of numerous articles and a book, has lectured widely on copyright, and has chaired several conferences on proprietary rights issues. Mr. Baumgarten serves on several bar associations and was a trustee of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. He is a member of the National Advisory Committee to the Copyright Office and of the International Copyright Panel of the Advisory Committee to the U.S. Department of State on International Intellectual Property. DENNIS A. BENSON has been chief of the Information Resources Branch at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at NIH since 1988. He is responsible for computer operations and user support of GenBank, BLAST, and other NCBI network services. From 1980 to 1987, he was a computer scientist working on text retrieval systems at the Lister Hill Center for Biomedical Communications at the NLM. From 1973 to 1979, he was a postdoctoral fellow and research scientist at the Department of Biomedical Engineering of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in the field of auditory neurophysiology. Dr. Benson received a PhD in neuroscience from the University of Florida in 1973. R. STEPHEN BERRY is the James Franck Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago. He was awarded an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1962-1966) and a Guggenheim Fellowship (1971-1973) and was a MacArthur Fellow (1983-1988). He received the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung Senior Scientist Award (1993) and the J. Heyrovsky Honorary Medal for Merit in the Chemical Sciences (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 1997). Dr. Berry's research interests include the structure and dynamics of simple atoms and molecules,
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS intramolecular energy transfer, electron correlation, few body dynamics, phase phenomena of clusters, topographies and dynamics on multidimensional potentials, sintering, multi-photon excitation and ionization, and energy and resource management. Dr. Berry is also an expert in finite-time thermodynamics. He has been a member of the University's School of Public Policy Studies and an active member of many professional associations. Inducted into the National Academy of Sciences in 1980, Dr. Berry has chaired or otherwise served on numerous committees concerning various areas of science, technology, and policy. He recently chaired the NRC committee responsible for the report Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data. Dr. Berry has also been elected into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences. He received his PhD from Harvard University. ROBERT BRAMMER is senior vice president and chief technology officer for Litton/TASC in Reading, Massachusetts. He received a BS in mathematics from the University of Michigan and an MA in mathematics and a PhD in mathematics (dynamical systems) from the University of Maryland in College Park. Prior to joining TASC, Dr. Brammer held a position at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center, and he has since held various positions at TASC, including director of the Physical Sciences Division. Dr. Brammer has participated in a number of government advisory committees. In addition, he has served on Geosat's Board of Directors from 1989 to 1992 and as associate editor of the Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation from 1990 to 1995. He is a member of a number of committees, including the Association for Computing Machinery, American Geophysical Union, American Physical Society, American Engineers, Mathematical Association of America, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. He received the NASA Apollo Achievement Award in 1970, the NASA MAGSAT Scientific Investigation Team Award in 1983, and is a fellow of the International Society of Optical Engineering. He is the author of a number of mathematical and scientific papers. JAMES W. BRUNT is responsible for development of the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) network information system and for coordinating the information system development activities with LTER network partners. Mr. Brunt rejoined the LTER Network in 1997 after serving as senior systems engineer for Photon Research Associates, where he was responsible for setting direction, policies, and guidelines for all aspects of communication and information technology. His return to LTER continues a long history that began as a student technician for the Jornada LTER at New Mexico State University in 1984. He completed a BS in botany and chemistry there in 1986 and went on to complete an MS in ecology and experimental statistics in 1988. Mr. Brunt got his first exposure to data management there while a graduate research assistant on the Science Workbench Project. In 1989, he went to work for the Sevilleta LTER project as their data manager and stayed until 1996. While at Sevilleta he was very active in LTER network data management, serving several years as chair of the LTER data management committee. He has also been active in laying groundwork for the international LTER network data management efforts—developing databases, training courses, and symposia. Mr. Brunt has published numerous articles, co-edited a book on data management and ecological informatics, and is working on another collaborative book project on ecological data.
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS Q. TODD DICKINSON is acting assistant secretary of Commerce and acting commissioner of Patents and Trademarks. President Clinton nominated Mr. Dickinson to the position of Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks on July 1, 1999. He became acting assistant secretary of Commerce and acting commissioner of Patents and Trademarks on January 1, 1999. Prior to joining the Commerce Department, Mr. Dickinson served as counsel with the Philadelphia-based law firm of Dechert Price & Rhoads. He has experience in all aspects of intellectual property law and management, including patent prosecution, trademark and copyright registration, strategic development and counseling, brand management, licensing, technology transfer, and litigation. From 1990 to 1995, Mr. Dickinson was Chief Counsel for Intellectual Property and Technology at Sun Company, Inc., where he had legal and managerial responsibility for all intellectual property matters worldwide. From 1981 to 1990, he served as counsel to Chevron Corporation, focusing on domestic and international intellectual property matters. Prior to 1981, he was a patent and trademark practitioner with Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc., and the law firm of Blenko, Buell, Ziesenheim and Beck. Mr. Dickinson earned a BS in chemistry from Allegheny College in 1974 and a JD from the University of Pittsburgh School of Law in 1977. He is a member of the bars of Pennsylvania, California, and Illinois, and is registered to practice before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Mr. Dickinson is an active member of numerous professional associations, including the American Bar Association, the American Intellectual Property Law Association, the International Trademark Association, and the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. He has served as a member of the Board of Editors of the Trademark Reporter and on the boards of the Philadelphia Intellectual Property Law Association and the Benjamin Franklin Inn of Court, and he has extensive experience as a speaker on intellectual property topics. TIMOTHY W. FORESMAN is the director of the Spatial Analysis Laboratory in the Department of Geography at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he teaches courses in geographic information systems, remote sensing, and field survey techniques. Professor Foresman leads a team of over a dozen scientists and research associates focusing on local, regional, and global earth science and human ecosystem research issues. He serves as a principal investigator on a variety of research programs sponsored by NASA, EPA, U.S. Forest Service, National Science Foundation, and other state and local agencies. Professor Foresman's real-world experience extends over 20 years and includes private consulting, county government, and federal research, all dealing with the use of spatial analysis tools to solve human and environmental problems resulting from the impacts of urban/rural expansion. Professor Foresman is the founder of the Baltimore-Washington Regional Collaboratory, a regional experiment in sharing data and expertise to empower citizens with information and technology necessary for participatory democracy. He also serves as co-principal investigator and data manager for the Baltimore Ecosystem Study under the NSF Long-Term Ecological Research program. He has published over 70 books, chapters, and professional papers. KENNETH FRAZIER has been the director of the University of Wisconsin at Madison General Library System since 1992 and a member of the University library staff since 1978. He received his master's degree in librarianship from the University of Denver and his undergraduate degree in philosophy from the University of Kansas. He is a member of the Board of Directors and president-elect of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and is the chair of the Scholarly
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition. Currently serving on ARL's Information Policies Committee and Copyright Task Force, he is nationally active in issues related to scholarly communication and the fair use of copyrighted works for educational purposes. He is the vice chair of the Research Library Advisory Committee of the Online Computer Library Center and chair of the Council of the University of Wisconsin Libraries. He serves on the Executive Committee of the Council of Wisconsin Libraries. At the University of Wisconsin at Madison he also serves on the Provost's Advisory Committee on Distance Education, the Information Technology Advisory Committee, and the University of Wisconsin Press Executive Committee. He is a member of the Madison Literary Society and past president and board member of the Old Market Place Neighborhood Association of downtown Madison, Wisconsin. DAVE FULKER directs the Unidata Program at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. His work at UCAR began in 1966, when he joined the National Center for Atmospheric Research and began designing software for fast Fourier transforms and spline-based function approximations and analyzing results from computer simulations of the atmosphere. Mr. Fulker holds a BA and an MA in mathematics from the University of Colorado. His 14-year tenure with Unidata has helped transform the ways universities acquire and use meteorological data for education and research. Mr. Fulker received one of the 1998 Educom medals for this work, having been nominated by the American Meteorological Society. RICHARD J. GILBERT is a professor of economics and business administration at the University of California at Berkeley. From 1993 to 1995 he was the deputy assistant attorney general for economics in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. In that capacity he directed the economic analysis for several matters involving high-technology industries and led a task force that developed joint Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission Antitrust Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property. Professor Gilbert's other professional activities have included director of the University of California Energy Institute, service on the editorial boards of several academic economics journals, vice-chair of the American Bar Association's antitrust section committee on economics, and president of the Industrial Organization Society. Professor Gilbert's research specialties are competition policy, intellectual property, research and development, energy markets, and public utility regulation. He received bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering from Cornell University and a PhD in engineering-economic systems from Stanford University. BARRY GLICK served as the president and chief executive officer of GeoSystems Global Corporation from its founding in June 1994 until October 1998 and oversaw the business strategy of the company, including the creation of its MapQuest Web site. Prior to the founding of GeoSystems, he was, beginning in 1990, the president of RR Donnelley's Geographic Systems and Mapping Services Divisions. Mr. Glick came to Donnelley from Spatial Data Sciences, Inc, which he co-founded and served as president. Before that, he worked in various technical and management capacities with PAR Technology Corporation, General Sciences Corporation, Geographic Systems, Inc., and Equifax, where he concentrated on mathematical modeling and geographic information systems. He also holds a master 's degree in policy planning and regional analysis from Cornell University. Prior to his move into the private sector, Mr. Glick taught
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS geography and statistics at Middlebury College. Currently, he is engaged in several consulting assignments in the United States and Europe, working with firms in the information, Internet, travel, and publishing industries, focusing on the impact of the Internet on business strategy, particularly as it relates to information services. He also serves as a member of the Mapping Science Committee of the National Research Council as well as on several other professional and industry association boards and committees. KENNETH D. HADEEN was the director of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) from May 1984 until his retirement in July 1997. Dr. Hadeen has a wealth of experience in weather analysis and prediction, data management, environmental assessment and impact analysis. He served several years as the Deputy Director of the Assessment and Information Services Center before transferring to NCDC. His current interests are in the development and delivery of environmental data and services for policy and contingency planning and for operational decisions, especially for those of national concern. He received a BS from the Colorado State University. He entered the U.S. Air Force and received his initial meteorology training at the University of California at Los Angeles. He served in numerous positions of increasing responsibility while in the Air Force. Also, during this period he earned a master 's degree and a PhD in meteorology at Texas A&M University. His military career centered on providing tailored meteorological support to the Department of Defense. He retired as a colonel to join the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. JUSTIN HUGHES is an attorney-adviser with the Patent and Trademark Office of the Department of Commerce. Since joining the Commerce Department in December 1998, Mr. Hughes has devoted most of his time to Administration initiatives in copyright and related rights, including database protection issues. He has also followed the Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B drafting process on behalf of the Patent and Trademark Office. He is the author of several articles on intellectual property, including “The Philosophy of Intellectual Property,” 77 Geo. L.J. 287 (1998), “The Personality Interest of Artists and Inventors in Intellectual Property,” 16 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 81 (1998), and “Recoding Intellectual Property,” 77 Tex. L. Rev. (1999). Prior to joining the Clinton Administration, he practiced law in Los Angeles and Paris. Mr. Hughes was educated at Oberlin and Harvard and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. RICHARD F. KAYSER received a ScB in chemistry from Brown University and a PhD in chemistry from Rice University. Dr. Kayser joined the National Bureau of Standards in May 1976 as a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow and joined the Thermophysics Division as a permanent staff member one year later. He has performed theoretical research on the chemistry and physics of fluids and experimental research on wetting layers. He became chief of the Thermophysics Division in May 1989 and chief of the Physical and Chemical Properties Division in 1996. In his current position, he is responsible for NIST's programs on the thermophysical and thermochemical properties of gases, liquids, and solids, and on the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions in the gas and liquid phases. Dr. Kayser is the NIST representative to the Design Institute for Physical Properties Data. He received the U.S. Presidential Rank Award for Meritorious Service and the U.S. Department of Commerce Silver Medal.
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS PETER JASZI teaches at the Washington College of Law of the American University. He is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School and an experienced copyright litigator who lectures frequently to professional groups in the United States and abroad. He has served as a trustee of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A., and in 1994 he served as a member of the Librarian of Congress' Advisory Commission on Copyright Registration and Deposit. In 1995 he helped to organize the Digital Future Coalition. He is the co-author of a standard text on copyright and a co-editor of The Construction of Authorship. MICHAEL KLIPPER is a member of the Washington, D.C., law firm of Meyer & Klipper, PLLC. The firm focuses on domestic and international copyright issues; constitutional law and legislative matters; computer and technology issues; and trademark registrations and disputes. Meyer & Klipper, PLLC, serves as counsel to the Coalition Against Database Piracy, which seeks the enactment of effective and fair database protection legislation. For over 20 years, Mr. Klipper has been involved in a variety of copyright, constitutional law, and related matters, particularly from a legislative perspective. Prior to forming Meyer & Klipper, PLLC, Mr. Klipper served as (1) counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee; (2) in-house counsel to the Motion Picture Association of America; (3) of counsel to the Washington, D.C., law firm of Leventhal, Senter & Lerman; and (4) vice president for Legal and Governmental Affairs at the Association of American Publishers. JAMES LOHR joined Chemical Abstracts Service as director of Editorial Operations in August 1993. He has held his current position since February 1998. Prior to his joining Chemical Abstracts Service, Dr. Lohr had an extensive managerial career with DuPont at various locations in the United States and Japan. He holds a BA in chemistry from Northwestern, a PhD in physical chemistry from the University of Nebraska, and was a Fullbright exchange postdoctoral grantee in Germany in 1965-1966. He currently serves the National Federation of Abstracting and Information Services as president and member of the Board. TERESA LUNT is principal scientist at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center, where she is area manager for the Secure Document Systems group. Prior to joining Xerox, she was associate director of the Computer Science Laboratory at SRI International. Until August 1998 she was assistant director for distributed systems in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Information Technology Office, where she had oversight of programs on distributed computing, secure networking, information survivability, adaptive systems, and software-enabled control. She also developed and managed DARPA's Information Survivability program, was instrumental in the development of DARPA's Information Assurance program, and developed a new research program called Inherent Survivability. Prior to her 4 years at DARPA, she was program director for Secure Systems at SRI International, where she led the development of the SeaView multilevel secure database system, the NIDES intrusion-detection system, and the DISSECT tool to detect inferences of highly sensitive information from less sensitive information. ERIC MASSANT is director of government and industry affairs at Reed Elsevier, Inc. Mr. Massant has focused on intellectual property protection, government information policy, and
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS electronic commerce issues. From 1984 to 1995, he held management positions in research, editorial, information technology, and government relations at LEXIS-NEXIS and the Congressional Information Service. Prior to that, Mr. Massant worked for Aspen Systems Corporation and in foster care at the Social Service Bureau of Richmond, Virginia. He received his BS in psychology from Old Dominion University and his MA in international affairs from the American University. He currently chairs the Government Affairs Council of the Software and Information Industry Association. From 1995 to 1998 he served on the executive committee of the Public Policy and Government Relations Council at the Information Industry Association (IIA) and was vice-chair in 1998. From 1996 to 1998, Mr. Massant was chair of the IIA Government Information Policy Committee. He also serves on intellectual property committees of the Association of American Publishers and the American Business Press. He testified before the U.S. Senate Rules and Administration Committee in July 1996 on public access to government information in the 21st century. JAMES NEAL is currently the dean of university libraries and Sheridan Director of the Milton S. Eisenhower Library at the Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was dean of university libraries at Indiana University and held administrative positions in the libraries at Penn State, Notre Dame, and the City University of New York. He serves on the Executive Board of the American Library Association, was 1997-1998 chair of OCLC's Research Library Advisory Council, and was 1997-1998 president of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). He represented the American library community as an advisor to the U.S. delegation at the World Intellectual Property Organization diplomatic conference on copyright in Geneva. He chaired the ARL Information Policies Committee for 4 years and has headed the ARL Working Group on Copyright Issues since its formation in 1994. He was recently appointed a member of IFLA's Committee on Copyright and Other Legal Matters. He was the first president of the newly formed Chesapeake Information and Research Library Alliance, a consortium of research libraries in the mid-Atlantic region. At the Johns Hopkins University, he serves on numerous academic and technology planning and policy groups and is on the board of Project Muse, the initiative to publish electronically the journals of the Johns Hopkins Press. He is a frequent speaker at national and international conferences, a consultant, and a published researcher with a focus in the areas of organizational change, human resource development, scholarly communication, intellectual property, library fund raising, and the impact of new technologies. He is currently leading the Eisenhower Library at the Johns Hopkins University in a successful $50 million capital campaign. He was selected 1997 Academic/Research Librarian of the Year by ALA's Association of College and Research Libraries. JAMES M. OSTELL was first trained in traditional developmental biology and microscopy. He then earned a PhD from Harvard University studying molecular biology. At Harvard he cloned and sequenced at the bench and also developed software tools for analyzing sequence data. He then developed and supported a commercial package of software for molecular biologists, first released in 1982 and still in use today. In 1988, Dr. Ostell took a position as the chief of the Information Engineering Branch at the newly formed National Center for Biotechnology Information at the National Institutes of Health. In 1996, he was one of only 12 tenured NIH scientists to be appointed to the Senior Biomedical Research Service. Under his direction, the NCBI Information Engineering Branch has produced a central computer
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS infrastructure for biomedical information covering the published literature, DNA and protein sequences, three-dimensional structures of biological molecules, assemblies of complete organism genomes, human genetics and phenotypes, and more. G. CHRISTIAN OVERTON received a BS in physics and mathematics from the University of New Mexico, a PhD in biophysics from the Johns Hopkins University, and subsequently an MSE in computer science from the University of Pennsylvania while pursuing postdoctoral studies in mouse developmental biology at the Wistar Institute of Philadelphia. He currently holds a primary faculty appointment as associate professor in the Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and a secondary appointment in the Computer and Information Sciences Department, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. He is director of the Center for Bioinformatics, which supports an interdisciplinary program spanning molecular and cellular biology, genomics, computer science, and statistics. Prior to joining the University's faculty, he spent 5 years as part of the artificial intelligence and database research group at the Unisys Center for Advanced Information Technology. His current research interests include computational genomics, functional genomics, and database evolution, transformation, and integration. MARYBETH PETERS is the United States Register of Copyrights. From 1983 to 1994 she held the position of policy planning adviser to the Register. She has also served as acting general counsel of the Copyright Office and as chief of both the Examining Division and the Information and Reference Division. Ms. Peters is a frequent speaker on copyright issues; she is the author of The General Guide to the Copyright Act of 1976. Ms. Peters received her undergraduate degree from Rhode Island College and her law degree, with honors, from the George Washington University Law Center. She is a member of the bar of the District of Columbia. Ms. Peters is an active member of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A., the Intellectual Property Section of the American Bar Association, ALAI-USA, the District of Columbia Bar Association, including the Computer Law Section, the DC Computer Law Forum, and the Computer Law Association, of which she is currently as a member of the Board of Directors. JEROME REICHMAN is a professor of law at the Vanderbilt Law School, where he specializes in the fields of contracts and intellectual property. He received a BA from the University of Chicago and a JD from the Yale Law School. He has taught law at the University of Michigan, Ohio State University, the University of Florida, and the University of Rome in Italy. Professor Reichman served as chair of the Intellectual Property Section of the American Association of Law Schools (1995) and was a member of the Board of Trustees of the Copyright Society of the South. He currently serves as a consultant to the International Council of Scientific Unions' Ad Hoc Group on Data and Information and to the National Academies; as an academic advisor to the American Committee for Interoperable Systems; and as a consultant to the technology program of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Professor Reichman has written and lectured widely on comparative and international intellectual property law. THOMAS RINDFLEISCH is director of the Stanford University Lane Medical Library. Under his leadership, Lane Library is becoming a core part of an electronic information center for Stanford, incorporating digital library and informatics technologies for collecting, managing, and
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS delivering information resources and services for education, clinical care, and research. For more than 25 years previously, Mr. Rindfleisch led research groups developing open, network-based, distributed computing resources for biomedical informatics applications, first on the ARPANET and later on the Internet. He was director of the NIH-funded SUMEX-AIM and CAMIS resources from 1973 to 1996, serving a national research community working on electronic medical record and information systems, scientific and clinical decision-support systems, and distributed computing services. Software developed in his group was the basis for three successful Silicon Valley start-up companies, including Cisco Systems. He has a deep interest in privacy and security issues and was a member of the National Research Council study committee that produced For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information (National Academy Press, 1997). He is a member of the National Library of Medicine Biomedical Library Review Committee and is a former member of the Federal Networking Council Advisory Committee. He is a fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics and is a member of the American Medical Informatics Association, the Medical Library Association, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, and the Association for Computing Machinery. He holds an MS in physics from the California Institute of Technology. BARBARA RYAN is the associate director for operations for the U.S. Geological Survey. In this position she oversees program and policy activities for budget formulation and execution, human resource management, and information and administrative services. During her 20-year career with the U.S. Geological Survey, Ms. Ryan has worked in a variety of programmatic and managerial positions. As a hydrologist, much of her early career was spent in the field analyzing groundwater contamination problems. From 1989 to 1991, she served as staff assistant to the Assistant Secretary for Water and Science at the Department of Interior. Before becoming associate director, she was an assistant regional hydrologist for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Ms. Ryan holds a bachelor's degree in geology from the State University of New York at Cortland, a master 's degree in geography from the University of Denver, and a master 's degree in civil engineering from Stanford University. LESLIE SINGER is a graduate of the City University of New York, with a concentration in political science. Before coming to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) she worked at a New York-based financial institution, where she managed systems and operations areas. Her expertise includes development of credit card software, management of a large customer service organization, and management of audit functions. She joined ISI in 1996 to take responsibility for the Electronic Library Project, which linked ISI's Current Contents with participating publishers ' scanned images of full text. This pilot provided the expertise for ISI's commercial linking strategy that enables navigation between ISI products, publisher full text, and other database content. She subsequently became head of Publisher Relations and New Product Development and in October assumed the position of president and chief operating officer. FERRIS WEBSTER is a professor at the College of Marine Studies of the University of Delaware. He is a physical oceanographer whose research interests include the role of the ocean in climate change, ocean variability, time-series analysis, oceanographic data management, and computer-based information systems. He has contributed to the study of time-variable ocean currents and the processes of Gulf Stream meanders. He is currently chair of the Panel on World
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON PROMOTING ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA FOR THE PUBLIC INTEREST: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY OPTIONS Data Centers of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and chair of the ISCU group on Data and Information. He also directs the Data Information Unit for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. PETER N. WEISS has been a senior policy analyst/attorney in the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, since 1991. Mr. Weiss analyzes policy and legal issues involving information resources and information technology management, with particular emphasis on electronic data interchange (EDI) and electronic commerce. He is primary author of the information policy sections of OMB Circular No. A-130, “Management of Federal Information Resources,” and is a member of the administration's Electronic Commerce Working Group. He also serves as OMB desk officer for the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and the Defense FAR Supplement. Previously, Mr. Weiss was deputy associate administrator for procurement law, Office of Federal Procurement Policy; in this position, he analyzed legal and policy issues affecting the procurement process. Major projects included examination of legal and regulatory issues surrounding procurement automation, policies and FAR revisions to facilitate EDI, as well as ADP procurement legal and policy issues. From 1985 to 1990, Mr. Weiss was the assistant chief counsel for procurement and regulatory policy, Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, where he presented small business policy positions to federal agencies and Congress. From 1981 to 1985, Mr. Weiss was in private practice in Washington, D.C. Mr. Weiss holds a BA from Columbia University and a JD from the Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law. MYRA N. WILLIAMS became president and chief executive officer of Molecular Applications Group in April 1997. Prior to assuming this position, Dr. Williams was vice president and director of worldwide R&D Information Resources for Glaxo Wellcome, a position she assumed at the time of the merger of Glaxo with Wellcome. Before the merger, Dr. Williams was vice president and chief information officer of Glaxo Inc. Her accomplishments included providing leadership in the integration and globalization process after the merger; delivering major new applications including an integrated clinical information system and powerful tools supporting basic research; developing the foundation for a new business in healthcare informatics; and establishing the bioinformatics initiative in the United States. Prior to joining Glaxo, Dr. Williams was executive director of Information Resources and Strategic Planning at the Merck Research Laboratories. During her almost 24 years at Merck, she made contributions as a laboratory scientist in the application of biophysical techniques to drug design; led strategic planning for R&D; led the molecular modeling department in the development of improved approaches to computational chemistry and chemical data mining; and provided planning and coordination of information and computer resources including the publication of the Merck Index. Dr. Williams completed her BS at Southern Methodist University in 1964 in physics and mathematics and her PhD at Yale University in 1968 in molecular biophysics.
Representative terms from entire chapter: