Summary of a Workshop on Information Technology Research for Crisis Management

Committee on Computing and Communications Research to Enable Better Use of Information Technology in Government

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Summary of a Workshop on Information Technology Research for Crisis Management Committee on Computing and Communications Research to Enable Better Use of Information Technology in Government Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under grant EIA-9809120. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06790-1 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) (http://www.nap.edu) Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Page iv COMMITTEE ON COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH TO ENABLE BETTER USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN GOVERNMENT WILLIAM L. SCHERLIS, Carnegie Mellon University, Chair W. BRUCE CROFT, University of Massachusetts at Amherst DAVID DeWITT, University of Wisconsin at Madison SUSAN DUMAIS, Microsoft Research WILLIAM EDDY, Carnegie Mellon University EVE GRUNTFEST, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs DAVID KEHRLEIN, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, State of California SALLIE KELLER-McNULTY, Los Alamos National Laboratory MICHAEL R. NELSON, IBM CLIFFORD NEUMAN, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California Staff MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director JON EISENBERG, Program Officer and Study Director RITA GASKINS, Project Assistant

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Page v COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD DAVID D. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair FRANCES E. ALLEN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center JAMES CHIDDIX, Time Warner Cable JOHN M. CIOFFI, Stanford University W. BRUCE CROFT, University of Massachusetts at Amherst A.G. (SANDY) FRASER, AT&T SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California at Berkeley JAMES GRAY, Microsoft Corporation PATRICK M. HANRAHAN, Stanford University JUDITH HEMPEL, University of California at San Francisco BUTLER W. LAMPSON, Microsoft Corporation EDWARD D. LAZOWSKA, University of Washington DAVID LIDDLE, Interval Research JOHN MAJOR, Wireless Knowledge TOM M. MITCHELL, Carnegie Mellon University DONALD NORMAN, Nielsen Norman Group RAYMOND OZZIE, Groove Networks DAVID A. PATTERSON, University of California at Berkeley LEE SPROULL, Boston University LESLIE L. VADASZ, Intel Corporation Staff MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Scientist JERRY R. SHEEHAN, Senior Program Officer ALAN S. INOUYE, Program Officer JON EISENBERG, Program Officer GAIL PRITCHARD, Program Officer JANET BRISCOE, Office Manager DAVID DRAKE, Project Assistant MARGARET MARSH, Project Assistant DAVID PADGHAM, Project Assistant (offsite) MICKELLE RODGERS, Senior Project Assistant SUZANNE OSSA, Senior Project Assistant

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Page vi COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Veridian ERIM International, Inc., Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., Lockheed Martin Corp. SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California at Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Co. (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania DUSA McDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET NORWOOD, U.S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics (retired) M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director (through July 1999) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director (as of August 1999)

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Page vii Preface As part of its new Digital Government program, the National Science Foundation (NSF) requested that the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) undertake an in-depth study of how information technology research and development could more effectively support advances in the use of information technology in government. CSTB's Committee on Computing and Communications Research to Enable Better Use of Information Technology in Government was established to organize two specific application-area workshops and conduct a broader study, based on these and other workshops, of how information technology research can enable improved and new government services, operations, and interactions with citizens. The committee was asked to identify ways to foster interaction among computing and communications researchers, federal managers, and professionals in specific domains that can lead to collaborative research efforts. By establishing research links between these communities and creating testbeds aimed at meeting relevant requirements, NSF hopes to stimulate thinking in the computing and communications research community and throughout government about possibilities for advances in technology that will support a variety of digital government initiatives. The first phase of the project focused on two illustrative application areas that are inherently governmental in nature—crisis management and federal statistics. The study committee convened two workshops to bring together stakeholders from the individual domains with researchers in computing and communications systems. The workshops were designed

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Page viii to facilitate interaction between the communities of stakeholders, provide specific feedback to mission agencies and NSF, and identify good examples of information technology research challenges that would also apply throughout the government. The first of these workshops, "Research in Information Technology to Support Crisis Management," was held on December 1–2, 1998, in Washington, D.C., and is summarized in this volume. A second workshop, "Information Technology Research for Federal Statistics," was held February 9–10, 1999. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), one of the participating agencies in a federal interagency applications team addressing crisis management,1 was a co-sponsor of the study's workshop on crisis management. Participants in the crisis management workshop were drawn from the information technology research, information technology research management, and crisis management communities (see Appendix A). Building on CSTB's earlier work,2 the workshop focused specifically on how to move forward from the current technology baseline to future possibilities for addressing the information technology needs of crisis managers through research. The workshop provided an opportunity for these separate communities to interact and to learn how they might more effectively collaborate in developing improved systems to support crisis management in the long term. Two keynote speeches outlined the status and current trends in the crisis management and information technology research communities. A set of case studies (summarized in Appendix B) and a subsequent panel explored a range of ways in which information technology is currently used in crisis management and articulated a set of challenges to the full development and exploitation of information technology for crisis management. The next panel described trends in key information technologies—computing and storage information management, databases, wireless communications, and wearable computers—to establish a baseline for defining future research efforts. Through a set of parallel breakout 1In February 1997, the Federal Information Services and Applications Council (FISAC) of the National Science and Technology Council's Computing Information and Communications Research and Development (CIC R&D) Subcommittee created an interagency applications team to address crises management. This group, now referred to as the Information Technology for Crisis Management (ITCM) Team, was established to promote collaborations among federal, state, local, and international governmental organizations and other sectors of the economy in order to identify, develop, test, and implement computing, information, and communications technologies for crises management applications. 2Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council. 1997. Computing and Communications in the Extreme. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (summarized in Appendix C).

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Page ix sessions, workshop participants explored opportunities for collaborative research between the information technology and crisis management communities and identified a set of important research topics. The workshop concluded with panels that considered research management issues related to collaboration between the two communities and how the results of the workshop related to the broader context of digital government. This summary report is based on these presentations and discussions. The development of specific requirements is, of course, beyond the scope of a single workshop, and therefore this report cannot presume to be a comprehensive analysis of the information technology requirements posed by crisis management.3 Nor is it an effort aimed at identifying immediate solutions (or ways of funding and deploying them). Rather, it examines opportunities for engaging the information technology research and crisis management communities in longer-term research activities of mutual interest and illustrates substantive and process issues relating to collaboration between them. The organization and content of this report approximately follow that of the workshop. For clarity of presentation, the committee has in several instances aggregated sessions in this reporting. Also, where possible, related points drawn from throughout the workshop have been combined into consolidated discussions. In preparing this summary, the committee has drawn on the contributions of speakers, panelists, and participants in the workshop, who provided a rich set of illustrations of the role of information technology in crisis management, issues regarding its use, possible research opportunities, and process and implementation issues related to such research. Workshop participants and reviewers of the report provided clarification and additional examples subsequent to the workshop. To these the committee has added some additional context-setting material and examples. But this summary report remains primarily a reporting on the presentations and discussions at the workshop. Synthesis of the workshop experience into a more general, broader set of findings and recommendations for information technology research in the digital government context is deferred to the main report from this committee. This second phase of the project will draw on the two workshops organized by the study committee, as well as additional briefings and other work on the topic of digital government, to develop a final synthesis report that will provide recommendations for refining the NSF's Digital Government program and providing more broad-based advice across the government in this arena. 3The interagency ITCM team is working to develop such requirements.

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Page x Support for this project came from NSF and NASA. The committee acknowledges Larry Brandt of the NSF and Anngienetta Johnson of NASA along with the other members of the interagency Information Technology for Crisis Management team for their encouragement and support of this project. This is a reporting of workshop discussions, and the committee thanks all participants for their insights expressed in the workshop presentations, discussions, breakout sessions, and subsequent interactions. The committee also wishes to thank the CSTB staff for their assistance with the workshop and the preparation of the report. Jon Eisenberg, CSTB program officer, made significant contributions to the organization of the workshop and the assembly of the report. His excellent facilitation, hard work, and valuable insights were pivotal in producing this report. Jane Bortnick Griffith, interim CSTB director in 1998, played a key role in helping conceive and initiate this project. The committee also thanks Rita Gaskins, who assisted in organizing committee meetings, marshalling committee members, organizing the workshop, and preparing the report. Finally, the committee is grateful to the reviewers for helping to sharpen and improve the report through their comments. Responsibility for the report remains with the committee.

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Page xi Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report was reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Charles N. Brownstein, Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Melvyn Ciment, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, David Cowen, University of South Carolina, David J. Farber, University of Pennsylvania, Andrew C. Gordon, University of Washington, John R. Harrald, George Washington University, John D. Hwang, City of Los Angeles Information Technology Agency, David Maier, Oregon Graduate Institute, Lois Clark McCoy, National Institute for Urban Search and Rescue, Thomas O'Keefe, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection,

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Page xii John Poindexter, Syntek, and Gio Wiederhold, Stanford University. Although the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the study committee and the NRC.

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Page xiii Contents 1 Introduction 1 What Is Crisis Management? 2 The Response Phase: Difficult Challenges for Information Technology 5 Information Technology Users in Crises 6 Citizens 6 Crisis Responders 6 Government and Other Crisis Management Organizations 7 Business 9 Information Technology Challenges and Opportunities in Crisis Management 10 Previous Study 10 This Workshop Report 11 2 Information Technology Trends Relevant to Crisis Management 13 Computing and Storage 13 Information Management 15 Databases 17 Wireless Communications 19 Trends in Wearable Computers 22

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Page xiv 3 Information Technology Research Opportunities 25 Information Management 25 Information Acquisition 26 Integration and Interoperability 26 Data Delivery 29 Geographical Information System Performance 29 Information for People 29 Presenting and Using Information 31 Supporting Effective Communications and Coordination 31 Supporting Effective Real-Time Decision Making Under Uncertainty and Stress 32 Handling Information Overload 33 Overcoming Language and Other Barriers to Communication 34 Warning Citizens at Risk 34 Learning from Experience 36 Using Wearable Computing 37 Information Infrastructure 38 Robustness 39 Infrastructure for Citizens 40 Modeling and Simulation 41 Role of Modeling and Simulation 41 Research Opportunities 42 Electronic Commerce 44 Problems Caused by the Increased Use of and Dependence on Electronic Commerce 44 Benefits of Electronic Commerce in Crisis Management 45 Pitfalls of Traditional Electronic Commerce in Crisis Management 45 Research Opportunities 46 4 Achieving an Impact in the Crisis Management Community 48 Interactions between the Information Technology Research and Crisis Management Communities 48 Management Challenges to Using Information Technology in Crisis Management 51 5 The Broader Context: Information Technology in Government 54 Information Technology Challenges across Government 58 Achieving Innovation 59

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Page xv Appendixes   A Detailed Workshop Agenda and Participants 65 B Brief Case Studies of Crises 71 C Synopsis of the CSTB Report Computing and Communications in the Extreme 82

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