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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000
BOX 1 IGY International Reporters
For the IGY, fourteen scientists (called reporters) had special duties, namely to coordinate and lead the development of separate parts of the enterprise. Two reporters dealt with parts that affected more than one of the scientific branches.
World Days and Communications: A.H. Shapely
Rockets and Satellites: L.V. Berkner
Meteorology: J. Van Mieghem
Geomagnetism: V. Laursen
Aurora and Airglow: S. Chapman
Ionosphere: W.J.G. Beynon
Solar Activity: H. Spencer Jones; Y. Öhman; M.A. Ellerson (in succession)
Cosmic Rays: J.A. Simpson
Longitudes and Latitudes: A. Danjon
Glaciology: J.M. Wordie
Oceanography: G. Laclavére
Seismology: V.V. Beloussov
Gravity Measurements: P. Lejoy; P. Tardi (in succession)
Nuclear Radiation: M. Nicolet
Source: Chapman (1959).
cal Sciences. The budget for U.S. participation in the 18 months of field operations totaled $43.5 million. The funds for IGY were entirely "new money"—appropriations over and above those for ongoing NSF programs. The ocean sciences component was a small part of the total IGY funding totaling $2,035,791, but it was far in excess of any previous support for ocean research in NSF's Research Division. Its impact on the ocean sciences budget during 1956 through 1959 is shown in Table 1A.
The oceanographic program was carded out by five U.S. academic institutions: Columbia, Scripps, Texas A&M, University of Washington, and Woods Hole, and by the Department of the Interior and Department of the Navy. The funding during the four years 1956-1959 is shown in Table 1A, by institution and in Table 1B by scientific category. According to Thomas F. Malone (1997), Lloyd Berkner was quoted as noting the IGY was a program "operated by scientists, with consent, cooperation, and aid, but not the direction of the governments."
INTERNATIONAL INDIAN OCEAN EXPEDITION (1962-1967)
Even before the IGY was completed, the International Council of Scientific Unions asked Roger Revelle (Director
TABLE 1A IGY Oceanography Funding by Institution (dollars)
Number of Awards
University of Washington
NOTE: DOI = Department of the Interior; TAMU = Texas A&M University; WHOI = Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
TABLE 1B IGY Oceanography Funding by Scientific Category (dollars)
Number of Awards
SOURCE: Lambert (1998b).
of Scripps Institution of Oceanography) to appoint a special Committee on Oceanic Research, (eventually changed to Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research—SCOR) so that oceanographers could play a major role in affairs of ICSU. The 15-member SCOR, at its first meeting in Woods Hole in August 1957, decided to plan an international expedition to the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean was the least understood ocean, physically and biologically, although there were indications that it might have a biological productivity higher than either the Atlantic or Pacific. The seasonal reversal of monsoon winds made it an ideal natural laboratory for observing the effects of wind stress on oceanic currents.
On the basis of input from 40 scientists, national and international, invited by SCOR, representing different disciplines in oceanography, a prospectus for exploration of the Indian Ocean was prepared and finalized in August 1960 by a group of three eminent scientists, namely: Roger Revelle, United States; George Deacon, United Kingdom, and Anton Bruun, Denmark (Lambert, 1998a).
In 1961, NSF awarded a grant to the National Academy of Sciences for "Support of Coordinator, IOE" (Lambert,