Index

A

Abecedarian Project, 134–135, 144, 319

Abstract reasoning, 5, 38, 40, 43, 208

Academic success

class size and, 146

fine motor skills and, 117

interest and, 110

peer relations and, 53

quality of preschool programs and, 131, 132

social skills and, 85

teacher-child relationships and, 7, 50, 58

teacher preparation and, 262

Access to programs, 20

Accountability, assessment for, 11, 12, 17, 20, 233, 240, 257–258

Achievement tests, 233, 239.

See also Standardized tests

Activity level, parents’ reports of children’s difficulties, 123–125, 126

Adaptability, 97, 105, 113

Adjustment to school, 49, 113, 144

Adolescence, mental health adjustment, 53

Aesthetics, content standards, 281, 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295

Affective-social development, 4, 39

Age at kindergarten entry

and activity level, 123

and articulation difficulties, 123

and arts and crafts with family, 79

and attentiveness, 84–85, 91, 123

and books and music recordings in the home, 70–73

and eagerness to learn, 84, 91

and math proficiency, 82

and motor skills, 118, 120, 123

and print familiarity, 65, 66–67

and problem/antisocial behaviors, 102–103, 106–107

and prosocial behaviors, 94–95, 98–99

and reading proficiency, 68–69

and song singing with family, 78

and story reading and telling, 74–75

and task persistence, 86, 90

Age groupings, classroom, 20

Agency dimension, 163



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Index Aesthetics, content standards, 281, A 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, Abecedarian Project, 134-135, 144, 295 319 Affective-social development, 4, 39 Abstract reasoning, 5, 38, 40, 43, 208 Age at kindergarten entry Academic success and activity level, 123 class size and, 146 and articulation difficulties, 123 fine motor skills and, 117 and arts and crafts with family, interest and, 110 79 peer relations and, 53 and attentiveness, 84-85, 91, 123 quality of preschool programs and books and music recordings and, 131, 132 in the home, 70-73 social skills and, 85 and eagerness to learn, 84, 91 teacher-child relationships and, and math proficiency, 82 7, 50, 58 and motor skills, 118, 120, 123 teacher preparation and, 262 and print familiarity, 65, 66-67 Access to programs, 20 and problem/antisocial Accountability, assessment for, 11, behaviors, 102-103, 106-107 12, 17, 20, 233, 240, 257-258 and prosocial behaviors, 94-95, Achievement tests, 233, 239. See also 98-99 Standardized tests and reading proficiency, 68-69 Activity level, parents’ reports of and song singing with family, 78 children’s difficulties, 123- and story reading and telling, 125, 126 74-75 Adaptability, 97, 105, 113 and task persistence, 86, 90 Adjustment to school, 49, 113, 144 Age groupings, classroom, 20 Adolescence, mental health Agency dimension, 163 adjustment, 53 415

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416 INDEX Aggression, 50, 226 attention/attentiveness and, 237 Alabama, 262 “authentic,” 244, 247-248 Alphabet song, 193. See also Letter beneficence considerations, 235 recognition challenges, 234-235 American Academy of Pediatrics, of child-caregiver interactions, 259 49, 273 American Association for the of children with disabilities, 11, Advancement of Science, 278 167, 239-240, 243, 245, 253- American children. See also 254, 258 Culture/race/ethnicity clinical interview, 12, 243-245, competitiveness, 162-163, 226 254 independence and autonomy, 111 of cognitive skills, 137, 156 interpersonal values, 162-163 of competencies in young language learning, 63-64 children, 12, 242-249 mathematics, 63 critical conditions for, 249-250 prototypical nuclear family, 112- cultural considerations, 237-239, 113 252, 257 American Indians curriculum-embedded, 20, 137- activity level of children, 126 143, 242, 314-315 attentiveness of children, 126 diagnostic, 20, 234, 252, 253-254, Choctaw culture, 114 259 Navaho language and culture, documentation methods, 248-249 63, 113, 115 dynamic system of, 246-247 Pueblo culture, 114 of economically disadvantaged Amygdala, 56 children, 256-257, 258 Analogies, 43 environments for, 236 Anger, 103, 105, 107, 109 of functional emotional skills, Anterior cingulate gyrus, 56 253-254 Arguing, 102, 104, 106, 108 guiding principles, 235 Arizona At-Risk Preschool for instructional improvement, Program, 280-281, 297 11, 16, 17, 20, 234, 241-252, Arkansas Better Chance, 280-281, 296 257, 259-260, 267-269 Arts and crafts, 9, 67, 79, 81, 185 interviewer qualifications, 244 Asian children. See also Culture/ of motor skills, 117, 246 race/ethnicity observational modes of, 227-228, articulation, 126 237, 250-251 behavior of, 93 obstacles to implementation, Chinese language and culture, 251-252 62, 111 pedagogy and, 11, 16, 17, 234, English-language learning, 116 241-252 motor skills, 118, 126 performance, 12, 45, 247-249, task persistence, 85 250-251 Assessment. See also Standardized for program evaluation, 11 tests for public policy reasons, 11, 20, for accountability reasons, 11, 12, 234, 257-259 17, 20, 233, 240, 257-258 reasons for using, 234-235

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417 INDEX research needs, 20, 320-321 B of teacher preparation, 300 Bag It, 207 teachers as assessors, 16, 227- Behavior of children 228, 244, 249-251, 252, 260, anxious, 145 267, 314 childrearing and, 33, 47-48 of temperament, 96-97, 101 classroom environment and, 48, tests distinguished from, 233n.1 50, 145 validity of measurements, 11, comforting, 88, 95, 97, 99, 101 137, 235, 238, 253 culture/race and, 92-93, 94-97, in Vygotskian mode, 245-247 100-101, 104-105, 108-109 Attachment networks, 49 curriculum and, 213 Attachment security, 2, 49-50, 51-52, problem/antisocial, 49, 50, 58, 58, 85, 130, 303, 306-307 89, 92, 102-109, 139, 213, 226, Attachment theory, 49, 50 303 Attention/attentiveness, 9 prosocial, 88-89, 94-97, 98-101, age at kindergarten entry and, 139, 177-178 84-85, 91, 123 self-regulation of, 9, 47, 51-52, 56, and assessment, 237 173, 212, 218-219, 229, 236 and brain circuitry, 56-57, 58 staff qualifications and, 149-150 in children with disabilities, 173 teaching strategy and, 139-140 control of, 57, 112 Behaviorist view of learning, 4, 39, culture/race and, 112, 124-125, 47, 266 126 Belgium, 26-27 family structure and, 91, 93, 123, Beliefs about learning/subject 125, 126 matter gender and, 84-85, 91, 122, 123, IQ tests/ scores, 266 126 of parents/public, 18, 33, 37 infants’ indicators of, 37-38 of teachers, 263-267, 269, 273, 275 maternal education and, 91, 93, Bermuda child care study, 153 123, 125, 126 Bias mathematics curriculum and, evaluator, 140 207 in measurement of treatment orienting of, 57 implementation, 137-138, 142 parents’ reports of, 84-85, 123- Big Math for Little KidsTM, 204-207 125, 126 Bilingual Syntax Measure, 157-158 to story reading, 187 Black children. See also Culture/ teachers’ ratings of children on, race/ethnicity 84, 85, 91, 93 articulation, 126 welfare status and, 91, 124, 126 behavior, 93 Attention deficit disorder, 122, 123- interaction styles, 115 126, 254 language learning style, 116 Australia, 145 motor skills, 118, 126 Austria, 26-27 street talk, 115 Autism, 121, 165, 166, 173, 254 Bodrova, Elena, 218-219 Autonomy-heteronomy continuum, Bookmaking, 193 163

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418 INDEX Books in the home, and literacy Child care programs skills, 67, 70-73, 187-188, 190 class size restrictions, 146 Bowlby, John, 49 education mission, 25 Brain development international, 153, 155 attention and, 56-57, 58 literacy environments in, 195 constructivist view, 54-55, 57-58 natural variation, 6-7, 143-144 environment and, 5, 54-55, 56, preschool distinguished from, 25 58, 306 quality of, 8, 137 experience and, 53, 54, 56, 306 in rural areas, 275 genetics and, 5, 54-55, 306 and socioemotional neuroimaging, 55-56 development, 25 plasticity of, 56-58 state licensing standards, 274, postnatal, 54 303-304 selectionist view, 54 Child care providers Brain research attachment of children to, 50 applicability to instruction/ credentialing, 300 pedagogy, 53 education/training of, 263, 270, needs, 19 273-275 Brookline Early Education Project, interaction with children, 274-275 134-135 mentoring programs, 275 Brown, Ann, 208 professional networks, 274 Bruner, Jerome, 39, 161 supervision of, 274 “Building Blocks” project, 229 Child-caregiver relationship. See also Child-parent relationship and academic achievement, 7, C 50, 58 assessment of, 49, 273 California, 203, 280-281, 297 and assessment of learning, 249- Canada, 203 251 Caregiver Interaction Scale, 273 child-parent relationship and, 49 Carpinteria Preschool Classroom, children with disabilities, 122, 157-159 173 Categorization strategies, 8, 136 class size and, 145 Center-based preschool programs and cognitive development, 39, accreditation, 298 44, 46 common elements of, 133 communicative interactions, 48, federal funding of, 17-18 62 focus of report on, 31-32 cultural/ethnic differences in, recommendations for high-risk 115-117 children, 317 and emergent literacy, 187-188, teacher credentialing, 300 190-191, 194-195 Cerebral palsy, 121, 173 emotional communication, 48 Chess, Stella, 97 importance of, 7, 16, 18, 32-33, Chicago Early Assessment and 49-52, 58, 213 Remediation Laboratory, 159 interaction styles, 44, 48-49, 50- Child Care Development Block 52, 115-117, 190-191 Grant, 275

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419 INDEX and language development, 44, Child Observation Record, 250-251 62, 149-150, 157 Child-parent relationship, 4 and learning, 7, 32-33, 67, 69, 307 behavioral control strategies, 33 and motivation, 163-164 and child-teacher relationships, mutually reciprocal, 50-52 49 negative communication, 48 cultural differences in interaction and peer relationships, 39, 49, 50, styles, 115-117 58 infants, 48, 64, 216 and problem solving, 42-43, 116- and language development, 64, 117 67, 220 and quality of programs, 20-21, maternal, 49, 115, 116, 173-174 133, 136, 139 and peer relationships, 49, 52 research needs, 19, 20-21 reading and story telling, 67 Sameroff-Chandler transactional scaffolding behaviors, 220 model, 48-49 socioeconomic status and, 64, 67 secure attachment, 50, 85 verbal interaction, 67 teacher/caregiver preparation Child-teacher relationship. See and, 271, 273 Child-caregiver relationship verbal interaction, 190-191 Childrearing Child-child interactions, 11. See also and behavior, 47-48 Peers and peer groups perceptions of poor families’ and academic performance, 53 abilities, 148 and adolescent mental health, 53 Children with disabilities. See also child-caregiver relationship and, Developmental disabilities 39, 49, 50, 58 aptitude-treatment interaction, child-parent relationship and, 49, 167 52 assessment of, 11, 167, 239-240, children with disabilities, 122, 243, 245, 253-254, 258 172-173, 177-178, 226 attentiveness, 173 classroom environment and, 172 cognitive development, 176 culture and beliefs and, 52, 113 computer use, 225, 226, 228-229 developmentally appropriate curriculum for, 167 practices and, 144 effectiveness of early dimensions of, 52 intervention, 28-29, 175-176 family experience and, 52 family culture, 121 importance of, 52-53, 85 homebound/hospital settings, and learning, 85, 221-222 169 play and, 52, 219-220 in inclusive settings, 122, 166, promotion of, 172 168-169, 175-179, 276 scaffolding, 221-222 individualized plans, 166-167, and social competence, 52-53, 222 173, 253 Child development associate interactions with caregivers, 122, certification, 17, 263, 297, 299- 173 300 language development and Child-initiated instruction, 138-139, skills, 121-122, 170-171, 173- 222, 223-224 174, 176, 228-229

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420 INDEX least restrictive environment, for children with disabilities, 166, 298 122, 166, 168-169, 175-179, 276 legislation affecting, 165-166 computer arrangements, 226 mathematics scores, 176 cultural accommodations, 113- meta-analysis of interventions, 114 167-168 layout, 192, 195, 226, 296 parent involvement, 167, 174-175 least restrictive, 166, 298 peer relations, 122, 172-173, 177- open, 139 178, 226 and peer interactions, 172 public attitudes about care, 165 socioemotional, 50, 58, 172 public education requirements, standards, 296-297 122 structures, 8, 11, 296-297, 307-308 quality of preschool programs, Classroom management, 50-52 129, 164-179 Clinical interview, 12, 243-245, 254 reading scores, 176 Coconstruction, 42 residential facilities, 169 Cognitive development. See also resource rooms, 168-169 Learning segregated programs, 169, 176 affective-social systems and, 39 self-regulation, 173 assessment of skills, 137, 156 socioemotional skill attachment security and, 2 development, 172-173, 176, behavioral objectives and, 39 177-178 brain area activated by high- special education, 132, 140, 166, level tasks, 56, 55 170-171, 240, 253, 298-299 child-caregiver interaction and, standardized assessment of, 11, 39, 44, 46 239-240 children with disabilities, 176 teacher training and support, class size and, 145 176-177, 298-299 cognitive stimulation and, 46-47 teaching strategies, 170, 171-173 content standards, 281, 283, 285, temperament, 121 287, 289, 291, 293, 295 variation in type and severity, in context, 42-46, 58 121-126, 166-167 culture and, 42, 45, 63 Chinese language and culture, 62, curriculum, 139, 184 111 in English-language learners, 159 Choctaw culture, 114 environment and, 41-42, 46, 58, Choral responses, 114 130, 155 Circle time, 173, 221n.2 instruction and, 43 Civic activity participation, 139 knowledge acquisition and, 40- Class size, 7, 16, 20, 134, 137, 140, 42, 307 144-146, 161, 296, 309, 316 physical development and, 7, 307 Classroom, Behavior Inventory, 154 Piagetian stage theory, 4-5, 39-40, Classroom environment, 11, 48-49 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 58 activities and materials and, 136, play and, 217-218 153-157, 192, 193, 296 quality of preschool programs and behavior of children, 48, 50, and, 7, 58, 128-129, 131, 136, 145 142

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421 INDEX research needs, 19 children with disabilities and, socialization and, 7, 34, 85, 237- 225, 226, 228-229 237 classroom placement strategies, sociocultural theory of, 42-46 226 socioeconomic status and, 6, 7, curriculum and, 228-230 58, 64, 128-129, 130, 131 drill-and-practice software, 226- and socioemotional 227, 228, 229, 230 development, 307 games, 226 staff-child ratio and, 145 gender differences in use, 228 stimulation of, 46-47 learning opportunities, 16, 226- teaching strategy and, 43, 139 227, 228-229 theories of, 39-47 math software, 229 variations in skills, 59, 60-85 and metacognition, 229-230 Cognitive Skills Assessment Battery, observational opportunities, 227- 156 228 Cognitive socialization, defined, 34 professional development Collectivist/group-oriented values, opportunities, 16 111 and social interaction, 16, 225- Color naming, 63, 223 226 Colorado Preschool Program, 282- Conceptual abilities, 39 283, 296n.3 Conflict resolution, 52 Comforting behaviors, 88, 95, 97, 99, Conservation of number task, 41 101 Constructivist theory, 54-55, 57-58, Committee on Early Childhood 214, 266, 302 Pedagogy Content of teaching charge to, 3-4, 30-31 defined, 34 perspectives of, 32-35 standards, 17, 278-296, 316-317 Communication skills, 48, 52, 62. Context considerations. See also See also Speech Culture/race/ethnicity Community-based partnership cognitive development, 42-46, 58 programs, 15 competence, 44-45 Competence. See also Social skills/ for learning, 46, 85 competence for socialization, 46, 85, 101, 104 contextual support and, 44-45 temperament and, 101, 104 knowledge and, 41, 306 of word learning, 68-69 narrative, 195 Conversation strategic, 43-44 classroom, 10, 114 writing, 195, 200 cultural differences in rules of, Competition/competitiveness, 162- 114-115 163, 226 wait time, 114 Comprehensive Child Development Cooper, William John, 147 Program, 143 Coping, 64, 113, 115 Computers Core Knowledge Foundation, 183- access to, 225 184 “Building Blocks” project, 229 Costs to parents, 24, 27

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422 INDEX Council for Early Childhood and sociolinguistics, 114 Professional Recognition, 300 and song singing with family, 80 Council for Exceptional Children, and story reading and telling, Division for Early Childhood, 74-77 170, 171 and task persistence, 88 Creativity in work/play, 84, 87, 89 and teacher preparation and Culture/race/ethnicity testing, 299 and activity levels of children, and teaching strategies, 29, 33, 124-125, 126 111, 162-164, 267 and articulation difficulties of Curriculum. See also Mathematics children, 124-125, 126 curriculum; Science and arts and crafts with family, curriculum 81 assessment, 20, 137-143, 242, 314- and assessment, 237-239, 252, 257 315, 315 and attachment security, 50 and behavior of children, 213 and attentiveness of children, for children with disabilities, 167 112, 124-125, 126 cognitive development, 139, 184 and behavior of children, 92-93, comparisons, 184 94-97, 100-101, 104-105, 108- computer software, 228-230 109 content, 7, 9-10, 17, 133, 186-213, in child-caregiver interactions, 314 115-117 Core Knowledge Foundation, classroom accommodations for, 183-184 113-114 cultural considerations, 183 and cognitive development, 42, design, 182 45, 63 development, 15-16, 20 and creativity in work/play, 89 emergent literacy, 8, 10, 185, 186- curriculum components, 183 200, 215 and developmental differences, 6 goals, 9-10, 183-186 and eagerness to learn, 85, 89 guide for teachers, 15-16 and language development, 63- High/Scope, 152, 183 64, 116 knowledge acquisition, 184 and math proficiency, 63, 82 and language development, 9, mixed-race children, 126 17, 137, 184, 211, 212 and motor skills of children, 118, model programs, 135 119, 120-121, 124-125, 126 Montessori approach, 183 in parent-child interaction styles, in OECD countries, 24 115-117 principles of learning, 308 and parental expectations, 112 Project Construct, 251 and peer relations, 52, 113 readiness dimensions, 183-184 and print familiarity, 65, 66-67 research base, 9, 34 and reading proficiency, 68-69 research needs, 19-20, 310, 315, sensitivity of programs to, 3, 17 319-321 and social organization, 112-114 socioemotional development, and socioemotional 184, 185 development, 104, 110-117 standards, 17, 278, 279

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423 INDEX guidance on use of, 302-303 D interpretation of, 40 Deci’s theory of self-determination, outcomes of, 143-144, 159, 170 110 and peer relations, 144 Decontextualization, 217 and quality of preschool Definitional issues, 33-34 programs, 143-144 Delaware Early Childhood science curriculum, 212 Assistance Program, 282-283, as state standards, 297, 302 295 teacher behavior associated Demand for preschools, 29 with, 156 Demographic trends, 34 teacher preparation and, 264, Demonstration schools for 266-267, 269, 271, 274-275 professional development, 15, teaching strategies, 143-144, 170, 313-314 302 Denmark, 26-27 theoretical basis, 46, 302 Descartes, Renee, 39 Dewey, John, 133, 164 Development Diagnostic assessment, 20, 234, 252, culture/race and, 6 253-254, 259 defined, 33 DIAL-R, 156 research needs, 19, 318-319 Dialogic reading, 196-200 in standardized assessment, 236- Dinosaur experts, preschool, 41 237 Direct Instruction System for variation among children, 5-6, Teaching and Remediation 16, 58 (DISTAR), 267 Developmental delays, 61-62, 173, Disabilities. See Children with 177 disabilities; Developmental Developmental disabilities disabilities and computer use, 226 Discipline, 100 and language development, 72- Distancing, 217 73, 226 District of Columbia preschool parents’ reports of, 122-126 program, 296n.3 pervasive, 254 Down syndrome, 121, 166, 176 research needs, 19 Drawing, 117 Developmental range, 45 Drill-and-practice software, 226- Developmental theory, 33 227, 228, 229, 230 Developmental screening, 252-253 Duration of programs, 20, 131, 134, Developmentally Appropriate Practice, 140 300, 301 Dynamic assessment, 246-247 Developmentally appropriate Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early practices Literacy Skills, 247 adult-child interactions, 274-275 in computer software, 228 criticisms/limitations of, 5, 302 E developmental principles, 301- Eagerness to learn, 84, 85, 87, 89, 91, 302 93, 208-209 for economically disadvantaged children, 143-144

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424 INDEX Early childhood education and care program/curriculum research adequate, 2, 32 needs, 19 consensus of parents and research base, 128 professionals on, 23 socioemotional development, context of report, 3 130, 132 goals, 29 Educare, 25, 32 importance of, 2-3, 129 Education for All Handicapped naturally occurring variations Children Act, 165 among programs, 143-144 Education policy, preschool in OECD countries, 26-27 assessment and, 11, 20, 234, 257- research base, 3, 23, 24, 25, 28, 32, 259 35 fundamental premise, 25 Early Childhood Education Project, in OECD countries, 26-27 134-135 and quality of programs, 310-311 Early Childhood Environmental recommendations, 12-13, 16-18, Rating Scale (ECERS), 153, 316-317 154-156, 157, 263, 264, 273 Effect size, of model programs, 131 Early Childhood Institute, 4, 30 Effortful control, 100-101 Early Intervention Program for Eligibility criteria, in OECD Infants and Toddlers with countries, 27 Disabilities, 165-166 Emergent literacy Early Literacy Advisor, 215 activities promoting, 10, 190, 191, Early Screening Inventory-Revised, 192-193 117 assessment of skills, 197, 200, 247 Early Training Project, 134-135 book and print awareness and, ECLS-K, 117 191 Economically disadvantaged child care programs and, 195 children. See also Poverty; child-caregiver interaction and, Socioeconomic status 187-188, 190-191, 194-195 assessment of, 256-257, 258 components, 186-189 class size, 145 critical skills, 247 developmentally appropriate curriculum, 8, 10, 185, 186-200, practices, 143-144 215 effectiveness of early defined, 186 intervention, 28-29, 142 dialogic reading and, 10, 196-200 English-language learners, 159 environment and, 8, 188, 189- language development, 61, 64- 190, 194, 195 65, 67, 137 grapheme-phoneme learning ability, 130, 131 correspondence, 188 math curriculum, 138, 203-204 language outcomes, 8, 189, 190- model programs, 128-129, 130, 194, 200, 307 132-133 letter and early word preschool program quality, 6, 8, recognition, 10, 188, 193-194 128, 129-137, 142, 153-154, listening comprehension, 194 308-309 Little Books intervention, 192

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425 INDEX narratives and, 193 and prosocial behaviors of nonlanguage outcomes, 194-195 children, 94-95, 98-99 phonological awareness and, rate of learning, 60-61 188, 189, 194, 196-197 and reading proficiency of positive reinforcement, 193, 196 children, 68-69 print functions and, 188, 191, shape-dependent morphenes, 63 194, 200 in song singing with family, 78 and reading skills, 189, 200 and story reading and telling by skill and knowledge base, 188 family, 74-75 sociodramatic play and, 192 and task persistence, 85, 86, 90 Emotional brain centers, 56 English-language learners, 116 Emotional communication, 48 assessment considerations, 238 Empirical methods bilingual classroom, 158, 159 convergence, 325 cognitive development in, 159 falsifiability, 324 English-language classroom, 158, generalizability, 324-325 159-160 purposes of research, 326-329 first-language classroom, 157- replicability, 324 159 theory building, 323-325 quality of preschool programs, 7, types and uses of, 325-326 19, 129, 157-160 validity, 324-325 English orthography, 57 English as primary language Enrollments in preschool programs, and activity levels of children, 24, 25, 28 124, 126 Environment. See also Classroom and articulation difficulties of environment; Home children, 124, 126 environment and arts and crafts with family, for assessment, 236 79 and brain development, 5, 54-55, and attentiveness of children, 91, 56, 58, 306 124, 126 and cognitive development, 41- and books and music recordings 42, 46, 58, 130, 155, 306 in the home, 70-73 and language development, 153- and creativity in work/play, 87 155 and eagerness to learn, 87, 91 and learning pace, 1 and math proficiency of literacy, 187-188, 189-190 children, 82 measures of quality, 153-157 and motor skills of children, 119, research needs, 19, 20 120, 124, 126 Epigenesis, 42 and perceptions of children’s Ethnicity. See Culture/race/ learning attributes, 85 ethnicity and print familiarity of children, European preschool programs, 160 65, 66-67 Even Start, 143 and problem/antisocial Experience, and brain development, behaviors of children, 102- 53, 54, 56, 306 103, 106-107

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433 INDEX New York State, 262, 288-289, Parent expectations, culture and, 296n.3 112 North Carolina, 146, 155, 275 Parent income, and cognitive Number Line Game, 203 performance, 64 Number Worlds, 202-204 Parent involvement Numbers attitudes of caregivers toward, adjacent values, 202 147-149 cardinality, 201, 202, 206 and child development, 148 counting, 44, 76, 77, 82-83, 201, with children with disabilities, 202, 206 167, 174-175 reading two-digit numerals, 77 in literacy activities, 194-195, 220 recognition of numerals, 76, 77, in model programs, 135, 141 81, 82-83, 141, 206 and preschool program quality, Numerical thinking, 17, 200-201 18, 132, 135, 141, 147-149, 174- Nutrition programs, 131 175 recommended, 18, 318 Parent perceptions of their children O attentiveness, 84-85, 123-125, 126 learning attributes, 84-85, 86-89 Object naming, 64 problem/antisocial behaviors, Object recognition, by infants, 38 92-93, 106-109 Observational Record of Caregiving prosocial behaviors, 88-89, 94-97 Environments (ORCE), 157 Pattern recognition and prediction, Ohio Head Start, Public School 206, 229 Preschool, 290-291, 295 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Oklahoma Early Childhood Four- 142, 213 Year-Old Program, 290-291, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- 296 Revised (PPVT-R), 153, 155 Oregon, 275, 290-291, 295 Pedagogy. See also Curriculum; Organization for Economic Teaching strategies Cooperation and and assessment, 11, 16, 17, 234, Development, 24, 160, 164 241-252 components of, 182-183, 214 constructivist theory, 214 P defined, 33-34, 182, 249 diversity of beliefs and Parent beliefs and practices approaches, 213-214 about learning/subject matter, instructional assessment and, 11, 18, 33, 37 16, 17, 234, 241-252 and type of center attended, 145 sociocultural theory, 214, 215 Parent education. See also Maternal Peer-assisted learning, 113 education Peer-directed gazing, 114 and cognitive performance of Peers and peer groups. See also children, 64, 65 Child-child interactions in therapy for children with acceptance of ideas of, 88, 98, 100 disabilities, 174 social structure, 220 trend, 148

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434 INDEX sociometric status, 222 and language and literacy, 192, networks, 52, 173, 220 215, 216, 217-218 perceptions of children with motivation for, 216, 217 disabilities, 122 peer relations in, 52, 219-220 Pellegrino, James, 242 pretend, 10, 50, 172, 177, 217, Pennsylvania, 153, 296n.3 219-220, 226 Perception self-regulation and, 218-219 and conceptual abilities, 40 social competence and, 219-220 in uninhibited children, 97, 100 sociodramatic, 192, 216 Performance solitary/director’s, 219 assessment, 12, 45, 247-249, 250- symbolic, 215 251 as teaching strategy, 10-11, 214, knowledge and, 40-41 215-220, 223, 302 standards, 242, 258-259, 276n.1, Policy. See Education policy 295, 298 Population of preschool-age Perry Preschool Project, 134-135 children, 24-25 Persistence of program effects, 131 Positive reinforcement, 4, 39, 52, Perspective-taking task, 41 193, 196 Phonological awareness/skills, 17, Positron emission tomography 188, 189, 194, 195, 196-197 (PET), 55 Phonology disorders, 174 Poverty, 8. See also Welfare status Physical activities, 9 and home environment, 64-65 Physical development Power/coercion strategies, 51 and cognitive development, 7 Practice, and brain circuitry, 57, 58 disabilities, 121-126 Preconceptions of children, 241, motor skills, 117-121 246, 265 socioeconomic status and, 6 Preschool Grants Program, 122, 166 variation in, 59 Preschool Language Assessment Physical education, 183-184, 185 Instrument, 153 Piaget, Jean, 130, 133, 215, 243 Preschool programs. See also Early Piagetian stage theory, 4-5, 39-40, childhood education and 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 58 care; Quality of preschool Planned Variation Head Start study, programs 141 child care distinguished from, 25 Plasticity, brain, 56-58 U.S. vs. OECD countries, 23-24, Play 26-27 class size and, 145 Preservice education, 270-272 classroom centers, 192 Pretend play, 10, 50, 172, 177, 217- cognitive stimulation in, 217-218 218, 219-220, 226 constructive, 216 Primary language. See also English creativity in, 84, 87, 89 as primary language; other culture and, 89 languages free-play activities, 216, 223 and books and music recordings functional, 216 in the home, 70-73 games, 216, 226 and print familiarity, 65, 66-67 interest and, 110 and reading proficiency, 68-69

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435 INDEX and story reading and telling, Prosocial behavior, 88-89, 94-97, 98- 74-75 101, 139, 177-178 Priming, 57 Public attitudes, about children Print awareness, 65, 66-67, 188, 190, with disabilities, 165 191, 194, 195, 200 Public programs, quality of, 130- Print functions of, 191 131, 136-137 Printing, 117, 188 Public school system, 23 Privileged domains, 9 Pueblo Indian culture, 114 Problem/antisocial behavior, 49, 50, 58, 89, 92, 102-109, 139, 213, Q 226 Problem solving, 7, 10, 38 Quality of preschool programs. See child-caregiver interaction and, also Standards of practice; 42-43, 116-117 individual programs computer use and, 229 and academic success, 131, 132 counting-on strategy, 43 attention to individual cultural context for, 63 differences and, 173 interest and, 110 behavior of teachers and, 269 language development and, 63 characteristics associated with, mental tools and, 43, 44, 45-46 7-8, 20-21, 133 science curriculum and, 211, 212 child-caregiver relationship and, trial-and-error strategy, 43 20-21, 133, 136, 139 Professional development. See and children’s learning and Teacher preparation development, 127-144 Professional standards for children with disabilities, Developmentally Appropriate 129, 164-179 Practice, 301-303 class size and, 7, 133, 134, 144-146 National Board for Professional classroom activities and Teaching Standards, 300-301 materials and, 136, 153-157 Program evaluation and and cognitive development, 7, monitoring, 11 58, 128-129, 131, 136, 142 Program standards comparison studies, 137-143, 152 concerns about, 297-298 curriculum content and, 133, content, 17, 278, 280, 282, 284, 135, 138 286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 297 defined, 33, 128 program components, 297 developmentally appropriate recommended, 16-17, 316 practices and, 143-144 by state, 278-298 duration of program and, 131, structural components, 296-297 134 Project CARE, 134-135 for economically disadvantaged Project Construct Assessment children, 6, 8, 128, 129-137, System, 251 142, 153-154, 308 Project Follow-Through, 141 effect size, 131 Project Head Start, 183. See also for English-language learners, 7, Head Start 19, 129, 157-160

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436 INDEX inclusive settings, 175-179 R intensity and coherence of Race. See Culture/race/ethnicity program and, 131, 132, 133, Readiness 135, 147 curriculum component, 183-184 international programs, 7, 9, 21, interpretation of, 39 129, 160-164 testing, 12, 254-257 and IQ, 131, 132 Reading. See also Emergent literacy; language development Story reading and telling programs, 7, 8, 133, 136, 170- ability in primary grades, 65, 69, 171 72 local control and, 297-298 accuracy, 189 longitudinal studies, 134-135, attentiveness to, 187 147, 156-157 and brain circuit organization, model programs, 6, 128-129, 130- 55, 56-57 131, 132-135 by children with disabilities, 176 monitoring, 17 comprehension, 189, 200 naturally occurring programs, culture/race and, 68-69 128-129, 143-144 decoding, 200 parent involvement and, 132, delays, 189 133, 135, 147-149, 174-175 dialogic, 10, 196-200 pedagogy/teaching strategy fine motor skills and, 117 and, 137-143 and language skills, 196-200 and persistence of effects, literacy skills prerequisite to, 65- 131 69, 189 public programs, 130-131, 136- PEER sequence, 197-199 137 phonological awareness and, 189 regulation and, 303-304, proficiency levels of 310-311 kindergarteners, 65, 68-69 research base, 6-7, 128-130, 134- programs, 7, 9, 10, 196-200, 215 135, 136, 143-144 readiness, 65-81 research needs, 20 shared, 67, 74-75, 187, 190, 191, socioemotional development, 7, 194, 196-200, 220 130, 132, 136, 172-173 standards, 278, 279 staff-child ratios and, 7, 131, 133, wars, 267 134, 144-146 Reasoning, 8 staff qualifications and, 131, 133, Recommendations 135, 149-150 content standards, 316-317 standards and, 16-17, 20, 310-311 parent involvement, 18, 318 structure and, 143 professional development, 12, teacher reflectiveness and, 9, 15, 13-15 133, 151-153 public awareness, 13, 18, 317-318 supervisor qualifications, 133 public policies, 12-13, 16-18, 316- variation in programs and, 6-7, 317 29, 143-144

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437 INDEX teacher qualifications, 13 for universal early childhood teaching materials, 12, 15-16 programs, 321-322 Regulation of early childhood Residential facilities, 169 education and care, 303-305 Resource rooms, 168-169 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section Reviewing related information, 43 504, 165 Rhyming and alliteration, 195 RightstartTM, 202-204 Rehearsal strategies, 136 Relationships. See also Child- Risk factors for school failure, 8 caregiver relationship Risk taking, in language importance of, 47-53 acquisition, 62 peer, 52-53 Robinson, Nancy, 165 Repetition, 58 Role playing by children, 217-218 Representational systems, 10, 187, Rule learning, 57, 216 209, 215, 218, 242 Research. See also Scientific S evidence bridges between practice and, Sameroff-Chandler transactional 31, 309-310 model, 48-49 correlational/comparison Scaffolding, 43, 113, 220-224, 315 studies, 137-143, 162, 328-329 School readiness, 25, 28 curriculum, 9, 34 School reform movement, 300 ethnographic, 326 Science curriculum, 7, 9, 10, 207-208 experimental and quasi- animate and inanimate objects, experimental design, 326-328 208 generalizability of results, 136- block-stacking experiment, 38, 137, 138, 163, 176, 324-325 208 methodological problems, 137- and eagerness to learn, 208-209 138, 140, 162 integrated, 209-210, 211 on model programs, 6-7, 128-130, mental representations, 209 134-135, 136, 137-143 quality of, 137 on naturally occurring variations recommended, 17 among programs, 143-144 ScienceStart!TM, 209-213 purposes of, 326-329 ScienceStart!TM, 209-213 qualitative, 326 Science ZipKitTM, 212-213 standards of evidence, 34-35 Scientific evidence strengths in U.S., 3, 6-7, 9, 23, 24, common vs. innovative 25, 28, 32 measures, 330-331 types of studies considered, 34-35 conceptional orientation of Research needs, 18 investigator and, 332 on assessment, 20, 320-321 methods, 323-329 on early childhood learning and precision of questions and, 328 development, 19, 318-319 triadic nature of early childhood for professional development, education and, 331 15, 310 variability of young children’s on programs and curricula, 19- performance and, 330 20, 310, 319-321

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438 INDEX Scientific reasoning, 10, 207-209, reading proficiency of children, 220-221 68-69 Scope of report, 31-32 song singing with children, 78 Scripts, 209 story reading and telling in, 74- Seguin, 133 75 Selectionist view, 54 task persistence of children, 86, Self-determination, 110 90 Self-monitoring, 56 Size relationships, recognition by Self-motivated learning, 38, 224, 315 children, 76, 82-83 Self-regulation, 9, 47, 51-52, 56, 173, Slosson-IQ, 153 212, 218-219, 229, 236 Social developmental pathways, Self-sufficiency, 115 110-111 Sensory deprivation, 54-55 Social group status, 52 Separateness-relatedness Social interaction continuum, 163 by children with disabilities, 177- “Sesame Street,” 41 178 Shame, 111 class size and, 145 Shape recognition, 63, 76, 77, 82-83, computers and, 16, 225-226 206 interest and, 110 Single-parent families language learning and, 62 activity levels of children, 124, teacher-child ratio and, 7 126 Social organization, culture/ articulation difficulties of ethnicity and, 112-114 children, 124, 126 Social skills/competence arts and crafts with children, 79 and adaptability, 105 attentiveness of children, 91, 124, attachment security and, 49-50, 126 306-307 behavior of children, 89, 93, 94- and culture, 110-111 95 curriculum goal, 185 books and music recordings in defined, 222 homes of, 67, 70-73 and learning, 2, 7 eagerness to learn of children, peer relations and, 52-53, 222 86, 91 play and, 219-220 math proficiency of children, 82 socioeconomic status and, 6 motor skills of children, 119, 120, teacher-child relationship and, 7 124 variation in, 59, 85-93, 94-101, perceptions of children’s 102-105, 106-109 learning attributes, 85, 86-93 Social status hierarchies, 173 print familiarity of children, 65, Social studies, 185 66-67 Socialization of children, 37, 51 and problem/antisocial and academic achievement, 85 behaviors of children, 102- and cognitive development, 7, 103, 106-107 34, 85, 237-237 prosocial behavior of children, contextual considerations, 46, 85, 98-99 101, 104

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439 INDEX language and, 63-64 research needs, 19 Sociocultural theory, 42-46, 214, 215, social organization and, 112-114 266 sociolinguistics and, 114 Sociodramatic play, 192, 216 Sociolinguistics, 114 Socioeconomic status Song singing, 67, 78, 80 and child-parent relationship, 64, Sound foundations program, 196- 67 197 and cognitive development, 6, 7, South Carolina Early Childhood 58, 64, 128-129, 130, 131 Program, 290-291 dialogic reading intervention, Spanish first-language classroom, 196 157-159 as group risk factor, 69 Spatial relations, 206, 229 as individual risk factor, 69 Special education placements, 132, and language development, 61- 140, 166, 170-171, 240, 253 62, 67, 196 Speech and mathematics skills, 77, 80 disorders, 123-125, 126, 167, 171, and physical development, 6 173, 174 and reading ability, 69, 72 role playing and, 217-218 and risk of school failure, 8, 308- word-processing programs with, 309 228 and social development, 6 Spencer Foundation, 4, 30 and staff attitudes toward Staff-child ratios, 7, 17, 20, 131, 133, parents, 148 134, 137, 140, 144-146, 147, Socioemotional development. See 161, 162, 296, 303, 309 also Social skills/competence; Standardized tests. See also IQ tests/ Temperament scores child care and, 25 accommodations, 239 in children with disabilities, 172- accountability uses, 11, 12, 17, 20, 173, 176, 177-178 233, 240, 257-258 classroom environment and, 50, alternatives to, 12; see also 58, 172 Assessment culture/ethnicity and, 104, 110- of children with disabilities, 11, 117 239-240 curriculum, 184, 185 of cognitive ability, 137, 239 in economically disadvantaged developmental considerations, children, 130, 132 236-237 interaction styles and, 115-117 developmental screening, 44, and learning, 46, 85, 307 252-253 peer relations and, 52-53 interpretation of results, 11, 235 physical development and, 307 issues in use of, 11, 12, 235-240 program standards, 281, 283, limitations, 240, 243 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295, misuse/misinterpretation of, 12, 297 240, 257, 259, 260 quality of preschool programs norms, 238, 239, 240 and, 7, 130, 132, 136, 172-173 readiness (selection) testing, 252, 254-257

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440 INDEX of social development, 137 Subsidy strategies statistical power and in OECD countries, 27 generalizability, 258 Sucking, nonnutritive, 37-38 summative natures of, 249 Supervisors of early childhood theoretical basis, 12 education, 14-15, 16-17, 133, training of teachers/ 152, 153, 309, 312-313 administrators, 12 Sweden, 26-27 validity of results, 12, 137 Symbolic abilities, 5, 40, 46, 205, 218 Standards. See also Program Synapse overproduction and standards; Standards of pruning, 54 practice of evidence, 34-35 T Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 253 Talkativeness, 62 Standards of achievement, 278 Task persistence, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, Standards of learning, 278 92, 208 Standards of practice Taxonomic classifications, 112 advantages and disadvantages, Teacher Beliefs Scale, 264 277 Teacher preparation. See also Child challenges in setting, 29 care programs; Standards of curriculum, 17, 278, 279 practice domains addressed by, 294-295 and academic achievement of instructional/performance, 242, students, 262 258-259, 276n.1, 278, 295, 298 as assessors, 260 mandatory, 298 and behavior of children, 149- professional, 300-303 150 recommended, 16-17, 20 and behavior of teachers, 265, teacher qualifications, 296-297, 268, 273-274 298-300 and beliefs and practices, 263- voluntary, 298 267, 269, 273, 275 States child development associate accreditation of teachers, 302 credential, 17, 263, 297, 299- child care licensing standards, 300 274, 303-304 for children with disabilities, program standards 176-177, 298-299 development, 16-17, 278-298, computers and, 16 302, 316 content and structure of recommended role, 316-317 programs, 271 Story reading and telling, 10, 67, 74- demonstration schools for, 15, 77, 186, 190, 191, 193 313-314 Strategic competence, 43-44 and developmental outcomes, 9, Stress in students, 144 309 Stroop task, 101 and developmentally Student teaching/internships, 14, appropriate practices, 264, 15, 271 266-267, 269, 271, 274-275

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441 INDEX evaluation of, 15, 17, 263, 267- curriculum guidelines for, 15-16, 269, 272-274 215 in-service education, 15, 152, 263, efficacy of, 269 264, 265, 272-275, 276, 310 perceptions of children’s and interactions with children, learning attributes, 84-85, 91, 271, 273 93 international standards, 24, 161- reflection on practice, 9, 15, 151- 162 153 in model programs, 131, 133, responsiveness to children’s 135, 141, 149-150, 264, 272 differences, 8 outside consultants for teacher views of readiness testing, 255, support, 151-152, 176 256 preservice education, 14, 15, 270- Teachers’ perceptions of children 272, 276, 298, 310, 312-313 of learning attributes, 90-93 professional development, 9, 13- problem behaviors, 92-93, 102- 15, 16-17, 263-267, 270, 275- 105 276, 309, 311-314, 316 prosocial behavior, 88-89, 98-101 and quality of preschool Teaching assistants, 17 programs, 8, 9, 149-150, 162- Teaching strategies, 7 163, 164, 224, 263, 272, 273, appropriateness of, 16-17 309 assessment of, 11, 16, 17, 20, 234, racial/cultural imbalances in, 241-252, 257, 259-260, 267-269 299 and behavior of children, 139- recommended, 13-15, 16-17, 311- 140 314, 316 beliefs about subject matter and, research base, 262, 276 264-267 research needs, 15, 313-314 child-initiated instruction, 138- standards, 296-297, 303, 313 139, 222, 223-224, 302, 315 status in U.S., 261 for children with disabilities, student teaching/internships, 170, 171-173 14, 15, 271, 312-313 cognitive and language activity, work time spent on, 264 139, 217-218 workshops, 274 and cognitive development, 43, Teachers, early childhood. See also 139 Staff-child ratios comparison studies, 137-143, 152 as assessors, 16, 244, 249-251, components, 33-34 252, 260, 267, 314-315 computers and, 225-228 as attachment figures, 49, 85 cultural context, 29, 33, 111, 162- behavior with students, 7, 9, 145, 164, 267 149-150, 153, 156, 268 defined, 182-183 beliefs about subject matter, 264- developmentally appropriate 267 practices, 143-144, 170, 302 career ladders, 17-18, 317 direct teacher-initiated certification of, 298-300 instruction, 11, 138-140, 144, compensation, 150, 162, 300, 317 214, 222, 224, 302, 315 critical characteristics, 268-269 discourse pattern, 136

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442 INDEX drill-and-practice, 226-227, 228, and environmental demands, 229, 230 104-105 effective approaches, 10, 84-85, variation in, 6, 60 267-269 Tennessee, 146 indirect instruction, 224, 315 Tests of Early Language initiation-reply-evaluation Development, 153 sequence, 136 Texas, 262, 292-293, 296n.3 instructional assessment and, Theories of mind, 44 249-252 Thomas, Alexander, 97 interactive, 139 Transactional models, 48-49 for language development, 139, Treatment-by-aptitude interactions, 171, 220, 223-224 139 mand-model, 171 Tuning neurons, 57 milieu teaching, 171 Turkish language, 60-61 model programs, 136, 137-143 Turkish preschools, 163 narrative, 84 Turn taking, 226 naturalistic, 171 Two-generation programs, 4 observation of children, 227-228 outside consultants for teacher U support, 151-152 play as, 10-11, 214, 215-220, 223, Uninhibited children, 97, 104-105 302 United Kingdom, 26-27 reflective, 9, 15, 133, 149-150, University of California at Los 151-153, 267, 309, 313 Angeles, Child Care Service research base, 28, 35 Centers, 221n.2 scaffolding, 84, 220-224, 315 U.S. Commissioner of Education, for self-regulation, 218-219 147 for social competence, 138-139, U.S. Department of Education 219-220 data on children with structured activities, 10-11 disabilities, 170-171 teacher preparation and, 267-269 Kindergarten Teacher Survey on theoretical trends, 39 Student Readiness, 255 Tools of the Mind, 215 Office of Education Research traditional approaches, 138, 140 and Improvement, 4, 30 types of, 138-139 Office of Special Education for understanding, 267 Programs, 4, 30 Technological intelligence, 237-238 recommended roles, 15, 16, 314, Temperament 315 and acquisition of knowledge, U.S. Department of Health and skills, or beliefs, 108 Human Services assessment of, 96-97, 101 recommended roles, 15, 16, 315 context of socialization and, 101, 104 defined, 93, 96 dimensions of, 97, 100-101

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443 INDEX and prosocial behaviors of V children, 89, 94-95, 98-99 Verbal interaction, 67, 190-191 and reading proficiency of Vermont Early Education Initiative, children, 68-69 292-293, 296 and song singing with family, 78 Virginia Preschool, 292-293, 296n.3 and story reading and telling by Visual word form, 57 family, 74-77 Vygotsky, Lev, 39, 42, 43, 45, 205, and task persistence, 86, 90 215, 219, 245-247 West Virginia, 296n.3 Whites interaction styles, 115 W motor skills, 118 Whiting, John and Beatrice, 110 Washington (state) Early Childhood Whole-child approach, 9-10, 32-33, and Assistance Program, 294- 130 295 Wisconsin, 146, 296n.3 Welfare status Wolery, Mark, 164n.2 and activity levels of children, Words 124, 126 association, 56 and articulation difficulties of beginning and ending sounds, children, 124, 126 65, 68-69, 141 and arts and crafts with family, in context, 68-69 79 recognition, 10, 68-69, 193-194 and attentiveness of children, 91, Work Sampling System, 250, 251 124, 126 Writing and books and music recordings competence, 195, 200 in the home, 70-73 intervention, 215 and creativity of children’s standards, 278, 279 work/play, 87 and eagerness to learn, 87, 91 and math proficiency of Z children, 82 and motor skills of children, 119, Zone of proximal development, 10, 120, 124 43, 45, 214, 215, 219, 220, 245- and print familiarity of children, 246 65, 66-67 and problem/antisocial behaviors of children, 102- 103, 106-107