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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000
paper, the connection between chemical oceanography and biological productivity. As reported earlier in this paper, Rakestraw had noted (see Shor, 1978):
One of the most striking observations of marine biology is the fact that some parts of the ocean are fertile while other parts are quite barren. There must be chemical factors which determine fertility, and an explanation of this was perhaps the first serious question which oceanographers asked the chemist. In the year 1930 there were probably no more than a dozen professional chemists in the world who were actively interested in the ocean, and practically every one of them was trying to answer this question. (p. 231)
Have John Martin and coworkers answered the question at long last?
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMISTRY, GEOLOGY, PHYSICS, AND CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY/MARINE GEOCHEMISTRY
The 1950s and 1960s were periods of time when few graduate students actually formally received degrees in chemical oceanography or marine geochemistry. Instead, many who contributed to advances in this arena of research were formally educated for their graduate degrees in chemistry, geology, geochemistry, or physics. Examples from the efforts cited above are Max Blumer, Harmon Craig, Ed Goldberg, Bill Jenkins, John Hunt, Frank Millero, Claire Patterson, and Oliver Zafiriou, to name just a few. Beginning in the late 1960s, formal graduate education in chemical oceanography, marine geochemistry, and marine chemistry expanded, and now a majority of those conducting research in this arena have received formal degrees in chemical oceanography (or marine geochemistry, marine chemistry). However, it is important that research and graduate education in chemical oceanography and marine geochemistry maintain connectivity to the advances in the various areas of chemistry, physics, and geology.
I use personal experience to illustrate the point. My Ph.D. graduate education and thesis research in chemical oceanography was directed by Professor James G. Quinn. Jim was attracted to an assistant professorship position in oceanography at the Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, in the late 1960s because of the emergence of Sea Grant—at that time an NSF effort. He was a biochemist with no training or formal education in oceanography. I recall one of our first meetings to discuss what I would do as part of my Sea Grant-funded graduate research assistantship in the fall of 1968. Jim stated that he did not know very much about oceanography, but that he was knowledgeable about lipid biochemistry and thought that there were some exciting and important things to learn about the chemistry and biochemistry of lipids in the marine environment. He thought that perhaps we could learn about oceanography together. He was correct in both accounts! I benefited greatly in my thesis research and throughout my career, as did others of his students and associates, from Jim Quinn's knowledge of lipid biochemistry.
Although I wholeheartedly support graduate education in chemical oceanography, marine chemistry, or geochemistry, I submit that we will be much poorer in the study of the chemistry of the sea and marine sediments unless we continue to attract people such as Jim Quinn to these studies from other arenas of chemistry and biochemistry.
While on the subject of graduate education, I would be remiss if I did not acknowledge the wonderful practice initiated in 1978 by Neil Anderson and Rodger Baier of NSF and Ed Green of ONR to gather together every two years a cross section of senior graduate students (a year away from their Ph.D.) or recent Ph.D.s in chemical oceanography, geochemistry, and aquatic chemistry in a symposium to share their thesis research and ideas. These "Dissertations in Chemical Oceanography" (DISCO) symposia have enriched early careers to the betterment of chemical oceanography and marine geochemistry.
THE SUPPORT AND ENABLING PEOPLE
National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Energy, and other agency program managers and staff people support and enable the acceptance, review, and funding of proposals submitted by scientists. More than this,, they work— often tirelessly—behind the scenes to bring the community of chemical oceanographers, marine geochemists, and others together. They have the thankless task of trying to stretch too often inadequate budgets to the maximum benefit of the science. Since this is an NSF-related activity, I confine my citation to those "career" NSF program directors and managers in the Ocean Sciences and IDOE sections with whom I have been acquainted over the years in their support of chemical oceanography and marine geochemistry research— Neil Andersen, Roger Baier, and Michael Heeley. Many scientists who spent one or two years in a temporary rotating appointment assignment at NSF ably assisted them. Dr. Neil Andersen has been recognized formally by [he ocean science community for his important and wide-ranging contributions with the 1994 Ocean Sciences Award from the American Geophysical Union.
In a similar vein, numerous people at various universities, marine laboratories, and oceanographic institutions have provided the administrative, logistical, and laboratory support to enable the research described above. Especially important among these are the officers and crews of the research vessels. I cannot pay tribute to all by name; thus, I will use just two of these many folks as examples from my personal experience. For many years, Emery, on Hiller was master of the R/V Atlantis H and then of R/V Knorr at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Most chief scien