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The Global Coastal Ocean Processes and Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 604 pp.

1998 Hofmann, E.E., and C.M. Lascara. 1998. Overview of interdisciplinary modeling for marine ecosystems. Chapter 19, pp. 507-540 in K.H. Brink and A.R. Robinson (eds.), The Sea, Vol. 10, The Global Coastal Ocean Processes and Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

1998 Steele, J.H. 1998. Incorporating the microbial loop in a simple plankton model. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 265:1771-1777.

In Situ Observations and Experiments

When Jacques Cousteau first lured people under the sea, marine biologists joined the activity with enthusiasm. Scientific advances from these new in situ observations remained modest until biologists ventured into the pelagic realm. Once there, they found a world that had no counterpart in the mangled samples harvested by nets or water collection bottles (Alldredge, 1972; Madin, 1974; Hamner, 1975). Transparent and iridescent organisms, large and small, were abundant (Hamner et al., 1978). Organic aggregates were ubiquitous, and these large, gossamer structures were found to have very high rates of microbial activity (Silver and Alldredge, 1981; Caron et al., 1982). The aggregates appear to be self-contained biospheres with populations of producers and consumers living together. In situ observations by divers, submersibles, and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) revealed a great diversity of large plank-tonic organisms, particularly cnidaria, ctenophores, and salps (Robison, 1995) (Plate 4). Some of these are so delicate that they disintegrate in the wake of a swim fin; others are as tough as shoe leather. In situ observations showed that the pelagic realm is anything but barren or boring.

A characteristic that is very much a part of being a biologist is the inclination to give nature a gentle prod and watch the response. Connell (1961) and Paine (1966) used manipulation of intertidal communities to establish the hugely successful field of experimental marine ecology. From this work we have learned many rules about how communities are structured. Thirty years after Connell and Paine, Martin's successful in situ open-ocean experiment was carried out by adding iron to a 64-km2 patch of the equatorial Pacific and following the enriched patch for about 10 days (Martin et al., 1994). Interest in the confirmation of the Iron Hypothesis overshadowed the demonstration by this work that open-ocean experiments can be done. Just as in situ observations have revealed a biology that bottles and nets cannot capture, in situ experiments in the open ocean will reveal how intact, pelagic communities respond to environmental variations. When in situ ocean experimentation is coupled with in situ sensors and data assimilation (von Alt and Grassle, 1992), our discipline will have reached the end of its adolescence. Experimental intertidal marine ecology is very much a mainstream research activity; experimental biological oceanography is still only a glimmer in the eye of a few visionaries.

Both in situ ocean observations and in situ ocean experiments are unorthodox by the standards of traditional biological oceanography. However, the exciting new insights that resulted from work in both areas showed that NSF was wise to support this unconventional and risky research.

In Situ Observations References

1972 Alldredge, A.L. 1972. Abandoned larvacean houses: A unique food source in the pelagic environment. Science 177:885-887.

1974 Madin, L.P. 1974. Field observations on the feeding behavior of salps (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Mar. Biol. 25:143-148.

1975 Hamner, W.M. 1975. Underwater observations of blue-water plankton. Logistics, techniques, and safety procedures for divers at sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20:1045-1051.

1978 Hamner, W.M., L.P. Madin, A.L. Alldredge, R.W. Gilmer, and P.P. Hamner. 1978. Underwater observations of gelatinous zoo-plankton: Sampling problems, feeding biology and behavior. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20:907-917.

1981 Silver, M.W., and A.L. Alldredge. 1981. Bathypelagic marine snow: Vertical transport system and deep-sea algal and detrital community. J. Mar. Res. 39:501-530.

1982 Caron, D.A., P.G. Davis, L.P. Madin, and J. McN. Sieburth. 1982. Heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoa in oceanic aggregates. Science 218:795-797.

1995 Robison, B.H. 1995. Light in the ocean's midwaters. Scientific American (July):60-65.

In Situ Experiments References

1961 Connell, J.H. 1961. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42:710-723.

1966 Paine, R.T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. Am. Nat. 100:65-75.

1992 von Alt, C.J., and J.F. Grassle. 1992. LEO-15—An unmanned long term observatory. Proc. Oceans '92 2:829-854.

1994 Martin, J.H., et al. 1994. Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 371: 123-129.

1996 Coale, K.H., et al. 1996. A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization' experiment in the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean. Nature 383 495-501.


Reading over our selection of landmark achievements, we note with chagrin that we have failed to cite the achievements of the one individual, Alfred Redfield. who was most responsible for the dramatic advance of biological oceanography in the past 50 years. His groundbreaking work gave biological oceanographers both the Redfield Ratio and Redfield's Rule (Redfield, 1958). We acknowledge that all of the biological oceanographers cited in thing paper had the advantage of standing on Redfield's broad shoulders.

We have also failed to cite the work of a series of exceptionally productive biological oceanographers who were multi-faceted leaders. Mikhail Vinogradov, [)avid Cushing, Gotthilf Hempel, Ramon Margalef, Akihiko Hattori, Achim Minas, André Morel, and Takahisa Nemoto are individuals whose overarching leadership left an indelible mark on bio

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