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ing Consumer Protection: Priorities for Health Care Workforce Regulation, San Francisco, CA; Pew Health Professions Commission, October 1998.

16. Maintaining State-Based Licensure and Discipline: A Blueprint for Uniform and Effective Regulation of the Medical Profession, Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States, Inc., 1998. http://www.fsmb.org.

17. Sidney M. Wolfe, "Public Citizen's Health Research Group Ranking of State Medical Boards' Serious Disciplinary Actions in 1998," April, 1999, http://www.citizen.org. Serious disciplinary actions include revocations, surrenders, suspensions and probations/restrictions on licensure.

18. Timberg, Craig, "Virginia's Physician Discipline Board too Slow to Act, Audit Finds," Washington Post, June 15, 1999, p. A20.

19. Finocchio, Dower, Blick, et al., 1998.

20. Finocchio, Dower, Blick, et al., 1998.

21. "What Is ABMS?" http://www.abms.org/purpose.html.

22. Prager, Linda O. Upping the Certification Ante. American Medical News. 42(21): 1, 1999. Also, American Board of Internal Medicine, Continuing Professional Development. September, 1999. See also: Norcini, John J., "Computer-Based Testing Will Soon Be a Reality," Perspective, American Board of Internal Medicine, Summer, 1999, p. 3.

23. "A Definition," http://www.ama-assn.org/med-sci/amapsite/about/define.htm.

24. Finocchio, Dower, Blick, et al., 1998.

25. Computerized Clinical Simulation Testing (CST), National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc., 1999. http://www.ncsbn.org.

26. Pierce, Ellison C. The 34th Rovenstine Lecture, 40 Years Behind the Mask: Safety Revisited. Anesthesiology. 87(4):965–975, 1996.

27. http://www.acc.org/clinical/guidelines.

28. President's Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in Health Care. Quality First: Better Health Care for Ali Americans. Final Report to the President of the United States, March 1997.

29. Food and Drug Administration, "Managing the Risks From Medical Product Use, Creating a Risk Management Framework," Executive Summary, Report to the FDA Commissioner from the Task Force on Risk Management, May 1999.

30. Additional strategies include field investigations, epidemiological studies and other focused studies.

31. Food and Drug Administration, "Managing the Risks From Medical Product Use, Creating a Risk Management Framework," Report to the FDA Commissioner from the Task Force on Risk Management, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, May 1999.

32. Food and Drug Administration, "Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs," CDER 1998 Report to the Nation, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, USDHHS.

33. Shatin, Deborah; Gardner, Jacqueline; Stergachis, Andy; letter. JAMA. 281(4): 319–320, 1999.

34. Friedman, Michael A.; Woodcock, Janet; Lumpkin, Murray M., et al. The Safety of Newly Approved Medicines, Do Recent Market Removals Mean There Is a Problem? JAMA. 281(18):1728–1934, 1999.



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