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ONR, 25

photochemistry, 36, 170

salinity, 23-24, 34, 120, 129, 157, 166, 202

Scripps, 24, 26, 29, 30

symposium program, 219, 221

technological developments, 22, 30, 171

Woods Hole, 24-25, 28, 29, 33, 37, 38, 153, 156, 159

World War II, 24-25

Chemosynthesis, 12-13, 34, 73-83

Clark, Lawrence (Larry), 128-133, 158

Clean Water Act. 204

Climate, 48, 149-150, 166, 173, 182

CLIVAR, 150, 151, 166

El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 48, 165, 166, 193

global change, 26-27, 131, 150, 151, 170-171, 176-178, 185

CLIMAP, 7-8, 60, 61, 144, 146, 147, 150, 176

greenhouse gases, 26-27, 28-29, 131, 153-157, 170-171, 193;

see also Carbon dioxide

sea level, 69, 173, 177

mesoscale variability, 45-46, 167, 168

paleoclimatology, 51, 52, 54-55, 59-61, 69, 139, 171, 173, 176-178

seasonal factors, 3, 14, 89, 186

El Niño, 48, 165, 166, 193

technological developments, research, 49

Climate Long-Range Investigation Mapping and Prediction program (CLIMAP) , 7-8, 60, 61, 144, 146, 147, 150, 176

CLImate VARiability (CLIVAR), 150, 151, 166

Coastal and estuarine systems, 13, 14-15, 109, 167, 170

environmental protection, 31, 33-34

modeling, 19

oil pollution, 31, 34, 120

salinity, 34

sediments, 177-179

tides, 47

Coastal Upwelling Ecosystem Analysis, 150

Coastal Zone Color Scanner, 13, 14-15, 159, 160

Coastal Zone Management Act, 204

Cold War, 12, 93, 94

U.S. nuclear weapons testing, 27-28, 153-154

Colleges and universities, see Academic research;

specific institutions

Color, see Ocean color

Columbia University, see Lamont-Doherty Geological Laboratory of Columbia University

Colwell, Rita, 205, 207-209

Computer technology, 48, 91, 193

geology and geophysics, 56

Internet, 115, 169, 182

mass spectra, 131

tides, 47

waves, 46, 48

see also Models and modeling

Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education, 169, 197, 205

Controlled Pollution Experiment, 34

The Continuing Quest: Large Scale Ocean Research for the Future, 148

Coordinating Group on Oceanography, 89-90

Copepods, 16, 17, 68-69, 186-188

Copper, 37

Coring, see Deep sea drilling

Cousteau, Jacques, 20, 68

Craig, Harmon, 25, 26, 29, 38, 153, 154, 156

Cyana, 71, 73

D

Deep-ocean mooring, 46, 48, 131

Deep Tow, 74, 79

Deep sea drilling, 5, 7, 8, 56, 64, 84, 87, 89, 91, 92, 96, 104-105 , 117-127, 172, 173, 181

Atlantic Ocean, 119, 120, 122, 124-126

JOIDES, 7, 100-101, 104-105, 110, 119-122, 127, 139, 205, 207

LOng COres (LOCO), 119, 123

NSF funding, 117, 119-120, 121, 122, 123, 127

Pacific Ocean, 120-121, 122

Project Mohole, 99-100, 101, 117-119, 122, 123

Scripps, 119-120

ships for, 119-120

Defense, see Military applications

Department of Commerce, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Department of Energy, 15, 29, 38, 129

see also Atomic Energy Commission

Department of State, 146

Department of the Interior, 142

Geological Survey, 55, 68, 119, 195

Department of the Navy, see Office of Naval Research

Dinsmore, Robertson, 6, 95, 107-116

Drifters, 48

Drilling, see Deep sea drilling

Dugdale, Richard (Dick), 14, 15, 17

E

Earthquakes, 57, 59, 71, 121, 126, 173, 180

Economic Benefits of Oceanographic Research, 90, 203

Economic issues, 5, 201, 206, 215

Atlantic Ocean, geochemical monitoring, 29

cost-effectiveness, 7, 8, 131, 181-182

public education, 181-182

ships, 90, 96, 101, 111-112, 129, 146, 180-181

see also Funding

Edge waves, 46

Edmond, John, 29, 30, 34, 75

Education and training, 5, 97, 165, 171, 192-193, 195-200, 214-215

graduate education, 38, 63, 165, 193, 195-199

National Academy of Sciences, 195-197

public education, 181-182, 198, 199, 214-215

symposium program agenda, 221

see also Academic research;

specific institutions

Effective Use of the Sea, 90

Ekman spiral, 45, 46

El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 48, 165, 166, 182, 186, 193, 199, 205-206, 207, 211-212

Emery, K.O., 26, 53, 69, 71

Endangered Species Act, 204

Environmental protection, 11, 30-32, 33, 173, 184-191, 202, 206, 246

global climate change, 26-27, 131, 150, 151, 170-171, 176-178, 185

CLIMAP, 7-8, 60, 61, 144, 146, 147, 150, 176

greenhouse gases, 26-27, 28-29, 131, 153-157, 170-171, 193;

see also Carbon dioxide

sea level, 69, 173, 177

human health, 215

IDOE, 33, 34, 150

lead pollution, 30, 37

oil pollution, 30-32, 34, 120

radioactivity, 27-28, 30, 33, 39, 153-154, 156, 159

trace metals, 30, 37, 186

Environmental Protection Agency, 34, 39, 204

Equipment, see Facilities for research

Eppley, Richard (Dick), 15, 17

Ewing, Maurice, 4, 6, 13, 27, 53-57, 71, 108, 114, 118, 120

Exclusive Economic Zone, 206

F

Facilities for research, 7, 8, 20, 48, 99, 103, 128-133, 167, 171, 180-182, 192, 193

acoustic, 45, 46, 47, 48

computer technology, 48, 56, 91, 115, 131, 169, 182, 193

deep-ocean mooring, 46, 48, 131

interdisciplinary research and, 130

Internet, 23, 115, 169, 182

National Oceanographic Laboratory System (NOLS), 101, 102, 107, 109 -112

NSF model, 129-133

sonar, 3, 68, 75, 79, 131

sounding, 3, 75, 120

spectrometric techniques, 15, 30, 60, 61, 130-131, 138

University-National Laboratories (UNL), 95, 107, 109

University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), 7, 8, 95, 103, 107-116, 180, 204

see also Deep sea drilling:

Satellite technology;

Ships:

Technological developments

FAMOUS, see French-American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study

Farrington, John, 22-43, 152

Federal Council for Science and Technology, 88

Federal government, see Funding;

Legislation;

National Science Foundation;

Office of Naval Research;

other specific departments 2 and agencies

Fine, Rana, 158, 192-194

Fisheries, 11, 17-19, 89, 90, 188, 193, 204, 206



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