APPENDIX E

Glossary, Acronyms, and Abbreviations

GLOSSARY

Beamline

A corridor through which radiation (synchrotron or neutron) flows from the core facility to experimental instruments. Beamlines can be constructed and supported either by the facility or by outside groups and may provide radiation to multiple instruments.

Cold neutron

A neutron beam with especially long wavelengths produced by a reactor. Especially useful in conducting research on the properties of soft matter, such as proteins or polymers.

Core facility

The section of a facility producing the basic commodity necessary to conduct experiments, such as the synchrotron radiation, neutron beam, or high magnetic field, but generally not accessed by users.

Dedicated

A dedicated facility is one designed from the start to serve optimally the needs of experiments in condensed phase matter rather than high-energy physics. A dedicated beamline or instrument is one devoted to a particular experimental technique.

High magnetic field

With current technology, a field above approximately 15 T.

Materials science

Study of the structure and dynamics of condensed phase matter.



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COOPERATIVE STEWARDSHIP: Managing the Nation’s Multidisciplinary User Facilities for Research with Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons, and High Magnetic Fields APPENDIX E Glossary, Acronyms, and Abbreviations GLOSSARY Beamline A corridor through which radiation (synchrotron or neutron) flows from the core facility to experimental instruments. Beamlines can be constructed and supported either by the facility or by outside groups and may provide radiation to multiple instruments. Cold neutron A neutron beam with especially long wavelengths produced by a reactor. Especially useful in conducting research on the properties of soft matter, such as proteins or polymers. Core facility The section of a facility producing the basic commodity necessary to conduct experiments, such as the synchrotron radiation, neutron beam, or high magnetic field, but generally not accessed by users. Dedicated A dedicated facility is one designed from the start to serve optimally the needs of experiments in condensed phase matter rather than high-energy physics. A dedicated beamline or instrument is one devoted to a particular experimental technique. High magnetic field With current technology, a field above approximately 15 T. Materials science Study of the structure and dynamics of condensed phase matter.

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COOPERATIVE STEWARDSHIP: Managing the Nation’s Multidisciplinary User Facilities for Research with Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons, and High Magnetic Fields Parasitic Attached to a core facility to take advantage of the byproduct of the core while it is being operated for other purposes. Partners Organizations that provide support for research conducted at a user facility, usually for the experimental units. Partners may be federal agencies, state governments, universities, for-profit corporations, or nonprofit organizations. Reactor A type of neutron source that creates continuous neutron beams through controlled chain reactions involving nuclear fission of certain radioactive elements. Spallation A type of neutron source in which a particle accelerator directs packets of high-energy protons at heavy metal targets, producing a burst of neutrons that can be used for condensed phase matter research. Stakeholders Interested participants in the facilities enterprise. These include individual users; facility-based user groups, organizations, and review committees; and more broadly based user groups, organizations, and committees. Steward The government body responsible for supporting the core of a user facility, generally a federal department or agency with a mission interest in the research conducted and that has the knowledge and experience necessary for construction and operation of the facility. Stewardship A system of funding, managing, and operating national, multiuser facilities whereby the core facility is entirely supported by one agency: the steward. Subfacility A subset of a user facility, usually supported by an agency other than the steward, designed to conduct research of a specific type, designated either by field or by type of instrumentation used. Examples are the Center for High Resolution Scattering, supported by NSF at NIST CNR, and MacCHESS, supported by NIH at CHESS, devoted to studies of macromolecular structures. Synchrotron A device creating radiation by accelerating relativistic charged particles and deflecting them with a magnetic field. User facility Any site or laboratory equipped to provide the synchrotron radiation, neutron beam, or high magnetic fields required to conduct research into the properties of matter that allows guest researchers to perform experiments to further their own research goals.

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COOPERATIVE STEWARDSHIP: Managing the Nation’s Multidisciplinary User Facilities for Research with Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons, and High Magnetic Fields ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ALS Advanced Photon Source APS Advanced Light Source BERAC Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee BES Office of Basic Energy Sciences (U.S. Department of Energy) BESAC Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee CAMD Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices CAT collaborative access team CESR Cornell Electron-positron Storage Ring CHESS Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source CNR Center for Neutron Research (NIST) CRG collaborative research group (Europe) DOC U.S. Department of Commerce DOE U.S. Department of Energy EMR electron magnetic resonance ENSA European Neutron Scattering Association ESRF European Synchrotron Radiation Facility FEL free electron laser FOB facility-operated beamline FRM-II Neutron Reactor at the Technische Universität Munich, Germany HFBR High Flux Beam Reactor HFIR High Flux Isotope Reactor ICRMS ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy IDT instrument development team ILL Institut Laue Langevin (France) IPNS Intense Pulsed Neutron Source ISIS Spallation Source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford, United Kingdom LANSCE Los Alamos Neutron Science Center MacCHESS Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source MURR Columbia Research Reactor Center at the University of Missouri NHMFL National High Magnetic Field Laboratory NIH National Institutes of Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation NSLS National Synchrotron Light Source OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OMB Office of Management and Budget ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory

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COOPERATIVE STEWARDSHIP: Managing the Nation’s Multidisciplinary User Facilities for Research with Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons, and High Magnetic Fields ORPHÉE Neutron Reactor at the Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, Saclay, France OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PRT participating research team R&D research and development SANS small-angle neutron scattering SAXS small-angle x-ray scattering SDT spectrometer development team SINQ Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SNS Spallation Neutron Source SPEAR Storage Ring at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center SRC Synchrotron Radiation Center (University of Wisconsin) SSRL Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory SURF Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility T (tesla) A unit of magnetic flux density, equal to 10,000 gauss