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INDEX

A

Academic research, 3, 4, 6, 7, 195-200, 203

graduate education, 38, 63, 165, 193, 195-199

Mansfield Amendment, 3, 5, 8, 101

National Sea Grant College Program, 3, 5, 38, 90-91, 101, 102, 108, 246

ships and facilities, 7, 54, 56, 94, 109;

see also Alvin;

National Oceanographic Laboratory System;

University-National Laboratories;

University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System

see also specific institutions

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility, 131

Acoustics, 45, 48, 210-211

Aluminaut, 68

Alvin, 14-15, 65-84, 114, 131, 207, 211, 220

American Geophysical Union, 3, 169

American Mid-Atlantic Ridge program, 72

American Miscellaneous Society, 117-118

American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 17, 169

Anderson, Neil, 17, 38, 152, 157, 159-160

Angus, 75, 79-80, 82

Antarctic Ocean, 16-17, 45, 88, 90, 91, 94, 102

Archimede, 67, 71, 72, 73

Aristotle, 23-24

Atlantic Ocean

chemical oceanography, 29, 154-155, 160

core drilling, 119, 120, 122, 124-126

FAMOUS, 66, 70-75, 78, 80, 81, 82, 146, 147

GEOSECS, 154-155

mapping, 71

vents, 82

Atlantis II, 94, 99, 153

Atomic Energy Commission, 4, 15, 27, 30, 38, 196

see also Department of Energy

B

Bacteria, 18, 20, 69, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 125, 187-188

Bainbridge, Arnold, 154, 156-157

Baker, James (Jim), 159, 160, 204, 212-213

Ballard, Robert (Bob), 34, 65-84

Barber, Richard (Dick), 11-21, 34, 113, 184, 190

Bascom, Willard, 67, 118

Bathyscaphs and other submersibles, 14-15, 65-84, 70-75, 114, 131, 181, 207, 220

Bathythermographs, 3, 45

Benthos and benthic habitat, 14-15, 69-70

Berner, Robert (Bob), 32, 139

Bigelow, Henry, 34, 203

Big programs, see Large-scale programs

Biodiversity, 14-15, 185-190, 204

Biological oceanography, 11-21, 28-29, 125, 129, 144, 170, 180, 184 -191

Alvin, 69-70

bacteria, 18, 20, 69, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 125, 187-188

benthos and benthic habitat, 14-15, 69-70

copepods, 16, 17, 68-69, 186-188

fisheries, 11, 17-19, 89, 90, 138, 193, 204

funding, 3, 4, 5, 12, 246

interdisciplinary research, 17, 19

models and modeling, 19, 187

NSF efforts, 3, 4, 5, 11-21, 88-89, 91, 92, 93-94, 97, 98, 99, 102 , 103, 184-185

ocean color, 13-14, 159-160

oceanic productivity, 14, 15, 29, 184-190

iron hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38

plankton, 13, 14, 16, 28, 124, 131-132, 184, 186

submersibles, 69-70, 75-83

symposium program, 219, 221

vents, 12-13, 34, 73-83, 179-180

see also Environmental protection

Biogeochemical cycles, 14, 15, 16-17, 18-19, 27, 28, 30, 33, 34, 138-139, 159, 185-186

modeling of, 19

nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154

trace metals and, 30, 37, 186

see also Carbon dioxide

Biotechnology, 185

Bjerknes, Jacob, 48, 212

Board on Ocean Sciences and Policy, 204

Ocean Affairs Board, 204

Ocean Policy Committee, 204

Ocean Sciences Board, 148, 204

Ocean Studies Board, 11, 23, 87, 88, 159, 192, 204-205, 214, 215

Boledovich, Glenn, 201-206

Brewer, Peter, 19, 29, 30, 152-161

Broecker, Wallace (Wally), 25, 27, 28-29, 30, 34, 153, 154, 156, 159

Bronk, Detlev, 203

Bullard, Sir Edward, 54, 57

Bush, Vannevar, 87, 196, 210

Byrne, John, 4, 95, 107-116

C

Carbon dioxide, 16-17, 18-19, 26-27, 28-29, 32, 131, 139, 159-160, 170-171, 176, 193

GEOSECS, 153-157

iron hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38

Caribbean Sea, 26, 75, 119, 120, 126-127

Central North Pacific Gyre, 185, 186, 189

Centre National pour l'Exploitation de Oceans, 71, 81

Chemical oceanography, 22-43, 102, 144, 152-161, 169-171, 172-173, 180

Atlantic Ocean, 29, 154-155, 160

biogeochemical cycles, 14, 15, 16-17, 18-19

climate change, 26-27

geochemical cycles, 24

IDOE, 29, 33, 34, 39, 144, 150, 153, 158

interdisciplinary research, 171

iron hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38

models, 27

NSF funding, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31-34 (passim), 37, 38, 153, 154, 246

NSF programs, 22, 25-43, 88, 92, 103, 153



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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 INDEX A Academic research, 3, 4, 6, 7, 195-200, 203 graduate education, 38, 63, 165, 193, 195-199 Mansfield Amendment, 3, 5, 8, 101 National Sea Grant College Program, 3, 5, 38, 90-91, 101, 102, 108, 246 ships and facilities, 7, 54, 56, 94, 109; see also Alvin; National Oceanographic Laboratory System; University-National Laboratories; University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System see also specific institutions Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility, 131 Acoustics, 45, 48, 210-211 Aluminaut, 68 Alvin, 14-15, 65-84, 114, 131, 207, 211, 220 American Geophysical Union, 3, 169 American Mid-Atlantic Ridge program, 72 American Miscellaneous Society, 117-118 American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 17, 169 Anderson, Neil, 17, 38, 152, 157, 159-160 Angus, 75, 79-80, 82 Antarctic Ocean, 16-17, 45, 88, 90, 91, 94, 102 Archimede, 67, 71, 72, 73 Aristotle, 23-24 Atlantic Ocean chemical oceanography, 29, 154-155, 160 core drilling, 119, 120, 122, 124-126 FAMOUS, 66, 70-75, 78, 80, 81, 82, 146, 147 GEOSECS, 154-155 mapping, 71 vents, 82 Atlantis II, 94, 99, 153 Atomic Energy Commission, 4, 15, 27, 30, 38, 196 see also Department of Energy B Bacteria, 18, 20, 69, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 125, 187-188 Bainbridge, Arnold, 154, 156-157 Baker, James (Jim), 159, 160, 204, 212-213 Ballard, Robert (Bob), 34, 65-84 Barber, Richard (Dick), 11-21, 34, 113, 184, 190 Bascom, Willard, 67, 118 Bathyscaphs and other submersibles, 14-15, 65-84, 70-75, 114, 131, 181, 207, 220 Bathythermographs, 3, 45 Benthos and benthic habitat, 14-15, 69-70 Berner, Robert (Bob), 32, 139 Bigelow, Henry, 34, 203 Big programs, see Large-scale programs Biodiversity, 14-15, 185-190, 204 Biological oceanography, 11-21, 28-29, 125, 129, 144, 170, 180, 184 -191 Alvin, 69-70 bacteria, 18, 20, 69, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 125, 187-188 benthos and benthic habitat, 14-15, 69-70 copepods, 16, 17, 68-69, 186-188 fisheries, 11, 17-19, 89, 90, 138, 193, 204 funding, 3, 4, 5, 12, 246 interdisciplinary research, 17, 19 models and modeling, 19, 187 NSF efforts, 3, 4, 5, 11-21, 88-89, 91, 92, 93-94, 97, 98, 99, 102 , 103, 184-185 ocean color, 13-14, 159-160 oceanic productivity, 14, 15, 29, 184-190 iron hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38 plankton, 13, 14, 16, 28, 124, 131-132, 184, 186 submersibles, 69-70, 75-83 symposium program, 219, 221 vents, 12-13, 34, 73-83, 179-180 see also Environmental protection Biogeochemical cycles, 14, 15, 16-17, 18-19, 27, 28, 30, 33, 34, 138-139, 159, 185-186 modeling of, 19 nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154 trace metals and, 30, 37, 186 see also Carbon dioxide Biotechnology, 185 Bjerknes, Jacob, 48, 212 Board on Ocean Sciences and Policy, 204 Ocean Affairs Board, 204 Ocean Policy Committee, 204 Ocean Sciences Board, 148, 204 Ocean Studies Board, 11, 23, 87, 88, 159, 192, 204-205, 214, 215 Boledovich, Glenn, 201-206 Brewer, Peter, 19, 29, 30, 152-161 Broecker, Wallace (Wally), 25, 27, 28-29, 30, 34, 153, 154, 156, 159 Bronk, Detlev, 203 Bullard, Sir Edward, 54, 57 Bush, Vannevar, 87, 196, 210 Byrne, John, 4, 95, 107-116 C Carbon dioxide, 16-17, 18-19, 26-27, 28-29, 32, 131, 139, 159-160, 170-171, 176, 193 GEOSECS, 153-157 iron hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38 Caribbean Sea, 26, 75, 119, 120, 126-127 Central North Pacific Gyre, 185, 186, 189 Centre National pour l'Exploitation de Oceans, 71, 81 Chemical oceanography, 22-43, 102, 144, 152-161, 169-171, 172-173, 180 Atlantic Ocean, 29, 154-155, 160 biogeochemical cycles, 14, 15, 16-17, 18-19 climate change, 26-27 geochemical cycles, 24 IDOE, 29, 33, 34, 39, 144, 150, 153, 158 interdisciplinary research, 171 iron hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38 models, 27 NSF funding, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31-34 (passim), 37, 38, 153, 154, 246 NSF programs, 22, 25-43, 88, 92, 103, 153

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 ONR, 25 photochemistry, 36, 170 salinity, 23-24, 34, 120, 129, 157, 166, 202 Scripps, 24, 26, 29, 30 symposium program, 219, 221 technological developments, 22, 30, 171 Woods Hole, 24-25, 28, 29, 33, 37, 38, 153, 156, 159 World War II, 24-25 Chemosynthesis, 12-13, 34, 73-83 Clark, Lawrence (Larry), 128-133, 158 Clean Water Act. 204 Climate, 48, 149-150, 166, 173, 182 CLIVAR, 150, 151, 166 El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 48, 165, 166, 193 global change, 26-27, 131, 150, 151, 170-171, 176-178, 185 CLIMAP, 7-8, 60, 61, 144, 146, 147, 150, 176 greenhouse gases, 26-27, 28-29, 131, 153-157, 170-171, 193; see also Carbon dioxide sea level, 69, 173, 177 mesoscale variability, 45-46, 167, 168 paleoclimatology, 51, 52, 54-55, 59-61, 69, 139, 171, 173, 176-178 seasonal factors, 3, 14, 89, 186 El Niño, 48, 165, 166, 193 technological developments, research, 49 Climate Long-Range Investigation Mapping and Prediction program (CLIMAP) , 7-8, 60, 61, 144, 146, 147, 150, 176 CLImate VARiability (CLIVAR), 150, 151, 166 Coastal and estuarine systems, 13, 14-15, 109, 167, 170 environmental protection, 31, 33-34 modeling, 19 oil pollution, 31, 34, 120 salinity, 34 sediments, 177-179 tides, 47 Coastal Upwelling Ecosystem Analysis, 150 Coastal Zone Color Scanner, 13, 14-15, 159, 160 Coastal Zone Management Act, 204 Cold War, 12, 93, 94 U.S. nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154 Colleges and universities, see Academic research; specific institutions Color, see Ocean color Columbia University, see Lamont-Doherty Geological Laboratory of Columbia University Colwell, Rita, 205, 207-209 Computer technology, 48, 91, 193 geology and geophysics, 56 Internet, 115, 169, 182 mass spectra, 131 tides, 47 waves, 46, 48 see also Models and modeling Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education, 169, 197, 205 Controlled Pollution Experiment, 34 The Continuing Quest: Large Scale Ocean Research for the Future, 148 Coordinating Group on Oceanography, 89-90 Copepods, 16, 17, 68-69, 186-188 Copper, 37 Coring, see Deep sea drilling Cousteau, Jacques, 20, 68 Craig, Harmon, 25, 26, 29, 38, 153, 154, 156 Cyana, 71, 73 D Deep-ocean mooring, 46, 48, 131 Deep Tow, 74, 79 Deep sea drilling, 5, 7, 8, 56, 64, 84, 87, 89, 91, 92, 96, 104-105 , 117-127, 172, 173, 181 Atlantic Ocean, 119, 120, 122, 124-126 JOIDES, 7, 100-101, 104-105, 110, 119-122, 127, 139, 205, 207 LOng COres (LOCO), 119, 123 NSF funding, 117, 119-120, 121, 122, 123, 127 Pacific Ocean, 120-121, 122 Project Mohole, 99-100, 101, 117-119, 122, 123 Scripps, 119-120 ships for, 119-120 Defense, see Military applications Department of Commerce, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Department of Energy, 15, 29, 38, 129 see also Atomic Energy Commission Department of State, 146 Department of the Interior, 142 Geological Survey, 55, 68, 119, 195 Department of the Navy, see Office of Naval Research Dinsmore, Robertson, 6, 95, 107-116 Drifters, 48 Drilling, see Deep sea drilling Dugdale, Richard (Dick), 14, 15, 17 E Earthquakes, 57, 59, 71, 121, 126, 173, 180 Economic Benefits of Oceanographic Research, 90, 203 Economic issues, 5, 201, 206, 215 Atlantic Ocean, geochemical monitoring, 29 cost-effectiveness, 7, 8, 131, 181-182 public education, 181-182 ships, 90, 96, 101, 111-112, 129, 146, 180-181 see also Funding Edge waves, 46 Edmond, John, 29, 30, 34, 75 Education and training, 5, 97, 165, 171, 192-193, 195-200, 214-215 graduate education, 38, 63, 165, 193, 195-199 National Academy of Sciences, 195-197 public education, 181-182, 198, 199, 214-215 symposium program agenda, 221 see also Academic research; specific institutions Effective Use of the Sea, 90 Ekman spiral, 45, 46 El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 48, 165, 166, 182, 186, 193, 199, 205-206, 207, 211-212 Emery, K.O., 26, 53, 69, 71 Endangered Species Act, 204 Environmental protection, 11, 30-32, 33, 173, 184-191, 202, 206, 246 global climate change, 26-27, 131, 150, 151, 170-171, 176-178, 185 CLIMAP, 7-8, 60, 61, 144, 146, 147, 150, 176 greenhouse gases, 26-27, 28-29, 131, 153-157, 170-171, 193; see also Carbon dioxide sea level, 69, 173, 177 human health, 215 IDOE, 33, 34, 150 lead pollution, 30, 37 oil pollution, 30-32, 34, 120 radioactivity, 27-28, 30, 33, 39, 153-154, 156, 159 trace metals, 30, 37, 186 Environmental Protection Agency, 34, 39, 204 Equipment, see Facilities for research Eppley, Richard (Dick), 15, 17 Ewing, Maurice, 4, 6, 13, 27, 53-57, 71, 108, 114, 118, 120 Exclusive Economic Zone, 206 F Facilities for research, 7, 8, 20, 48, 99, 103, 128-133, 167, 171, 180-182, 192, 193 acoustic, 45, 46, 47, 48 computer technology, 48, 56, 91, 115, 131, 169, 182, 193 deep-ocean mooring, 46, 48, 131 interdisciplinary research and, 130 Internet, 23, 115, 169, 182 National Oceanographic Laboratory System (NOLS), 101, 102, 107, 109 -112 NSF model, 129-133 sonar, 3, 68, 75, 79, 131 sounding, 3, 75, 120 spectrometric techniques, 15, 30, 60, 61, 130-131, 138 University-National Laboratories (UNL), 95, 107, 109 University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), 7, 8, 95, 103, 107-116, 180, 204 see also Deep sea drilling: Satellite technology; Ships: Technological developments FAMOUS, see French-American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study Farrington, John, 22-43, 152 Federal Council for Science and Technology, 88 Federal government, see Funding; Legislation; National Science Foundation; Office of Naval Research; other specific departments 2 and agencies Fine, Rana, 158, 192-194 Fisheries, 11, 17-19, 89, 90, 188, 193, 204, 206

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 204 Fleming, Richard, 23, 25, 45 France, 70-71, 81 Francheteau, Jean, 78-82 Frosch, Robert (Bob), 111, 216 French-American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study (FAMOUS), 66, 70-75, 78, 80, 81, 82, 146, 147 Fuglister, Fritz, 3, 45 Funding, 38, 63, 215 Atomic Energy Commission, 27, 30, 38, 196 Cold War, 12, 93, 94 cost-effectiveness, 7, 8, 131, 181-182 IDOE, 144-146, 147 Mansfield Amendment, 3, 5, 8, 101 NOAA, 34, 197 NSF, 3-8, 88, 89-90, 92, 93-95, 97, 99, 101, 108, 110, 111, 196, 204, 246-247 biological oceanography, 3, 4, 5, 12, 246 chemical oceanography, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31-34 (passim), 37, 38, 153 , 154, 246 education, 196-197, 246 geology and geophysics, 53, 56, 59, 61-62, 172, 173, 246 large-scale programs, 7-8, 141, 142, 143, 144-147, 150, 193 ocean drilling, 117, 119-120, 121, 122, 123, 127 physical oceanography, 44, 48, 165-166, 246 small-scale programs, 137-140 technological development, 131, 132, 193, 246 ONR, 3-5, 10, 25, 30, 34, 38, 53, 62, 108, 111, 204 Fye, Paul, 65, 66, 68, 95, 110, 111, 112, 204 G Gaffney, Paul, 210-211 Genetics, see Biotechnology Geochemical cycles, 24, 26, 27, 28-31, 36, 38, 131, 144, 173, 175, 176, 185 see also Biogeochemical cycles Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS), 7, 29-30, 33, 39, 110, 144, 146, 147, 150, 153-157, 158, 159, 160 Atlantic Ocean, 154-155 carbon dioxide studies, 153-157 Indian Ocean, 156-157 Geological Data Center, 55-56 Geological Survey, 55, 68, 119, 195 Geology and geophysics, see Marine geology and geophysics GI Bill, 196 Ginsberg, Robert (Bob), 53, 87, 88 Global Atmospheric Research Program, 110 Global Change Research Program, 149-151 Global Climate Observing System, 150 Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics program (GLOBEC), 11, 19 Global Ocean Flux Study, 159-160 Global Ocean Observing System, 150 Glomar Challenger, 101, 119-120 Glomar Explorer, 105 Goldberg, Edward (Ed), 23, 25-34 (passim), 38 Green, Edward (Ed), 17, 38 Greenhouse gases, 26-27, 28-29, 131, 153-157, 170-171, 193 see also Carbon dioxide Gulf Stream, 3, 73, 128 H Health sciences, 215 see also Environmental protection Heirtzler, James (Jim), 57, 64, 71, 72, 78, 120 Helix, 94 Hess, Harry, 3, 57, 117, 118 Hessler, Robert, 14, 15, 17, 70 Hollister, Charles (Charlie), 56, 64, 197 Hutchinson, G. Evelyn, 11, 25, 28 Hydrography, 25, 45, 152, 159 Hydrothermal vents, see Vents I Indian Ocean, 15, 89, 93, 94, 95, 110, 125, 141, 142-143, 152-153 GEOSECS, 156-157 In situ observations and experiments, 20 deep-ocean mooring, 46, 48, 131 see also Deep sea drilling; Facilities for research; Ships Institutional factors, 3-8, 11, 63, 87-133, 192-194, 201-206 chemical oceanography, 23 marine geology and geophysics, 54-56 peer review, 6, 8, 102, 132, 147-148, 166 symposium program, 220, 222 see also Education and training; Interdisciplinary research; Large-scale programs; Small-scale programs; specific institutions Instrumentation, see Facilities for research; Technological developments Interagency Committee on Oceanography, 88, 89, 90, 93, 98 Interdisciplinary research, 3, 5, 7, 52, 72, 96, 97, 194, 214 biological oceanography, 17, 19 chemical oceanography, 171 large-scale programs, 137 physical oceanography, 166, 175 RIDGE, 63 technological development and facilities, 130 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 144, 154 Internal waves, 46, 48 The International Aspects of Oceanography, 203, 206 International Council for Science, 154 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 24 International Council of Scientific Unions, 71, 89, 141, 142, 159 see also International Geophysical Year International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE), 3, 4-5, 7-8, 72, 91, 95, 102-103, 104, 109, 115, 141, 143-148, 149, 150 chemical oceanography, 29, 33, 34, 39, 144, 150, 153, 158 funding, 144-146, 147 marine geology and geophysics, 62, 144, 146, 147 marine pollution, 33, 34, 150 National Academy of Sciences, 144, 146, 148 ONR, 146 technological developments, 129, 131 International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), 3, 4-5, 25, 57, 62, 71 , 88, 91, 93, 94, 97-98, 105-106, 108, 141-142, 152 National Academy of Sciences, 141-142 International Indian Ocean Expedition, 15, 89, 93, 94, 110, 141, 142-143, 152-153 International Oceanographic Congress, 27 International Oceanographic Foundation, 90 International Program for Ocean Drilling, 121-122 Internet, 23, 115, 169, 182 Iron Hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38 Iselin, Columbus, 6, 53, 55, 108, 114, 138 J Jason, 211 Jenkins, William (Bill), 34, 38, 157, 169 Jennings, Feenan, 7, 33, 90, 91, 102, 141-148, 203, 212 Johrde, Mary, 5, 88, 90, 91, 93-95, 111, 112, 115, 129 JOIDES Resolution, 207 Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 19, 37, 131, 138, 158-160, 186 Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc., 105, 122, 126, 139, 204-205 Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES), 7, 100-101, 104-105, 110, 119-122, 127, 139, 205, 207 Jumars, Peter (Pete), 12, 14, 159, 184-191 K Keeling, Charles David (Dave), 28, 157 Ketchum, Bostwick (Buck), 24, 28, 33, 34 Kilgore-Magnuson Bill, 196 Knauss, John, 3-8, 44, 49, 109, 212, 216 Knorr, 75 L Lakes, 167 Lambert, Richard (Dick), 44, 93, 149-151 Lamont-Doherty Geological Laboratory of Columbia University, 6, 7, 53, 54-55, 108, 120, 142, 143, 147, 203 Large-scale programs, 64. 96, 137, 141-161 Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS), 7, 29-30, 33, 39, 110, 144, 146, 147, 150, 153-157, 158, 159, 160

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 interdisciplinary factors, 137 models, 137 NSF and, 7-8, 141-152, 193, 194 symposium program, 221 Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere program, 149, 151, 167 Word Ocean Circulation Experiment, 29, 30, 131, 149, 151, 159, 165 see also International Decade of Ocean Exploration; International Geophysical Year; International Indian Ocean Expedition Le Pichon, Xavier, 64, 71, 72 Lead pollution, 30, 37 Legislation Clean Water Act, 204 Coastal Zone Management Act, 204 Endangered Species Act, 204 Fishery conservation and Management Act, 204 GI Bill, 196 Kilgore-Magnusson Bill, 196 Magnuson Act, 89, 204 Mansfield Amendment, 3, 5, 8, 101, 204 Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act, 95, 108, 204 Marine Mammal Protection Act. 204 Marine Sciences Act, 143-144 Morrill Land Grant Act, 195 National Marine Sanctuaries Act, 204 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 101 National Oceanographic Partnership Act, 205 National Science Foundation Act, 87, 88, 90, 95, 196 National Sea Grant College Program Act, 5, 90-91, 101, 108 various, 204 see also specific acts Lill, Gordon, 108, 203 Lillie, Frank R., 195-196, 203 Lillie Report, 195, 196-197 Limnology and Oceanography, 15 LOng COres (LOCO), 119, 123 Lyman, John, 5, 94, 111 M Magnuson Act, 89, 204 Mansfield Amendment, 3, 5, 8, 101, 204 Mapping, 70, 71, 72-73, 81, 120, 202 CLIMAP, 7-8, 60, 61, 144, 146, 147, 150, 176 hydrography, 25, 45, 152, 159 navigation, other, 180-181, 202 Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory, 34 Marine geology and geophysics, 51-64, 144, 172-183 bathyscaphs and other submersibles, 69, 70-83 computer applications, 56 earthquakes, 57, 59, 71, 121, 126, 173, 180 IDOE, 62, 144, 146, 147 institutional factors, 54-56 International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), 3, 4-5, 25, 57, 62, 71 , 88, 91, 93, 94, 97-98, 105-106, 108, 141-142, 152 NSF funding, 53, 56, 59, 61-62, 172, 173, 246 NSF programs, 51, 53-64, 88, 92, 96, 99-100, 101, 104-105, 181-183 ONR, 53-54, 62, 64, 142 paleoceanography, other, 124-125, 139, 176-177 paleoclimatology, 51, 52, 54-55, 59-61, 69, 139, 171, 173, 176-178 plate tectonics, iii, 12, 51, 57-59, 71 Scripps, 52, 54, 55-56, 62, 74, 142 symposium program agenda, 220, 221 technological developments, 52; see also Deep sea drilling vents, 12-13, 34, 73-83, 179-180 volcanoes, 30, 57, 59, 71, 72, 73, 125-126, 172, 173-174, 179-180; see also ''vents" supra Woods Hole, 55, 56, 62, 63, 73, 74, 142 World War II, 52-53, 120 see also Deep sea drilling; Sediments and sedimentology Marine Mammal Protection Act, 204 Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act, 95, 108, 204 Marine Sciences Act, 143-144 Mass spectrometry, 15, 30, 60, 61, 130-131, 138 Martin, John, 16-17, 20, 38, 39 Maury, Matthew Fontaine, 114, 202 Maxwell, Arthur (Art), 95, 113, 115, 120, 203 McElroy, William (Bill), 90, 95, 110, 111, 112 McNutt, Marcia, 51-64, 172-183 Mediterranean Deep Ocean Convection experiment, 47-48 Mediterranean Sea, other, 125 Melville, 79, 80, 82 Menard, Henry W., 54, 55, 57, 59 Menzel, David, 29, 32, 113, 152 Merrell, William (Bill), 149, 201-206, 212 Mesoscale analyses, 45-46, 167, 168 Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment, 7, 46, 144, 212 Military applications, 201, 206 academic funding, Mansfield Amendment, 3, 5, 8, 101 Cold War, 12, 93, 94 nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154 nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154 Vietnam War, 101 World War I, 202-203 World War II, 3, 45, 203-204 chemical oceanography, 24-25 geology and geophysics, 52-53, 120 Mixed Layer Experiment, 45 MODE, 146, 147, 150 Models and modeling, 46, 168, 193 biological oceanography, 19, 187 chemical oceanography, 27 ecosystems, 185 El Niño, 165, 166 general circulation, 46 geophysical, 172, 173 large-scale programs, 137 ocean-atmosphere coupling, 19, 168 salinity, 34 steady circulation, 44 technology and facilities, 129-130 thermodynamic, 153 see also Computer technology Mohole, see Project Mohole Morrill Land Grant Act, 195 Multidisciplinary research, see Interdisciplinary research Munk, Walter, 3, 44-50, 53, 55, 64, 117, 118, 127, 150, 204, 213 Mussel Watch Program, 34, 39 N National Academy of Engineering, 144 National Academy of Sciences, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 98, 100, 117, 192 , 202-206, 215-216 bathyscaphs, 67 education in oceanography, 195-197 ICO, 88, 89, 90, 93, 98 IDOE, 144, 146, 148 IGY, 141-142 Marine Chemistry Panel, 32 NASCO, 88, 89, 90, 94, 98, 108-109, 111 Ocean Studies Board, 23, 159, 204-205, 215 WOCE, 159 see also National Research Council National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 13-14, 57, 93, 131, 132, 159, 212, 213 National Association of Marine Laboratories, 204 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 6, 7, 102 National Council of Marine Resources and Engineering, 108, 143, 146 see also Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act National Institute of Environmental Health Services, 215 National Marine Sanctuaries Act, 204 National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility, 131 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 3, 5, 34, 90, 95 , 101, 102, 109-110, 132, 197, 204, 212, 213, 215 National Oceanographic Data Center, 193 National Oceanographic Laboratory System, 101, 102, 107, 109-112 National Oceanographic Partnership Act, 205 National Oceanographic Program, 88, 91 National Oceanographic Partnership Program, 205, 206 National Research Council, 23, 72, 84, 143, 159, 192, 202, 206, 214 see also National Academy of Sciences National Science Foundation, ii, 93-95, 192-194, 196 administrative history, 96-106

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 chronology of early developments, 87-92 biological oceanography, 3, 4, 5, 11-21, 88-89, 91, 92, 93-94, 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 184-185 chemical oceanography, 22, 25-43, 88, 92, 103, 153 Division of Ocean Sciences staff et al., 235-246 emergence of role in oceanography, 3-8 FAMOUS, 71-73 funding, 3-8, 88, 89-90, 92, 93-95, 97, 99, 101, 108, 110, 111, 196 , 204, 246-247 biological oceanography, 3, 4, 5, 12, 246 chemical oceanography, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31-34 (passim), 37, 38, 153 , 154, 246 education, 196-197, 246 geology and geophysics, 53, 56, 59, 61-62, 172, 173, 246 large-scale programs, 7-8, 141, 142, 143, 144-147, 150, 193 ocean drilling, 117, 119-120, 121, 122, 123, 127 physical oceanography, 44, 48, 165-166, 246 small-scale programs, 137-140 technological development, 131, 132, 193, 246 large-scale research, 7-8, 141-152, 193, 194 marine geology and geophysics, 51, 53-64, 88, 92, 96, 99-100, 101, 104-105, 181-183 National Sea Grant College Program, 3, 5, 38, 90-91, 101, 102, 108 , 246 physical oceanography, 15, 44-50, 92, 103, 165 public education, 181-182 small-scale research, 137-140, 194 technological developments, 128-133, 192, 193, 246 National Science Foundation Act, 87, 88, 90-91, 95, 196 National Sea Grant College Program, 3, 5, 38, 90-91, 101, 102, 108 , 209, 246 National security, see Military applications Navigation, 180-181, 202 hydrography, 25, 45, 152, 159 The Next Ten Years of Oceanography (TENOC), 108, 109, 203 Nitrogen fixation, 185-186 North Pacific Experiment, 146, 147, 150 Nowell, Arthur, 195-200, 214 Nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154 O Ocean chemistry, see Chemical oceanography Ocean circulation, iii, 27, 29, 46-48, 92, 139, 167-168, 172 abyssal, 45 GEOSECS, 7, 29-30, 33, 39, 110, 144, 146, 147, 150, 153-157, 158, 159 general circulation models, 46 Gulf Stream, 3, 73, 128 gyres, 185-186 steady circulation models, 44 TOGA, 149, 151, 167 waves, 46-47, 48, 166 WOCE, 29, 30, 131, 149, 151, 159, 165 Ocean color, 13-14, 159-160 Ocean Drilling Program, 87, 215 Ocean Ecology: Understanding and Vision for Research (OEUVRE), 184 -185, 188-189 Ocean Margin Drilling Program, 104, 122, 127 Oceanographic Science Research Section, 129 Oceanography 1951, 203 Oceanography 1960 to 1970, 203 Oceanography in the Next Decade, 205 Oceanography: Its Scope, Problems, and Economic Importance, 203 Ocean Sciences Division, 128-133, 137-138, 192 Ocean Ecology: Understanding and Vision for Research, 12, 17 Oceanic productivity, 14, 15, 29, 184-190 iron hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38 An Oceanic Quest: The International Decade of Ocean Exploration, 144 Oceanic Technology program, 132 Oceanographic Instrumentation Program, 130 Office of Naval Research, iii, 3-4, 8, 38, 53, 90, 94, 99, 101, 102 , 107, 111, 112, 203, 210, 211 bathyscaphs, 67, 68 chemical oceanography, 25 educational funding, 196 funding, 3-5, 10, 25, 30, 34, 38, 53, 62, 108, 111, 204 geology and geophysics, 53-54, 62, 64, 142 IDOE, 146 physical oceanography, 44 technological support, 129, 131 Office of Polar Programs, 88, 91, 144 Office of Special International Programs, 88 Office of Technology Assessment, 132 Oil pollution, 30-32, 34, 120 Oregon State University, 4, 109, 203 Ostlund, Gote, 29, 154, 156 Our Nation and the Sea (Stratton Commission), 90, 107, 109, 197, 204 P Pacific Ocean, 3, 29-30 Central North Pacific Gyre, 185, 186, 189 copper, 37 core drilling, 120-121, 122 GEOSECS, 156 hydrography, 45 North Pacific Experiment, 146, 147, 150 in situ biological oceanography, 20 iron hypothesis, 16-17 nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154 vents, 12-13, 34, 73-83 Paleoceanography, other, 124-125, 139, 176-177 see also Deep sea drilling Paleoclimatology, 51, 52, 54-55, 59-61, 69, 139, 171, 173, 176, 177 -178 Particulate matter, 34, 36-37, 138 Peer review, 6, 8, 102, 132, 147-148, 166 Photochemistry, 36, 170 Physical oceanography, 15, 44-50, 102, 144, 149-151, 165-168, 219, 221 interdisciplinary, 166, 175 NSF funding, 44, 48, 165-166, 246 NSF programs, 15, 44-50, 92, 103, 165 ONR, 44 technological developments, 44, 46, 48-49 see also Ocean circulation; Marine geology and geophysics Phytoplankton, 13, 14, 16, 186 Piccard, Jacques, 4, 67 Plankton, 16, 28, 124, 131-132, 184, 186 Plate tectonics, iii, 12, 51, 54, 57-59, 71, 120, 139, 172, 173-175 earthquakes, 57, 59, 71, 121, 126, 173, 180 vents, 12-13, 34, 73-83, 179-180 see also Deep sea drilling Pollution, see Environmental protection POLYMODE, 146, 147, 150 Productivity, see Oceanic productivity Project Mohole, 99-100, 101, 117-119, 122, 123 Purdy, G. Michael, 6(n.13), 137-140, 183 R Radioactivity, 27-28, 30, 33, 39, 153-154, 156, 159 Redfield, Alfred, 20, 24, 25, 28, 32 Remote sensing, 20 see also Satellite technology Reeve, Michael (Mike), 6(n. 13), 25, 44, 64, 87-92, 158 Revelle, Roger, 4, 26, 27, 28, 52, 55, 108, 114, 118, 142, 143, 158 Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments, 63 Riley, Gordon, 11, 19, 108, 184, 189 Ryther, John, 14, 15, 156 S SAIL (serial-ASCII instrumentation loop), 130 Salinity, 23-24, 34, 120, 129, 157, 166, 202 Sanders, Howard (Howie), 14, 15, 17, 30, 31, 70 Satellite technology, 44, 48-49, 165, 166-167, 207 ocean color, 13, 14, 159-160 seafloor, 14 Sputnik, 12, 93, 94, 108 tides, 47 Science: The Endless Frontier, 196 Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research, 142-143, 154, 159-160 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 3-7 (passim), 108, 147, 203 biological oceanography, 15 chemical oceanography, 24, 26, 29, 30 climate change, 26 core drilling, 119-120 geology and geophysics, 52, 54, 55-56, 62, 74, 142 International Indian Ocean Expedition, 142 satellite technology, 49 submersibles, 74, 79 vessels, other, 108, 109, 110, 113, 114

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 SEABEAM, 82 Seafloor, 14-15, 92, 108, 150, 175, 177, 181, 207 benthos and benthic habitat, 14-15, 69-70 see also Deep sea drilling; Mapping; Plate tectonics; Sediments and sedimentology Sea level, 69, 173, 177 see also Climate Seapup, 65, 68 SEASAT, 49 Seasonal factors, 3, 14, 89, 186 El Niño, 48, 165, 166, 182, 186, 193, 199, 205-206, 207, 211-212 Sea-Viewing Wide Field of View Sensor, 13 Sediments and sedimentology, 32, 37, 38, 39, 64, 69, 71, 91, 138-139 , 170, 171, 172-174, 177-179, 181, 182 benthos and benthic habitat, 14-15, 69-70 paleoceanography, 124-125, 139, 176-177 paleoclimatology, 51, 59-61, 62, 64, 171, 173 see also Deep sea drilling Shipboard Technician Program, 130 Ships, 7, 38-39, 45, 63, 72, 90, 94, 109, 119, 129-130, 192, 202 academic research, 7, 54, 56, 94, 109; see also National Oceanographic Laboratory System; University-National Laboratories; University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System Alvin, 14-15, 65-84, 114 bathyscaphs and other submersibles, 14-15, 65-84, 70-75, 114, 131, 181, 207, 220 core drilling, 119-120 funding, 3, 5, 99 navigation, 180-181, 202 operational support, 90, 96, 101, 111-112, 129, 146, 180-181 Lamont, 54 National Oceanographic Laboratory System, 101, 102, 107, 109-112 Scripps, submersibles, 74, 79 vessels, other, 108, 109, 110, 113, 114 University-National Laboratories, 95, 107, 109 University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), 7, 8, 95, 103, 107-116, 180, 204 Woods Hole, 56, 94, 109; see also "Alvin" supra Silent Spring, 202 Small-scale programs, 36-37, 96, 137-140, 152, 221 NSF and, 137-140, 194 see also specific programs Social factors, 5, 172, 222 national pride. 201, 205-206 public education, 181-182, 198, 199, 214-215 public health, 215 see also Environmental protection; Institutional factors Sonar, 3, 68, 75, 79, 131 Sounding. 3, 75, 120 Souscoup, 68 Soviet Union, 146 Cold War, 12, 93, 94 U.S. nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154 Spectrometry, 15, 30, 60, 61, 130-131, 138 Spiess, Fred, 64, 78-79 Spilhaus, Athelstan, 3, 90, 108 Sputnik, 12, 93, 94, 108 Steele, John, 18, 156, 159, 204 Stratton, Julius, 90, 108, 110 Stratton Commission, 90, 107, 109-110, 204, 206 see also International Decade of Ocean Science Exploration (IDOE): Our Nation and the Sea; University-National Laboratories Stommel, Henry (Hank), 29, 39, 44, 45-46, 47, 49, 113, 138, 153, 154-155, 156, 212 Sverdrup, Harold, 3, 6, 23, 44, 45, 48, 49, 52 Submersibles, see Bathyscaphs and other submersibles Surface waves, 46-47, 48 T Takahashi, Taro, 156-157 Talwani, Manik, 55, 71 Teal, John 30, 31 TOGA-TAO, 149, 151, 167 Technological developments, 128-133, 193 biological oceanography, 18 chemical oceanography, 22, 30, 171 computer technology, 48, 56, 91, 115, 131, 169, 193 geology and geophysics, 52; see also Deep sea drilling IDOE, 129, 131 NSF funding, 131, 132, 193, 246 NSF model, 129-133 physical oceanography, 44, 46, 48-49 sonar, 3, 68, 75, 79, 131 sounding, 3, 75, 120 spectrometric techniques, 15, 30, 60, 61, 130-131, 138 see also Bathyscaphs and other submersibles; Computer technology; Facilities for research; Ships Temperature studies, 3, 47, 48, 52, 69, 128, 129, 138, 139, 153, 167-168, 172 vents, 12-13, 34, 73-83 volcanism, 30, 57, 59, 71, 72, 73, 75, 125-126, 172, 173-174, 179-180 Texas A&M University, 6, 109, 142, 203 Thermoclines, 3, 138, 172 Tides, 47 Time-series analyses, 37, 165, 184, 189-190 TOPEX/POSEIDON, 165, 166-167, 212 Toye, Sandra, 5, 65-66, 95, 96-106 Trace metals, 30, 37, 186 Training, see Education and training Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 3 Transient Tracers in the Ocean, 157, 159, 160 Trieste, 67-68, 75 Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, see TOGA-TAO Turekian, Karl, 25, 26, 29, 154 Turner, Ruth, 47, 69, 70 U United Nations, 102, 144, 154 see also International Decade for Ocean Exploration United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, 108, 204 Universities and colleges, see Academic research; specific institutions University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 169 University-National Laboratories (UNL), 95, 107, 109 University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), 7, 8, 95, 103, 107-116, 130, 180, 204 University of California, 37 University of Hawaii, 6, 109 University of Miami, 6, 7, 13, 32, 109, 147, 203 University of North Carolina, 34 University of Rhode Island, 4, 6, 7, 38, 39, 109, 203 University of Southern California, 53 University of Washington, 4, 6, 74, 108, 109, 142, 203 Uranium, 24, 34, 35 U.S.S.R., see Soviet Union V Van Andel, Jerry, 13, 74, 75 Vema, 6, 54, 56, 64, 114 Vents, 12-13, 34, 73-83, 179-180 VERTEX Program, 37, 39 Vessels, see Ships Vetter, Richard (Dick), 23, 108, 188 Vine, Allyn, 3, 54, 57, 65, 68, 71, 72 Volcanism, 30, 57, 59, 71, 72, 73, 75, 125-126, 172, 173-174, 179-180 see also Vents Von Herzen, Richard (Dick), 13, 54, 64, 74, 75, 120 W Wall, Robert (Bob), 53, 158 Waterman, Alan, 4, 87, 89, 94 Watkins, James, 205, 214-216 Waves, 46-47, 48, 166 Weizmann Institute, 47 Wenk, Edward (Ed), 108, 115, 143, 144, 146 White, Robert (Bob), 109, 204 Williamsburg, 94 Wilson, J. Tuzo, 57, 59 Winterer, Edward (Jerry). 55, 89, 101, 117-127 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 4, 6, 7, 49, 52, 53, 94, 95, 198, 110, 147, 203 Alvin, 14-15, 65-84, 114 biological oceanography, 11, 15 chemical oceanography, 24-25, 28, 29, 33, 37, 38, 153, 156, 159

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 geology and geophysics, 55, 56, 62, 63, 73, 74, 142 Gulf Stream, 3 International Indian Ocean Expedition, 143 mass spectrometry, 131 satellite technology, 49 ships, 56, 94, 109 Wooster, Warren, 14, 113 World Climate Research Program, 150 World Ocean Circulation Experiment, 29, 30, 131, 149, 151, 159, 165 World War I, 202-203 World War II, 3, 45, 203-204 chemical oceanography, 24-25 geology and geophysics, 52-53, 120 World Wide Web, see Internet Wunsch, Carl, 45, 159, 204, 212 Y Yale University, 147 Year of the Ocean, 11, 205, 211, 213 Young, William, 165-168 Z Zooplankton, 16, 186

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.