Index

A

Accidents and injuries

I: 33–34

II: 290, 328, 359, 361–362, 363, 366

Acculturation, see Assimilation

Adolescents

alcohol and drug abuse,

II: 311, 327, 328–334, 329, 341

Blacks,

I: 350–384 (passim), 423

II: 3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 323–339, 340–341, 361–364 (passim)

see also “teenage pregnancy” infra

crime and criminal justice system,

Blacks, II: 3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 311, 323–334

homicide, II: 311, 322, 323–328, 340–341

dropouts,

I: 26, 76, 117, 179–180, 423

II: 73, 109, 331

educational issues, other,

I: 350–364, 369–384

II: 73

see also “test…” infra

employment, II: 101

firearms, II: 328, 335, 338–339, 361, 362, 363, 364

health issues, general,

I: 18

II: 322–339, 340–342, 359–364, 365–366, 367

Hispanics,

I: 375

II: 323, 328–331, 332, 361, 362, 363

homicide, II: 311, 322, 323–328, 340–341

immigrants, general, I: 230, 231

mortality, II: 323–327, 359, 361–362, 363– 364

peer pressure,

I: 375–378

II: 331

population age structure, I: 45–48

psychosocial problems, II: 311, 322–339, 340–342

smoking,

I: 33

II: 328–331 (passim), 333

suicide, II: 311, 322, 335–339, 341

teenage pregnancy,

I: 62, 65, 66–67, 68, 76–77, 93, 423

II: 147, 340, 359, 361, 362, 365–366, 399

I and II indicate the respective volumes to which the page numbers refer.



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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Index A Accidents and injuries I: 33–34 II: 290, 328, 359, 361–362, 363, 366 Acculturation, see Assimilation Adolescents alcohol and drug abuse, II: 311, 327, 328–334, 329, 341 Blacks, I: 350–384 (passim), 423 II: 3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 323–339, 340–341, 361–364 (passim) see also “teenage pregnancy” infra crime and criminal justice system, Blacks, II: 3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 311, 323–334 homicide, II: 311, 322, 323–328, 340–341 dropouts, I: 26, 76, 117, 179–180, 423 II: 73, 109, 331 educational issues, other, I: 350–364, 369–384 II: 73 see also “test…” infra employment, II: 101 firearms, II: 328, 335, 338–339, 361, 362, 363, 364 health issues, general, I: 18 II: 322–339, 340–342, 359–364, 365–366, 367 Hispanics, I: 375 II: 323, 328–331, 332, 361, 362, 363 homicide, II: 311, 322, 323–328, 340–341 immigrants, general, I: 230, 231 mortality, II: 323–327, 359, 361–362, 363– 364 peer pressure, I: 375–378 II: 331 population age structure, I: 45–48 psychosocial problems, II: 311, 322–339, 340–342 smoking, I: 33 II: 328–331 (passim), 333 suicide, II: 311, 322, 335–339, 341 teenage pregnancy, I: 62, 65, 66–67, 68, 76–77, 93, 423 II: 147, 340, 359, 361, 362, 365–366, 399 I and II indicate the respective volumes to which the page numbers refer.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II test scores, affirmative action, I: 323, 334, 335, 337–342 test scores, cross-group comparisons, I: 12–13, 350–364 II: 73–74, 313 violence, II: 311, 322, 323–328 wages, II: 109 Whites, II: 323–331, 335–337, 363 Adults, I: 14 disabled, II: 267 drug use, II: 331, 332, 341 health status, I: 17 II: 371–410 household structure, I: 24–25 immigrants, general, I: 230, 231 population age structure, I: 45–48 see also Elderly persons; Military service; Veterans Affirmative action, I: 12, 318–347 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 171, 274 attitudes toward, I: 271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–344 II: 36 Blacks, I: 272–273, 274, 318, 321, 331–332, 334–344 II: 5, 9, 10, 36, 75–79, 139, 190, 191, 193, 202, 204–214 classification of race and, I: 326 conference agenda, I: 475 II: 437 criminal justice system and, II: 5, 9, 10, 36 defined, I: 318–319 education, I: 319, 327–329, 332, 333, 334–335, 336, 337–342, 348 II: 198 electoral issues, I: 319, 329–331 employment, I: 271, 274, 319–320, 322, 323–325, 332–337, 342 II: 69, 75–79, 104–105, 113–114, 204 funding and, I: 319, 320–321, 322, 324, 325–326, 343–344, 426–427 II: 76–77 government contracting, I: 319, 321, 326 II: 204, 205 Hispanics, I: 14, 123, 124, 274, 328, 335 housing, I: 320, 427 Jews, I: 328, 335 litigation, I: 326–329, 333–334 II: 207, 215–217 local-level, I: 319, 325–326, 331 II: 205–207, 208–213, 214–217 military personnel, I: 15 II: 186 minority-owned businesses, I: 325–327, 329–330 II: 190, 191, 193, 202, 204–217, 219 poverty and, I: 328–329, 338–339, 340 reverse discrimination, I: 324, 326, 327–329 II: 207, 214 set-asides, I: 325–327, 329–330 II: 205, 214–217 state-level, I: 319, 325–326, 329–330, 331, 333 II: 206 test scores, I: 323, 327–329, 334, 335, 337–342 Whites, attitudes toward, I: 271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–330, 331–337 other, I: 324, 326, 327–329 II: 75 women, I: 319, 321, 324, 325, 331, 334, 336, 337 II: 113–114 African Americans, see Blacks Age Discrimination Act, II: 77–78 Age factors, I: 44–49 affirmative action, attitudes toward, I: 333 American Indians, I: 47, 48, 65–66, 67, 68, 75, 86–87 II: 165, 266, 282 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 48, 49, 66, 68, 81, 86–87 II: 282

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Blacks, I: 45, 46, 48, 66–67, 68, 71, 93, 350–356 II: 9, 13, 42–43, 165, 340, 378, 387 disabled persons, II: 267 educational attainment I: 114, 116 see also “test scores” infra employment, II: 101, 144, 146–147 fertility, I: 62–63, 65–67, 68, 69 Hispanics, I: 47–48, 62, 65, 67, 68, 69, 81, 85, 86–87, 114, 116, 119, 350, 352–356 II: 58, 165, 261, 292, 378 household structure, I: 25 immigrants, general, I: 47, 49, 206, 208–209, 229–232 life expectancy, I: 80–84, 86–87, 93 II: 256, 257, 265, 382–383, 384–385 marital, I: 62, 71, 75, 93 political factors, I: 62 test scores, I: 350–356 wealth, II: 234–237 welfare, II: 165, 167 Whites, I: 45, 46, 48, 62, 66–67, 68 II: 9, 42, 46–47, 165, 378 see also Adolescents; Adults; Children; Development; Elderly persons; Infants; Life expectancy Aggregation and disaggregation techniques I: 4–6, 22 II: 59, 228, 332, 341, 343 Agricultural sector American Indians, I: 152 Hispanics, I: 59–60, 213–214 immigrants, I: 59–60, 200–201, 213–214 internal migration, I: 58 see also Rural areas AIDS I: 34, 92 II: 259, 377–378 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), II: 153–158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168, 169 see also Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Alabama, II: 28 Alaska, I: 15, 140 Alaskan Natives, see American Indians and Alaskan Natives Alcohol and drug abuse, II: 343, 399 adolescents, II: 311, 327, 328–334, 329, 341 American Indians, II: 320–321, 340 Asians and Pacific Islanders, II: 320–321 Blacks, I: 6 II: 3, 4, 12, 14–18, 26, 29–30, 36–40, 46–47, 328–334, 341, 381, 382, 397 cocaine, II: 4, 12, 15–18, 26, 29, 39, 46, 47, 326, 328, 331, 333 criminal justice system, I: 6 II: 3, 4, 12, 14–18, 26, 29–30, 36–40, 46–47, 326, 328, 329, 331, 333 fetal alcohol exposure, II: 275, 311, 320–322, 340 health effects of alcohol, other, II: 275–276, 375–376, 380 Hispanics, II: 328–331, 332, 382 marijuana, II: 16, 39, 328, 329, 333 suicide and, II: 335 treatment, II: 327, 333 Whites, II: 39–40, 46–47, 328–332, 381, 382 Alzheimer’s disease, II: 288–289 American Academy of Pediatrics, II: 315 An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy I: 103–104 II: 254 American Indians and Alaska Natives, I: 16, 38, 135–169 adolescent violence, II: 323 age factors, I: 47, 48, 65–66, 67, 68, 75, 86–87 II: 165, 266, 282 attitudes, I: 155 Bureau of Indian Affairs, I: 139 businesses owned by, II: 202 census data, I: 42, 137–138, 140, 142, 388 II: 371 children, II: 353, 359, 360 Civil Rights Movement and, I: 153, 159 classification of, I: 5, 41, 137–138 II: 257, 371, 383–384, 387, 398 crime and criminal justice system, I: 34, 35 II: 44, 323, 340, 378, 379

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II cultural factors, I: 16, 138, 139–140, 142–143, 147–148, 151, 153–165 II: 398 see also “language factors” infra demographics, general, I: 16, 22–23, 50, 51, 58, 60, 137–138, 140, 141, 165 diseases and disorders, II: 60, 157, 267 economic conditions, general, I: 15, 31, 38, 60–61, 145–147 education, I: 137, 147–155, 166 educational attainment, I: 148, 149, 180 II: 165, 167, 292, 319 elderly, II: 266, 282 employment, I: 60–61 II: 134, 135, 146, 164, 165 fertility, I: 64–71 (passim), 93, 137 gambling on reservations, I: 146–147 gender factors, I: 180 II: 340 health care, II: 285, 422 see also “Indian Health Service” infra health-care professionals, II: 286, 295 health risk factors, II: 272–276 (passim) health status, general, I: 135–137, 147, 292 II: 254, 256, 258, 259, 262–263, 276, 383–384, 398 see “immunizations,” “infant…,” “life expectancy,” and “mortality” infra homicide and assaultive violence, I: 34, 35 II: 323, 340, 378, 379 housing conditions, I: 36–37 immunizations, II: 359, 360 income, I: 31, 38 II: 164 Indian Health Service, I: 91 II: 262, 282, 383–384 infant mortality, I: 32–33, 34, 88–89, 90, 146 II: 264, 357, 362, 364 infants, birth weight, II: 319 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II: 320–321, 340 intermarriage, I: 16, 75, 76, 142, 149 II: 293 language factors, I: 142, 149, 154 legal issues, education, I: 149–150, 151 litigation, I: 143–144, 145 remains of dead, I: 154(n.10), 158–161, 166 tribal membership requirements, I: 139–140, 144 tribal sovereignty, I: 143–144, 145, 146–147, 165–166 legislation, general, I: 16, 143–144, 145, 149–150, 159–162 specific, I: 60, 140, 143–144, 152, 154(n.10), 160–161 life expectancy, I: 81, 93 II: 262 marriage, I: 16, 73, 75–76, 77, 79, 93, 142, 149 II: 164, 166, 293 see also “intermarriage” supra Medicare, II: 282 military service, I: 60 mortality, I: 32–35, 80, 81, 82–83, 86–89, 91, 92, 93, 137, 146 II: 256, 258, 264, 266, 372–380, 383–384, 387 political factors, I: 16, 138, 143–145, 147, 153, 155–166 population size and growth, I: 16, 22–23, 61, 135–138, 140 II: 254 poverty, I: 146 II: 292 prenatal care, II: 279 racism and discrimination, I: 147–149, 420 II: 391 regional demographics, I: 22–23, 50, 51, 58, 60, 136(n.2), 141 religion, I: 147–148, 154, 155–165 relocation of, I: 56, 58, 60, 61, 141, 150, 151–152 II: 44

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II reservation inhabitants, I: 56, 58, 60, 61, 77, 138–139, 140, 142, 143–144, 150–151 II: 44, 263 see also Indian Health Service state-level factors, I: 139, 140, 145, 150, 159–160, 251 II: 384 suicide, II: 337–338, 379–380 teenage pregnancy, I: 67, 68, 93 II: 359, 361 tribal affiliation/enrollment, I: 138–140, 142–143 tribal membership requirements, I: 139–140, 144 tribal sovereignty, I: 143–144, 145, 146–147, 165–166 undercounting, I: 42, 388 urban areas, I: 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 71, 141–142, 150, 151–152 II: 262–263 veterans, II: 422 wealth, II: 227, 237–238 welfare, I: 15, 147 II: 156–157, 164–165, 166, 171 Anti-Drug Abuse Act, II: 15, 26 Antiquities Act, I: 160 Apartheid, I: 13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309–310 see also Jim Crow laws Arizona, I: 109, 140 Armed Forces, see Military service Armed Forces Qualification Test, II: 141 Asian Indians classification of, I: 41, 177, 255 criminal justice system, II: 44 educational attainment, I: 180, 181, 209 fertility, I: 66 health status, general, II: 266 immigrants, I: 51, 60, 175, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210 mortality, I: 81, 83 II: 263 regional demographics, I: 51, 60 single parents, I: 77 Asian Pacific Planning and Policy Council, I: 173 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 16, 17, 94, 170–199, 277 adolescent violence, II: 323 affirmative action, I: 171, 274 age factors, I: 48, 49, 66, 68, 81, 86–87 II: 282 attitudes of, I: 189, 209, 223 businesses owned by, II: 202 cancer, II: 373–374, 380, 386 cardiovascular disease, II: 372–373 census data, I: 177–178 children, II: 319, 352, 353 children of immigrants, I: 228–229 Civil Rights Movement, I: 173, 174 classification of, I: 5, 22, 40, 41, 170(n.1), 177–178, 255, 267 II: 257, 371, 384–385, 387, 398 conference agenda, I: 474–475 II: 436–437 criminal justice system, II: 44, 45 cultural factors, I: 69, 178, 222, 223, 245–246, 260 II: 263, 287, 384–385, 398, 399 demographics, general, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 57–58, 60, 93, 174–182 disabilities, II: 267 education, I: 188–189, 192 educational attainment, I: 174, 179–182, 187–189, 209, 251, 348, 379 II: 102–103, 142, 145, 292, 319 elderly, II: 266 electoral issues, I: 170–174, 178, 179, 180, 182–193 employment, I: 225, 227 II: 102–104, 126, 128, 129, 130–132, 133, 134, 135, 145 fertility, I: 63, 66, 68, 70, 71, 93 funding, electoral participation, I: 171, 172, 173, 192 gender factors, I: 180 II: 102, 126, 128, 129, 130–132, 133, 134, 135, 141–143, 145

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Hawaii, residing in, I: 51, 60, 171, 173, 176, 183, 185, 186, 191 II: 399 see also Hawaiian Natives health care, II: 285 health-care professionals, II: 286 health insurance, II: 281–282, 283 health risk factors, II: 272–276 (passim) health status, II: 256, 263, 272–276, 281–282, 283, 285, 286, 292, 373–374, 380, 384–385, 386, 398 housing conditions, I: 36–37 immigrants, I: 23, 38–39, 48, 55–56, 57, 91, 93, 173, 175–176, 177, 184–189, 192, 205, 209, 210, 213–220, 223, 227–228, 407–409, 425 II: 44, 237, 282 see also “naturalization” infra immunizations, II: 362 income, I: 30–31, 32, 114, 411 II: 102, 128, 129, 229 infant mortality, I: 32, 88–89, 90 II: 265 infants, birth weight, II: 319 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II: 320–321 intermarriage, I: 75, 76, 177, 178, 259 II: 293 life expectancy, I: 81 II: 263, 266 litigation, I: 173, 255 marriage, I: 16, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79, 177, 178, 259 II: 164, 166, 266, 293 mental illness, I: 178 mortality, I: 81, 82–83, 86–89, 90, 91 II: 258, 263, 265, 266, 371–380, 384–385, 387 naturalization, I: 173, 186, 187–189, 255 neighborhood segregation/diversity, I: 14, 37–38, 39, 44, 401, 407–409, 411, 414–415, 425 II: 44 political issues, I: 38, 170–199 population size and growth, I: 16, 22–23, 43, 44, 61, 174–175, 182, 250 II: 352 prenatal care, II: 279 projections, I: 16, 43, 44, 61 racism and discrimination, I: 172, 173–174, 192, 228, 260, 277, 280, 281, 285, 286 II: 142, 390 regional demographics, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 57–58, 60, 93, 178, 215–220 research methodology, I: 177–179 II: 367 socioeconomic status, I: 91, 174, 177, 233 II: 385 see also “income” supra state-level factors, I: 171–172, 173, 183 suburban areas, I: 190, 191, 456 teenage pregnancy, I: 68 II: 361 test scores, I: 348 urban areas, I: 53, 54, 55–56, 57–58, 93, 183–184, 187, 214, 216–217, 219, 220, 228–229, 233, 250, 441, 456 II: 44–45 wages, I: 14 II: 102–104, 126, 129, 141–143 see also “neighborhood segregation/ diversity” supra wealth, II: 228, 237, 249 welfare, II: 156–157, 164–165, 166, 390 see also specific groups Assimilation cultural, I: 23, 60, 125–126, 220–221, 222, 223–224, 236–237, 246, 258–259 II: 88–89, 287–288, 292, 398, 399 economic, II: 85–88, 224–228 health effects, II: 287–288, 292, 398, 399 Hispanics, I: 125–126 II: 85–88, 102–103, 287, 292

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II spatial, I: 391–392, 403; see also Segregation Asylees, see Refugees and asylees Attitudes, I: 8, 12–13, 264–301 about affirmative action, I: 271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–344 II: 36 of American Indians, I: 155 of Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 189, 209, 223 of Blacks, affirmative action, I: 272–273, 274, 324–344 criminal justice system, II: 1, 5–6, 14–15, 33, 35 health care system, II: 417–420 immigrants, I: 221–222, 253 low-wage work, II: 109 marriage, I: 71, 74, 75, 272 residential desegregation, I: 411–412 students, I: 368–378, 380–384 teachers, I: 13, 378–380 teenage pregnancy, I: 66–67 consumerism, I: 208–209 of health care providers, II: 278 of Hispanics, immigrants, I: 223 students, I: 380–384 teachers, I: 13, 379, 380 of immigrants, I: 236–237 about marriage, Black vs White attitudes, I: 74, 75, 272 research methodology, I: 265–269 II: 388–389 of students, I: 368–378, 380–384 teachers, attitudes of, I: 13, 378–380 attitudes of students toward, I: 381, 382–384 I: 13, 378–380 of Whites, affirmative action, I: 271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–330, 331–337 students, I: 380–384 teachers, I: 13, 378–380 see also Public opinion; Racism and discrimination B Birthrate, see Fertility Birth weight, II: 264, 279, 311, 318–320, 339–340, 399, 400 Black-owned businesses I: 15, 329–330 II: 175–176, 190–220, 239 Blacks, I: 93, 103, 335 adolescents, I: 350–384 (passim), 423 II: 3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 323–339, 340–341, 361–364 (passim) affirmative action, I: 272–273, 274, 318, 321, 331–332, 334–344 II: 5, 9, 10, 36, 75–79, 139, 190, 191, 193, 202, 204–214 age factors, I: 45, 46, 48, 66–67, 68, 71, 93, 350–356 II: 9, 13, 42–43, 165, 340, 378, 387 see also “adolescents” supra and “elderly persons” infra alcohol use/drug trafficking and abuse, I: 6 II: 3, 4, 12, 14–18, 26, 29–30, 36–40, 46–47, 328–334, 341, 381, 382, 397 Alzheimer’s disease, II: 288–289 attitudes, affirmative action, I: 272–273, 274, 324–344 criminal justice system, II: 1, 5–6, 14–15, 33, 35 health care system, II: 417–420 immigrants, I: 221–222, 253 low-wage work, II: 109 marriage, I: 71, 74, 75, 272 residential desegregation, I: 411–412 students, I: 368–378, 380–384 teachers, I: 13, 378–380 teenage pregnancy, I: 66–67 Brazil, racial discrimination, I: 304–307, 310–316 businesses owned by, I: 15, 329–330 II: 175–176, 190–220, 239 capital punishment, II: 12–14, 25–26, 33 census undercounting, gender factors, I: 42 II: 387–388

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II children, II: 225–226, 289–290, 311–339, 353, 354, 355 (passim), 367, 369, 400 classification of, I: 5, 40–41, 267 II: 255, 371 crime and criminal justice system, I: 18–19, 34–36, 319, 424, 427 II: 1–51, 110, 115, 322, 323–332, 361, 362, 363, 378–379 juveniles, II: 3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47 public opinion of discrimination by, II: 1, 5–6, 14–15, 21–22, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 34–35, 48 see also Police; “drug…,” “homicide,” “jury selection,” and “sentencing…” infra cultural factors, I: 246, 253, 256, 257, 264, 312, 368–375 II: 174, 385–387 see also “music” infra demographics, general, I: 43, 44, 250, 437, 438, 445 II: 41–44, 46, 352 diabetes, II: 288, 340 digital divide, I: 25 educational admissions, I: 334–335, 337–342 II: 286, 391 educational attainment, I: 25–26, 27, 38, 116, 180, 222, 311, 348–387, 423, 425, 427 II: 56–58, 59, 63–66, 69–72, 78–79, 95, 99, 102, 104–112 (passim), 115, 127, 136–140 (passim), 145–147, 165, 167, 190, 292, 319 see also “test scores” infra education, general, I: 195, 362 II: 247 education, teacher certification, I: 364 elderly persons, health status, II: 265–266 electoral issues, I: 121, 186 employment, I: 9–10, 28, 35–36, 56, 58, 110, 112, 121, 183, 222, 422, 423–424, 425, 436, 441–442 II: 98–101, 134, 165, 194, 196, 218, 278, 343, 391–392, 397–398 see also Military service employment, discrimination, II: 28, 35–36, 107–108, 222 employment, gender factors, I: 27–30, 423, 424 II: 52–55, 61–73, 75–76, 78–79, 81, 98–147 , 174, 179, 183, 278, 326, 397–398 employment, health risk factors, II: 278, 289–291 employment, impacts of segregation, II: 108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 see also Spatial mismatch hypothesis fertility, I: 63–70 (passim), 77, 93 gender factors, I: 42, 71, 74, 180, 373 II: 1, 22, 33, 42, 52–58, 158–160, 174, 179, 183, 323–328, 331, 336, 337, 341, 361–364 (passim), 378, 382–383, 384–385, 387–388 see also “employment, gender factors” supra genetics, II: 255, 288–289 health care, II: 284, 286, 392–395, 412, 414–421 see also “hospitalization” infra health-care professionals, II: 286, 295 health insurance, II: 281, 283, 413 health risk factors, I: 33 II: 272–278 (passim), 287–291, 395–396, 397 health status, general, II: 254, 258, 259–260, 265–266, 270, 287–291, 314, 381–383, 385–386, 397, 417 HIV, I: 34 II: 377–378 homicide, I: 34, 35 II: 2, 25–26, 27, 33, 259, 322, 323–328, 340, 361–364 (passim), 378, 379 hospitalization, II: 284–285, 393–394, 413, 415–421 housing conditions, I: 36–37, 220 II: 226, 238–239, 240–242 hypertension, II: 278, 288, 294, 396, 400 immigrants, I: 186, 219 II: 260, 340, 386–387

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II immunizations, II: 358, 360 income, I: 15, 30–31, 32, 38, 58, 111, 113, 114, 411, 421–422, 425 II: 2, 54, 55, 128, 165, 220, 225, 229–234 infant mortality, I: 32, 88, 90 II: 264, 265, 357, 362 infants, birth weight, II: 318, 319, 339–340, 400 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II: 320–321, 340 infants, iron deficiency, II: 314, 315, 339 intermarriage, I: 74, 75, 272, 401 II: 293 jury selection, I: 319 II: 2, 7–11, 33, 41 language factors, II: 386 lead poisoning, II: 316, 317, 339–340 life expectancy, I: 81, 86–87, 93 II: 259, 266, 292, 382–383, 384–385 marriage, I: 71, 72, 74, 75, 78, 93, 272, 422 II: 133, 164, 293, 397–398 mathematics achievement, I: 25, 349–350, 351, 353, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 365, 366, 367 Medicaid, II: 281 Medicare, II: 281, 284, 392, 413 mental illness, II: 188–289, 381–382 migration within U.S., I: 51, 391–392, 393–394 II: 45, 104 see also “regional factors” infra military personnel, I: 15 II: 174–189, 393–394, 412, 414–421 mortality, I: 32–35, 81, 82–83, 86–89, 90, 91–92, 93, 424, 425 II: 179, 254, 256, 258, 259, 260, 264, 265, 266, 277, 290, 291, 361, 363, 372–380, 382–383, 384–385, 387–388, 397, 417–418 music, I: 341, 369, 372–375 political issues, I: 38, 121, 129, 186, 279–280, 302–316 II: 17, 34, 40–41, 78 see also Civil Rights Movement population size and growth, I: 16, 22–23, 43, 44, 61, 250, 437, 438, 445 II: 41–44, 46, 352 poverty, I: 311, 421–424, 425–426 II: 55, 67, 116, 218, 225, 274, 292, 324–327, 343, 357, 400 prenatal care, II: 279 projections, I: 16, 43, 44, 61 psychological factors, II: 5–6, 33, 35–36, 278, 335, 381–382 race, concept of, I: 246, 253, 256, 257 racial profiling by police, II: 3–7, 23, 24–25, 29, 33, 35–36 racism and discrimination, I: 104, 221, 222, 264–267, 269–295, 302–316, 333, 348 II: 106–108, 109, 113–114, 117, 125, 137–141, 142, 144, 147, 184–186, 188, 195, 239, 246–247, 367, 369, 389, 390, 391–396, 400–401, 420–421 reading achievement, I: 349–350, 352, 354, 356, 360–362, 366, 368, 369, 370, 372 regional factors, demographics, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 52, 56–57, 58–59, 61, 218 II: 104, 106 health status, II: 260 urban areas, I: 52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II: 104 see also “migration within U.S.” supra segregation, I: 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 244–245, 269–272, 273, 278, 279 II: 108–109 educational, I: 269–271 II: 198, 204 employment impacts, II: 108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 health care, II: 281 Jim Crow laws, I: 6, 9, 13, 244–245, 292, 293, 294, 304, 305, 306, 308–310, 314, 395, 402 II: 281 residential, I: 6, 37–38, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 283–284, 294–295, 392–403, 405–406, 409–428, 436

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II II: 108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 227, 240, 241, 243, 326, 331–332, 343, 391–392, 400–401 sentencing and incarceration, I: 18, 35 II: 2, 11–18, 22, 23–24, 26–28, 29–30, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40–48, 110, 115 smoking, I: 33 II: 272, 397 socioeconomic status, general, I: 409–410, 421–422, 424–425 II: 34–35, 52–56, 254, 270, 291, 386, 388 see also “educational attainment,” “employment…,” and “income” supra and “wealth” infra South Africa, apartheid, I: 13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309–310 suburban areas, I: 52, 289, 416, 438, 456 II: 107, 192–193, 391–392 suicide, II: 34, 335–339, 341, 379–380, 381 teacher certification, I: 364 teachers attitudes toward, I: 13, 378–380 teenage pregnancy, I: 66–67, 68, 77, 93 II: 147, 359, 361 television, I: 369, 370 test scores, I: 13, 323, 334, 335, 337–342, 348–367, 369, 370, 372, 383–384, 385–387 II: 73, 74, 105–106, 141, 313 urban areas, I: 52–59 (passim), 129, 218, 219, 220, 221–222, 233, 253, 376–378, 399, 400, 402–403, 456 II: 1, 4, 22, 36, 39, 40, 104, 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 165, 191–193, 198–199, 208–213, 284, 326–327, 343, 391–392 see also “segregation” supra veterans, health care, I: 18 II: 393–394, 412, 414–421 wages, I: 14, 29, 30, 38, 222, 306 II: 52–53, 60–69, 70, 76, 78–79, 81, 94, 95, 98–100, 104–110, 115, 138–141, 143, 164, 326 wealth, I: 15, 34–35 II: 92–94, 225–230, 232–234, 236–247 welfare, I: 15, 278 II: 156–171 (passim), 390 White racism and discrimination, see “racism and discrimination” under Whites Black Wealth/White Wealth, II: 225, 241 Blank, Rebecca M. I: 21–39, 477 II: 439 Blumstein, Alfred I: 6, 477 II: 21–31, 46, 439 Bobo, Lawrence D. I: 12, 14, 264–301, 477 II: 439 Bonilla, Frank I: 16, 103–134, 478 II: 440 Boston, Thomas D. I: 15, 478 II: 190–221, 449 Brazil, I: 13, 304–307, 310–316 Breast cancer, II: 383 Brookings Institution, I: 453 Bureau of Census, I: 40, 104 fertility, I: 65 internal migration, I: 56, 58 minority-owned businesses, II: 193, 200 racial and ethnic classification, I: 4–5, 7, 40–42, 57, 119–120, 121–122 undercounting, I: 42, 106, 388 II: 387–388 see also Current Population Survey Bureau of Indian Affairs, I: 139 Bureau of Justice Statistics, II: 27 Bush, George, I: 326 Butler, John Sibley I: 15, 478 II: 174–189, 440 C California affirmative action, I: 171, 330 American Indians, I: 139, 140, 251 Asian/Pacific Islander vote, I: 171, 173, 175–176, 183, 184, 251 Blacks, I: 175 II: 43

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Hispanics, I: 51, 107, 109, 175, 203, 251 illegal immigrants, I: 203 immigrants, other, I: 175–176, 206 minority population growth, II: 402 urban renewal, I: 446 Camarillo, Albert M. I: 16, 103–134, 478 II: 440 Canada immigrants from, I: 216–217 Indians, I: 135–141 (passim) Cancer I: 91, 92 II: 272, 373–374, 380, 382–383, 384–385, 386, 393, 399, 418 Capital punishment, II: 12–14, 25–26, 33 Cardiovascular disease I: 91, 92 II: 259, 274, 285, 328, 372–373, 380, 393–395, 414–415, 421, 423, 424 see also Hypertension Carter, Jimmy, II: 78 Caucasians, see Whites Census data I: 40 II: 371 American Indians, I: 42, 137–138, 140, 142, 388 II: 371 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 177–178 Blacks, I: 42 II: 387–388 fertility, I: 65 funding and census counts, I: 43 Hispanics, I: 41–42, 57, 106, 107, 119–120, 121–122, 338 II: 85 illegal immigrants, II: 85 internal migration issues, I: 56, 58 minority-owned businesses, II: 200–204 segregation indices, I: 110, 419–420 undercounting, I: 42, 106, 388 II: 387–388 see also Bureau of Census; Classification issues; Current Population Survey Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences (Stanford University), I: 1 Center for Employment Training, II: 113, 117 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, II: 321, 357, 367 Cerebrovascular disorders, II: 415–416, 422 Characteristics of Business Owners, II: 200, 203 Child abuse, II: 343 Children adolescent violence, early childhood prevention, II: 327 American Indians, II: 353, 359, 360 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 228–229 II: 319, 352, 353 behavioral and developmental problems, I: 18 II: 311–344 Blacks, II: 225–226, 289–290, 311–339, 353, 354, 355 (passim), 367, 369, 400 demographics, general, II: 352–356 diet, II: 274 federal programs and health status, I: 5, 18 II: 163–166, 342–344, 351, 364–370 health issues, I: 18 II: 311–322, 339–340, 342–344, 351–359, 366 see also Birth weight; Infant mortality; Infants; Pregnancy Hispanics, I: 25, 110, 119 II: 102, 228–229, 289–290, 340, 353, 355, 400 household structure, I: 25 immigrants and of immigrants, I: 49, 218, 223, 228–237 II: 102–103 immunizations, I: 92 II: 357–359 iron deficiencies, II: 311, 312, 314–315, 339 lead poisoning, II: 289–290, 311, 315–318 neighborhood segregation, impacts on, I: 423 population age structure, I: 45–48 poverty, impacts on, II: 354, 356, 357–359, 400 psychological factors, II: 311–318

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II desegregation, I: 269–271, 273, 284, 411–415, 419 immigration patterns, I: 201 racial profiling, II: 6 refugees, I: 212 welfare, II: 152–153 see also Attitudes; Racism and discrimination Public Use Micro Samples, II: 137, 138(n.9), 140 Public Works Employment Act. II: 205, 207, 214 Puerto Ricans I: 5, 42, 54, 57, 67, 74, 77 II: 227 educational attainment, I: 114–115, 116, 119, 143 employment, I: 111, 112 II: 53, 101, 104, 105, 108, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 143 health care, II: 286 health insurance, II: 280–281 health status, II: 256, 259, 261, 262, 267, 357 income, I: 113 II: 55, 128, 129 mortality I: 83, 90, 92 II: 265 political participation, I: 119, 127–128 regional demographics. I: 51, 57 segregation, I: 110, 406, 420, 425 Q Quotas, see Affirmative action R Racial Justice Act, II: 13–14 Racial profiling police, II: 3–7, 23, 24–25, 29, 33, 35–40 real estate sales, I: 391–392, 398, 401, 409–410, 411, 413, 415–421, 427, 428 Racism and discrimination I: 2–3, 6–7, 13, 17, 19, 104, 264–295 (passim), 302–316 II: 77 age discrimination, II: 77–78 American Indians, I: 147–149, 420 II: 391 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 172, 173–174, 192, 228, 260, 277, 280, 281, 285, 286 II: 142, 390 Black-owned businesses, II: 195, 239 Blacks, I: 104, 221, 222, 264–267, 269–295, 302–316, 333, 348 II: 106–108, 109, 113–114, 117, 125, 137–141, 142, 144, 147, 184–186, 188, 195, 239, 246–247, 367, 369, 389, 390, 391–396, 400–401, 420–421 Brazil, I: 304–307 causes of, country comparisons, I: 304–307 conference agenda, I: 475 II: 437 criminal justice system, I: 280–283 II: 1–51, 392 see also Capital punishment; Homicide; Jury selection; Police; Sentencing and incarceration defined, I: 302 disabled persons, I: 2 II: 77, 78, 266–267 educational, I: 8–9, 17, 269–271, 273, 284, 295, 320–321, 364, 445 II: 198, 204, 391 educational, discussion by mixed racial students, I: 256–257 employment, I: 6–7, 8, 9, 14–15, 28, 35–36, 107–108, 222, 271, 282, 320, 321, 322, 323–325, 333–334 II: 76–78, 106–108, 109, 113–114, 117, 125, 137–141, 142, 144, 147, 204, 223, 391–392 suburban areas, II: 107, 114, 391–392 gender discrimination, II: 77, 107, 113, 125, 396 genetic explanations for, II: 255, 288 government classification systems and, I: 255

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II health insurance coverage, I: 10–11 II: 392–394 health status and care, I: 2, 6 II: 77, 78, 367–369, 382, 391–396, 398, 400–401, 420–421 health status and psychological stress due to racism, II: 5–6, 33, 35–36, 277–278, 395–396, 398, 400 Hispanics, I: 121, 123–124, 125, 221, 228, 264, 274, 278, 280, 281, 285, 286, 420 II: 107, 142, 367, 369, 390, 392, 396, 401, 420 housing discrimination/neighborhood segregation, I: 6–7, 8, 17, 37–38, 39, 125, 221, 226, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 279, 283– 284, 294–295, 320, 391–434, 445 II: 113, 240–243, 391–392 international perspectives, I: 13, 302–317 methodological issues, II: 388–389 military service, II: 184–186, 188, 393–394, 420–421 police, I: 280–281 psychological effects of, II: 5–6, 33, 35–36, 277–278 race, concept of, I: 244 reduction of, I: 1, 7, 123, 294–296, 343 see also Affirmative action; Civil Rights Movement religion, I: 39, 49, 61 scapegoating, I: 302–317 South Africa, apartheid, I: 13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309–310 stereotyping, I: 273–280, 292–293, 305, 333 II: 3–7, 389, 390 see also Racial profiling urban areas, immigrants, I: 218 Veterans Health Administration, II: 393–394, 420–421 voting, I: 9 Whites, Brazil/South Africa compared to U.S., I: 13, 302–316 reverse discrimination, I: 324, 326, 327–329 U.S., I: 6, 9, 13, 244–245, 264–267, 269–295, 322, 324, 326, 327–329, 337, 413, 418–421, 425 II: 106–107, 186, 246–247, 389, 390, 391, 400, 420–421 see also “affirmative action” and “crime…” under Whites see also Affirmative action; Racial profiling; Segregation Reading ability American Indians, I: 149 cross-group test score comparisons, I: 349–350, 352, 354, 356, 358, 359, 360–362, 366, 368, 369, 372 II: 74, 313 Reagan, Ronald I: 323, 326, 427 II: 76–77, 327 Refugee Act, I: 175 Refugees and asylees, I: 17, 51, 52, 175, 188, 203–204, 207, 211–213 Regional factors American Indians, I: 22–23, 50, 51, 58, 60, 136(n.2), 141 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 57–58, 60, 93, 178, 215–220 Blacks, health status, II: 260 Blacks in urban areas, I: 52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II: 104 demographics, general, I: 23–24, 46, 49–51, 56–62, 93 economic factors in internal migration, I: 46, 58, 59, 60 Hispanics, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 57, 59, 61, 93, 105, 107, 214–217, 218–220 immigrants, general, I: 49, 51, 57, 61, 175–176, 203, 205–206, 230–233 political issues, I: 454 projections, I: 51, 57 residential segregation, I: 391–392, 393–394, 399, 400, 402–403 urban areas, Blacks, I: 52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II: 104 urban planning, I: 435–436, 453–455, 458–461 urban/suburban, spatial mismatch hypothesis, I: 17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II: 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Whites, I: 39, 49, 61 see also Migration within U.S.; State-level factors; specific U.S. regions and states Religion, I: 267 American Indians, I: 147–148, 154, 155–165 Brazil, South Africa, and U.S., racism, I: 305–306, 312 Report of the Secretary’s Task Force on Black and Minority Health, II: 397 Research methodology, I: 2–12 acculturation, II: 287 adolescent mental health, II: 322, 341–342 American Indian remains, use in research, I: 154, 155–161 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 177–179 II: 367 cultural/linguistic factors, I: 178 employment, neoclassical economic theory, I: 136–138 health insurance coverage, II: 283 health status and health care, I: 17–18 II: 255–258, 267–270, 283, 293–294, 322, 341–342, 366–369, 382, 383–389, 397–399, 412 Hispanics, II: 367 minority-owned businesses, II: 200–203 mortality, I: 80, 81, 85 II: 382, 383–389 occupational dissimilarity index, II: 127(n.4) race and ethnicity defined, I: 2–4, 243–260 see also Classification issues racial attitudes, I: 265–269 II: 388–389 urban/suburban dynamics, I: 453–461 veterans health care, II: 412 wage data from CPS, II: 84, 85 wealth, II: 227–228 welfare, effects of, II: 171–172, 342–344 see also Aggregation and disaggregation techniques; Classification issues; Statistical techniques Reservations, American Indians, I: 56, 58, 60, 61, 77, 138–139, 140, 142, 143–144, 150–151 II: 44, 263 Riots I: 272–273, 282, 322–323, 368, 445 II: 1 Risk factors, health-related, II: 271–278, 289–291, 294, 385, 422 American Indians/Asians and Pacific Islanders, II: 272–276 (passim) assimilation and, II: 287–288, 292, 398, 399 Blacks, I: 33 II: 272–278 (passim), 287–291, 395–396, 397 employment, health risk factors, II: 278, 289–291 gender, II: 272 Hispanics, II: 272–276 (passim), 287, 289–290, 314, 315, 316, 317, 339 interventions, II: 295 smoking, I: 33 II: 272, 289, 328–331 (passim), 333, 397, 399 socioeconomic status, II: 268–271, 269–271, 277, 291, 292 stress due to racism, II: 5–6, 33, 35–36, 277–278 Whites, II: 272–277, 287–290, 314 see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Environmental toxins Risk factors, welfare-related, II: 152, 153, 162–172 Rockefeller Foundation, I: 422 Rural areas, I: 2, 52 American Indian, including reservation inhabitants, I: 56, 58, 60, 61, 71, 77, 138–139, 140, 142, 143–144, 150–151 II: 44, 263 see also Indian Health Service developing countries, I: 208 Hispanics, I: 59–60, 213–214 welfare, II: 162–163, 165 Whites, II: 45, 165 see also Agricultural sector Russell Sage Foundation, I: 422 Rutgers University, I: 436

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II S Salaries, see also Wages and salaries Sandefur, Gary D. I: 15–16, 40–102, 482–483 II: 444–445 Scapegoating, I: 302–316 Schizophrenia, II: 381, 382 Scholastic Aptitude Test I: 385–387 II: 73, 74 Segregation, I: 9, 11, 12, 17, 37–38, 39, 245, 251 American Indians, educational, I: 149–152 American Indians, relocation, I: 56, 58, 60, 61, 141, 150, 151–152 see also Reservations, American Indians Asian Americans, residential, I: 14, 37–38, 39, 44, 401, 407–409, 411, 414–415, 425 II: 44 attitudes toward, I: 411–412 Blacks, I: 6, 9, 13, 244–245, 269–272, 273, 278, 279 II: 108–109 educational, I: 269–271 II: 198, 204 employment impacts, II: 108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 health care, II: 281 Jim Crow laws, I: 6, 9, 13, 244–245, 292, 293, 294, 304, 305, 306, 308–310, 314, 395, 402 II: 281 residential, I: 6, 37–38, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 283–284, 294–295, 392–403, 405–406, 409–428, 436 II: 108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 227, 240, 241, 243, 331–332, 391–392, 400–401 Brazil, I: 13, 304–307, 310–316 census data, segregation indices, I: 110, 419–420 children, impacts on, I: 423 see also “educational” infra conference agenda, I: 474 II: 436 economic factors, general, I: 391–392, 409–410, 411, 415–424, 427, 428 educational, I: 149–152, 269–271, 273, 284, 295, 320–321, 364, 445 II: 198, 204, 391 employment impacts for Blacks, II: 108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 see also Spatial mismatch hypothesis Hispanics, residential, I: 37–38, 104, 107, 110, 125, 401, 403–407, 411, 414–415, 420, 425 housing discrimination/neighborhood segregation, I: 6–7, 8, 12, 17, 37–38, 39, 125, 221, 226, 235, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 279, 283–284, 294–295, 391–434, 445 II: 44, 110, 113, 116–117, 240–243, 391–392 immigrants, residential, I: 220–221, 391–392, 403, 407–409, 414, 425 income and, I: 411, 421–424 litigation, I: 320–321, 395 II: 104 minority-owned businesses, I: 190 mortality, II: 392 poverty and, I: 421–424, 425–426 socioeconomic status and, general, I: 391–392, 409–410, 411, 421–424, 425 II: 400 South Africa, apartheid, I: 13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309–310 spatial mismatch hypothesis, I: 17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II: 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 Whites, I: 37–38, 39, 220–221, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 283–284, 392–406, 409–419, 425 II: 392 Sentencing and incarceration I: 6, 18, 35, 427 II: 2, 11–18, 22, 23–24, 26–28, 29–30, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40–48, 327 see Capital punishment

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Shapiro, Thomas M. I: 15, 483 II: 222–251, 445 Single parents I: 17, 24, 25, 62, 76–80, 93 II: 352, 354, 355, 397–398 income, I: 31 welfare, II: 162, 163, 164, 166, 170 Slavery I: 305, 308 II: 175, 238, 255, 287 Small Business Administration, II: 204 Small businesses I: 15 II: 190, 191, 196–197, 198–199, 201, 205, 239 health insurance coverage, II: 280 Smelser, Neil J. I: 1–20, 472, 483 II: 434, 445 Smith, James P. I: 14, 483 II: 52–97, 445 Smithsonian Institution, I: 156–157, 159, 160, 161, 162 Smoking I: 33 II: 272, 289, 328–331 (passim), 333, 397, 399 see also Marijuana Socioeconomic status I: 9, 11, 21, 30–32, 38 II: 54–59 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 91, 174, 177, 233 II: 385 birth weight, II: 318 health status and care, general, II: 268–271, 277, 291, 292, 294–295, 311, 383, 388, 389, 391, 397, 398, 399, 400, 411–412, 413, 416–417 Hispanics, I: 16, 23, 38, 43, 44, 61, 103, 106–107, 109 homicide rates, II: 324 immigrants, general, I: 206, 208–209, 224–228, 232–238 infant mortality, I: 85 iron deficiencies, II: 314 mortality, I: 85 II: 254 race, concept of, I: 256 racism, general, I: 302 residential segregation and, I: 391–392, 409–410, 411, 421–424, 425 II: 400 single-person households, I: 25, 31 veterans, I: 411–412 see also Educational attainment/achievement; Employment; Housing; Income; Poverty; Wealth South Africa, apartheid, I: 13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309–310 South Carolina, II: 28 Southern U.S. criminal justice system, II: 28 demographics, various groups, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 56–57, 59, 60, 61, 206, 396 II: 45, 52, 104, 400 health indices, II: 260 residential segregation, I: 399, 400, 402– 403 Spatial mismatch hypothesis I: 17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II: 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 Special Agricultural Workers, I: 200–201 State Child Health Insurance Program, II: 365 State-level factors I: 51–52, 62 II: 352 affirmative action, I: 319, 325–326, 329–330, 331, 333 II: 206 American Indians, I: 139, 140, 145, 150, 159–160, 251 II: 384 Asian/Pacific Islander, elections, I: 171–172, 173, 183 Black/White residential segregation, I: 393–398 (passim) criminal justice system, II: 7–9, 15, 28 employment discrimination laws, II: 139 gun control, II: 328, 338–339 Hispanics, I: 51, 107, 109, 129, 175, 203, 251 jury selection, II: 7–9 mortality data, II: 254 race, defined, I: 254

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II tax policies, I: 446 teacher certification, I: 348, 364 urban renewal, I: 446 wealth accumulation, II: 238 welfare, II: 162, 342 see also Regional factors; specific states The State of the Nation’s Cities, I: 436 Statistical techniques, I: 94 employment participation, neoclassical economic theory, I: 136–138 fertility, I: 62–63 Hispanics, I: 121–122 infant mortality, I: 85 mortality, I: 80, 81, 85 race and ethnicity defined, I: 4 welfare participation and risk factors, II: 171–172 see also Aggregation and disaggregation techniques; Classification issues Stroke, see Cerebrovascular disorders Suburban areas, I: 17 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 190, 191, 456 Blacks, I: 52, 289, 416, 438, 456 II: 107, 192–193, 391–392 employment discrimination, II: 107, 114, 391–392 environmental concerns, I: 451–452 Hispanics, I: 438, 456 immigrants, I: 234–235, 238 income, I: 437–440 minority-owned businesses, II: 192–193 population growth, I: 437, 438, 445 poverty, I: 437, 439, 459–460 spatial mismatch hypothesis, I: 17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II: 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 Suicide I: 17–18, 34 II: 34, 379–380, 381 adolescents, II: 311, 322, 335–339, 341 Supplemental Security Income, II: 154–158 (passim) Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act, II: 214 Surface Transportation Assistance Act, II: 214 Survey of Income and Education, II: 142 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), II: 138, 226, 229, 230–231 Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises, II: 200–203, 207 Survey of Urban Inequality, I: 442, 455 Swain, Carol M. I: 12, 318–347, 483 II: 445 T Taxation I: 11, 445, 446, 450 II: 115, 154, 200–201, 227, 238–239, 371 Teachers accountability of, I: 364 attitudes of, I: 13, 378–380 attitudes of students toward, I: 381, 382–384 certification testing, I: 348, 364 pupil-to-teacher ratios/class size, I: 351 Technological factors see also Computers and computer science Teenage pregnancy I: 62, 65, 66–67, 68, 76–77, 93, 423 II: 147, 340, 359, 361, 362, 365–366, 399 Teenagers, see Adolescents Television, I: 369, 370 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, II: 153, 154, 161, 342 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children Tennessee, II: 28 Tennessee Star Experiment, I: 351 Tests and testing I: 12–13, 348–390 II: 313 affirmative action and, I: 327–329, 333, 334, 335, 337–342 American Indians, I: 348 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 348 Blacks, I: 13, 323, 334, 335, 337–342, 348–367, 369, 370, 372, 383–384, 385–387 II: 73, 74, 105–106, 141, 313 cultural factors, I: 12 health status and, II: 311

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II Hispanics, I: 13, 348–356, 358, 360, 365, 366, 367, 370, 383–387 II: 73–74, 141, 313 lead poisoning and test scores, II: 316 mathematics, I: 25, 349–350, 351, 353, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 365 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), I: 25–26, 348–372, 380, 383–384 reading, I: 349–350, 352, 354, 356, 358, 359, 360–362, 368, 369 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), I: 385–387 teacher certification, I: 348, 364 Whites, I: 25–26, 348–367, 383–387 II: 73, 74, 141, 313 see also National Assessment of Educational Progress; Scholastic Aptitude Test Texas American Indians, I: 140 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 183 Hispanics, I: 51, 107, 109 immigrants, I: 206 minority population growth, II: 402 Thomas, W.I., I: 3 Thornton, Russell I: 16, 135–169, 483–484 II: 445–446 Tobacco use, see Smoking Toxic materials, see Environmental toxins Trade unions, I: 9 Transportation to health care services, II: 278 urban, I: 456, 459–461 to work, I: 2, 456, 458, 459–460 II: 109, 113, 116 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, I: 459 U Undocumented immigration, see Illegal immigration Unions, labor, see Trade unions Unmarked Human Burial Sites and Skeletal Remains Protection Act (Nebraska), I: 160 Urban areas, I: 51–56, 58–62, 93, 435–436 American Indians, I: 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 71, 141–142, 150, 151–152 II: 262–263 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I: 53, 54, 55–56, 57–58, 93, 183–184, 187, 214, 216–217, 219, 220, 228–229, 233, 250, 441, 456 II: 44–45 Blacks, I: 52–59 (passim), 129, 218, 219, 220, 221–222, 233, 253, 376–378, 399, 400, 402–403, 456 II: 1, 4, 22, 36, 39, 40, 104, 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 165, 191–193, 198–199, 208–213, 284, 326–327, 343, 391–392 Blacks, regional demographics, I: 52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II: 104 businesses owned by minorities, II: 191–193, 202, 205–207, 208–213, 214–217 crime and criminal justice system, I: 18 II: 1, 4, 22, 36, 39, 40, 44–45, 331–332, 333 developing countries, I: 208 drug abuse, II: 4, 331–332, 333 employment, segregation and, I: 17, 422, 423–424, 425 II: 391 see “spatial mismatch hypothesis” infra government policies, I: 11 health factors, II: 262–263, 276, 277, 284, 293 see also “toxins” infra Hispanics, I: 52–54, 55, 57, 59–60, 62, 93, 104, 107, 110, 125, 129, 214–217, 218–220, 228–229, 233, 250, 253, 372, 441–442, 456 II: 45, 81–83, 113, 165, 343 immigrants, general, I: 17, 52, 57–58, 59, 61–62, 205–206, 214–222, 228–235, 246, 391–392, 403, 407–409, 414, 425 income, suburban vs urban, I: 437–440 lead poisoning, II: 316 political factors, I: 17, 435, 449–450, 451–452

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II regional factors, I: 52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II: 104 planning, I: 435–436, 453–455, 458–461 see “spatial mismatch hypothesis” infra research methodology, urban/suburban dynamics, I: 453–461 residential segregation, I: 6–7, 8, 12, 17, 37–38, 39, 125, 221, 226, 235, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 279, 283–284, 294–295, 391–434, 445 II: 44, 110, 113, 116–117, 240–243, 391–392 see also “spatial mismatch hypothesis” infra riots, I: 272–273, 282, 322–323, 368, 445 II: 1 spatial mismatch hypothesis, I: 17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II: 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 toxins, I: 435, 436, 443–444, 446–448, 450–452, 458, 461 transportation, I: 456, 459–461 welfare, II: 162–163, 165, 167 Whites, I: 53, 61–62, 218, 219, 220, 250, 251, 456 II: 165 see also “neighborhood segregation” under Whites see also Suburban areas Utah, II: 28 V Vaccinations, see Immunizations Veterans American Indians, II: 422 G.I.Bill, I: 10 health status and care, I: 18 II: 393–394, 411–424 housing, II: 241 Veterans Administration, see Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration I: 18 II: 393–394, 411–429 Vietnamese, I: 94 classification of, I: 41, 177–178 fertility, I: 66 health status, II: 267 immigrants, I: 56, 175, 176, 205, 209, 212, 216–217 political participation, I: 183 regional demographics, I: 56, 57 single parents, I: 77 wages, I: 101, 102 Violence, II: 343, 366, 367, 390 adolescents, II: 311, 322, 323–328 child abuse, II: 343 Civil Rights Movement and, I: 320 employment discrimination due to fear of, II: 107–108 firearms, II: 246, 328, 335, 338–339, 361, 362, 363, 364, 378 race riots, I: 272–273, 282, 322–323, 368, 445 II: 1 racism and intra-White warfare, I: 307–308, 309, 313 White hate crimes against Blacks, I: 412, 427 White racial stereotypes, I: 276, 277, 278–280, 305 II: 246, 390 see also Accidents and injuries; Crime and criminal justice; Homicide Voluntary Affirmative Marketing Agreement, I: 427 Voting, see Electoral issues Voting Rights Act, I: 118 W Wages and salaries I: 6, 10, 14, 25, 28–30, 236, 348, 442, 444 II: 52–54, 59–69, 78–89, 94–95, 98–100, 136–137, 143, 223 Asians/Pacific Islanders, I: 14 II: 102–104, 126, 129, 141–143 Blacks, I: 14, 29, 30, 38, 222, 306 II: 52–53, 60–69, 70, 76, 78–79, 81, 94, 95, 98–100, 104–110, 115, 138–141, 143, 164, 326 Hispanics, I: 14, 29, 30 II: 53, 54, 60–69, 70, 73, 78, 81–89, 94–95, 101–104, 126, 129, 141–143, 164

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II military personnel, II: 184 Whites, I: 29, 30 II: 54, 60–73, 80, 81, 82, 95, 99–100, 101–102, 103, 124–125, 129, 138–143, 164, 223 Washington State American Indians, I: 140 Wealth I: 1, 11, 15, 34–35 II: 89–96, 222–251 age factors, II: 234–237 classification of racial groups, I: 5 conference agenda, I: 473 II: 435 defined, II: 222 Europe vs U.S., II: 224, 399 home ownership, II: 226, 238–239, 240–243 income vs, II: 222, 225, 229–235 intergenerational transfer, II: 243–245, 246, 249 research methodology, II: 227–228 see also Income; Poverty; Socioeconomic status Weber, Max I: 3–4 II: 224 Weinberger, Morris I: 484 II: 411–429, 446 Welfare I: 10, 15 II: 152–173, 342–344, 390 age factors, II: 165, 167 American Indians, I: 15, 147 II: 156–157, 164–165, 166, 171 Asians and Pacific Islanders, II: 156–157, 164–165, 166, 390 Blacks, I: 15, 278 II: 156–171 (passim), 390 children, II: 163–166, 342–344 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), II: 153–158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168, 169 Supplemental Security Income, II: 156 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), II: 153, 154, 161, 342 Women, Infants, and Children program, II: 315 conference agenda, I: 473 II: 435 disabled persons, II: 154, 156 educational attainment of recipients, II: 74, 313 eligibility requirements, II: 154–155, 342–343 employment and, II: 144, 153, 162–163, 165, 166, 342 family and household factors, I: 15 II: 152–153, 164, 166, 167, 172 Food stamps. II: 154–158 (passim), 160, 161, 163, 342 funding, II: 342 gender factors, II: 158–160, 163 Hispanics, I: 15, 278 II: 156–171 (passim), 390 marital status of recipients, II: 162, 163, 164, 166 Medicaid, II: 154, 155–156, 160, 161 noncash benefits, II: 154–158, 160–161, 163, 281, 342 research methodology, II: 171–172, 342–344 risk factors, II: 152, 153, 162–172 rural areas, II: 162–163, 165 single parents, II: 162, 163, 164, 166, 170 Supplemental Security Income, II: 154–158 (passim) urban areas, II: 162–163, 165, 167 Whites, II: 156–166 (passim), 390 see also Medicaid Welfare Reform Act, II: 342 Western U.S. demographics, various groups, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 57, 58, 59, 61, 206 Hispanics, I: 23–24, 50, 51, 57, 59, 61, 105, 107 see also Midwestern U.S. Whites adolescents, II: 323–331, 335–337, 363 affirmative action, attitudes toward, I: 271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–330, 331–337 affirmative action, other, I: 324, 326, 327–329 II: 75

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II age factors, I: 45, 46, 48, 62, 66–67, 68 II: 9, 42, 46–47, 165, 378 alcohol and drug abuse, II: 39–40, 46–47, 328–332, 381, 382 Alzheimer’s disease, II: 288–289 attitudes of students, I: 380–384 birth weight, II: 319 Brazil, racial discrimination, I: 304–307, 310–316 classification of, I: 4–5, 267 II: 387 crime and criminal justice system, Black/White issues, I: 18–19, 34–36, 41–42 II: 1–15, 16–18, 21–22, 25, 26, 28, 33–34, 35, 38–47 (passim), 323–332 cultural factors, I: 18, 220–221, 251–254 II: 44, 387 diabetes, II: 288, 394 digital divide, I: 25 disabilities, II: 267 drug use and trafficking, II: 39–40, 46–47, 328–332 education, affirmative action, I: 327–329, 337–342 educational attainment, I: 25–26, 27, 116, 180, 369, 371, 379 II: 56–59, 63, 69–73, 127, 136–143 (passim), 145, 165, 319 see also “test scores” infra education, other, II: 246 electoral factors, I: 186, 187, 220 employment, I: 28, 100–102, 112 II: 134, 165, 391 employment, gender factors, I: 27–30 II: 54, 55, 61, 63, 65–67, 68–69, 75–76, 80, 81, 82, 100–101, 103, 124–125, 130- 147 (passim) ethnics, I: 18 II: 44, 387, 390 fertility, I: 63–70 (passim), 77, 93 gender factors, I: 37–30, 81, 180, 256 II: 42, 54, 55, 159, 191–192, 323–327, 336, 337, 361, 363, 378, 382–382, 384–385 health care, II: 392–395, 412, 414–421 health insurance, II: 280–283, 392–393, 413 health risk factors, II: 272–277, 287–290, 314 health status, general, II: 259–260, 270, 271, 288, 381, 388 homicide, I: 34, 35 II: 323–326, 361, 363, 378, 379 hospitalization, Blacks vs Whites, II: 284–285, 393–394, 413, 415–421 household structure, I: 25 II: 164 housing conditions, I: 36–37 hypertension, II: 288 immigrants, I: 186, 219 see also Europeans immunizations, II: 358, 360 income, I: 30–31, 32, 111, 114 II: 54–55, 164, 229–234 infant mortality, I: 32–33, 85, 88–89, 90 II: 264, 356–357 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II: 320–321 infants, iron deficiency, II: 314, 315 infants, lead poisoning, II: 316 life expectancy, I: 81, 86–87 II: 259 marriage, I: 72, 74–78 (passim), 93, 259 II: 133, 164, 293, 401 mathematics achievement, I: 25, 349–350, 351, 353, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 365, 366, 367 Medicare, II: 281, 392, 413, 416 mental illness, II: 381–382 military personnel, II: 183, 184, 186 mortality, I: 81, 82–83, 85, 86–89, 90, 91–92, 417–418 II: 254, 256, 258, 259, 264, 266, 277, 290, 291, 361, 363, 371–380, 382–383, 384–385, 387, 394, 397 neighborhood segregation, I: 37–38, 39, 220–221, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 283–284, 392–406, 409–419, 425 II: 392

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences - Volume II political factors, I: 186, 187, 220 population growth and size, I: 16, 44, 250, 437, 438 II: 42–43 poverty, II: 45–46, 54, 55–56, 67, 68–69, 359 prenatal care, II: 279 racism and discrimination, Brazil/South Africa compared to U.S., I: 13, 302–316 reverse discrimination, I: 324, 326, 327–329 U.S., I: 6, 9, 13, 244–245, 264–267, 269–295, 322, 324, 326, 327–329, 337, 413, 418–421, 425 II: 106–107, 186, 246–247, 389, 390, 391, 400, 420–421 see also “affirmative action” and “crime…” supra reading achievement, I: 349–350, 352, 354, 356, 358, 359, 360–362, 366, 368, 369, 370 regional demographics, I: 39, 49, 61 rural areas, II: 45, 165 smoking, I: 33 socioeconomic status, general, I: 220–221 II: 52–59, 254, 270, 271, 388 South Africa, apartheid, I: 13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309–310 suburban areas, I: 220–221, 251, 438, 445, 456 II: 246 see also “neighborhood segregation” supra suicide, II: 335–337, 379–380, 381 teachers attitudes toward, I: 13 teenage pregnancy, I: 66–67, 68, 77, 93 II: 361 television, I: 369, 370 test scores, I: 25–26, 348–367, 383–387 II: 73, 74, 141, 313 urban areas, I: 53, 61–62, 218, 219, 220, 250, 251, 456 II: 165 see also “neighborhood segregation” supra veterans, health care, I: 18 II: 393–394, 412, 414–421 wages, I: 29, 30 II: 54, 60–73, 80, 81, 82, 95, 99–100, 101–102, 103, 124–125, 129, 138–143, 164, 223 wealth, II: 89–94, 95–96, 225–234, 236–247 welfare, II: 156–166 (passim), 390 Williams, David R. I: 17–18, 484 II: 371–410, 446 Wilson, William Julius I: 1–20, 472 II: 434 Women, see Gender factors Women, Infants, and Children program, II: 315 World Wide Web, see Internet Y Youth Behavior Risk Surveillance System, II: 362 Z Zhou, Min I: 16–17, 200–242, 484 II: 446