JUVENILE CRIME

JUVENILE JUSTICE

Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control

Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, and Nancy A. Crowell, Editors

Committee on Law and Justice

and

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council and

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC



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JUVENILE CRIME JUVENILE CRIME JUVENILE JUSTICE Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, and Nancy A. Crowell, Editors Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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JUVENILE CRIME NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. 97-JN-FX-0020 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education, and grants from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Harry F. Guggenheim Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Juvenile crime, juvenile justice / Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, and Nancy A. Crowell, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-06842-8 (hardcover) 1. Juvenile delinquency—United States. 2. Juvenile justice, Administration of—United States. I. McCord, Joan. II. Widom, Cathy Spatz, 1945- . III. Crowell, Nancy A. HV9104 .J832 2001 364.36′0973—dc21 2001001248 Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2001) Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control. Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, and Nancy A. Crowell, eds. Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available on line at http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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JUVENILE CRIME THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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JUVENILE CRIME PANEL ON JUVENILE CRIME: PREVENTION, TREATMENT, AND CONTROL JOAN MCCORD (Cochair), Department Criminal Justice, Temple University CATHY SPATZ WIDOM (Cochair), School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany PATRICIA COHEN, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University ELIZABETH JANE COSTELLO, Duke University Medical Center EUGENE EMORY, Department of Psychology, Emory University TONY FABELO, Texas Criminal Justice Policy Council, Austin LAWRENCE GARY, School of Social Work, Howard University SANDRA GRAHAM, Department of Education, University of California, Los Angeles JOHN HAGAN, Department of Sociology, Northwestern University DARNELL HAWKINS, African American Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago KENNETH LAND, Department of Sociology, Duke University STEVEN SCHLOSSMAN, Department of History, Carnegie Mellon University MERCER SULLIVAN, School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University HON. VIOLA TALIAFERRO, Monroe Circuit Court VII, Bloomington, IN RICHARD TREMBLAY, Research Unit on Children's Psycho-Social Maladjustment, University of Montréal FRANKLIN ZIMRING, School of Law, University of California, Berkeley HON. CINDY LEDERMAN (liaison from the Board on Children, Youth, and Families), Juvenile Division, Eleventh Judicial Circuit Court, Dade County, FL DANIEL NAGIN (liaison from the Committee on Law and Justice), Carnegie Mellon University Nancy A. Crowell, Study Director Melissa Bamba, Research Associate Brenda McLaughlin, Research Assistant (after 8/12/2000) Glenda Tyson, Project Assistant (until 4/6/1999) Karen Autrey, Senior Project Assistant (after 4/6/1999)

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JUVENILE CRIME COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE 1999-2000 CHARLES WELLFORD (Chair), Center for Applied Policy Studies and Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland JOAN PETERSILIA (Vice Chair), School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine ALFRED BLUMSTEIN, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University RUTH M. DAVIS, The Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia JEFFREY FAGAN, Schools of Law and Public Health, Columbia University DARNELL HAWKINS, Department of African American Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago PHILIP HEYMANN, Center for Criminal Justice, Harvard Law School CANDACE KRUTTSCHNITT, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota MARK LIPSEY, Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University COLIN LOFTIN, School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany JOHN MONAHAN, School of Law, University of Virginia DANIEL S. NAGIN, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University PETER REUTER, Department of Criminology and Research, University of Maryland WESLEY SKOGAN, Department of Political Science and Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University KATE STITH, School of Law, Yale University MICHAEL TONRY, Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University CATHY SPATZ WIDOM, Departments of Criminal Justice and Psychology, University at Albany CAROL PETRIE, Director NANCY A. CROWELL, Staff Officer MELISSA BAMBA, Research Associate RALPH PATTERSON, Senior Project Assistant BRENDA M C LAUGHLIN, Research Assistant LECIA HENDERSON, Project Assistant

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JUVENILE CRIME BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES 2000 EVAN CHARNEY (Chair), Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts JAMES BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington SHEILA BURKE, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University DAVID CARD, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley DONALD COHEN, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Yale University MINDY FULLILOVE, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University KEVIN GRUMBACH, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Primary Care Research Center, University of California, San Francisco MAXINE HAYES, Department of Community and Family Health, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University RENEE JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University SHEILA KAMERMAN, School of Social Work, Columbia University HARRIET KITZMAN, School of Nursing, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College HON. CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Dade County, Florida SARA McLANAHAN, Office of Population Research, Princeton University VONNIE MCLOYD, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan GARY SANDEFUR, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison RUTH STEIN, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine PAUL WISE, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center RUTH T. GROSS (liaison from IOM Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention), Department of Pediatrics (emeritus), Stanford University

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JUVENILE CRIME ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (liaison from Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University WILLIAM ROPER (liaison from IOM Council), Institute of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Michele D. Kipke, Director Mary Graham, Associate Director of Dissemination and Communications Mary Strigari, Administrative Associate

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JUVENILE CRIME Preface When this project was in its planning stages, the violent juvenile crime rate was rising and some criminologists were predicting a coming wave of violent juvenile “superpredators.” Policy makers at the state and federal levels responded by imposing tougher sanctions on juveniles and facilitating the move of younger juveniles into the adult system for a broad range of offenses. Over the course of this panel study, rates of juvenile violence have dropped considerably, but policies continue to increase the number of young people who become involved in the juvenile justice and adult criminal justice systems, at the same time that prevention programs are being cut back. The Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment and Control was established by the National Research Council under the aegis of the Committee on Law and Justice, in the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The task this panel undertook was a large one— analyzing data on trends in juvenile crime and juvenile justice system processing; reviewing both the literature on individual, familial, social, and community factors that contribute to juvenile crime and that on prevention and treatment programs; and examining information that could shed light on the effects of mandates of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. When we began the study, we were aware that other reports on juvenile crime had recently appeared and that others would appear during the course of our work. By assembling a panel with diverse backgrounds and perspectives, our goal was to take a fresh look

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JUVENILE CRIME at the research on juvenile crime in order to point the way toward more effective policies based on empirical evidence and to highlight areas in need of more research. Our ultimate goal is to assist youth in leading constructive lives and to protect the public from juvenile crime. The panel met six times over the course of the study, with active deliberations both during and between meetings. The panel also heard from many experts, visited juvenile detention and correctional facilities, analyzed available data, reviewed numerous articles and books, and commissioned several papers as part of its work. The researchers and agency personnel who provided input into the process are listed by name and affiliation in the Acknowledgments. Joan McCord, Cochair Cathy Spatz Widom, Cochair Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment and Control

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JUVENILE CRIME Acknowledgments The panel gratefully acknowledges the sponsorship of this study by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice, the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program of the U.S. Department of Education, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation. Much assistance in shaping this project was provided by staff at these organizations, in particular: Charlotte Kerr, Betty Chemers, and Shay Bilchik, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice; Ann Weinheimer, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, U.S. Department of Education; Laurie Garduque, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation; and Karen Colvard, Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation. The panel drew on the expertise of many people during the course of its information gathering. The panel extends its thanks to Elmar G.M. Weitekamp, Hans-Juergen Kerner, and Gernot Trueg of the Institute of Criminology, University of Tuebingen, Germany, for a background paper on international comparisons of juvenile justice systems; Robert Worden and Stephanie Myers of the Department of Criminal Justice, University at Albany, for providing the panel with a background paper on police encounters with juveniles; and Patricia L. McCall of North Carolina State University, for assisting panel member Kenneth Land with the paper on crime forecasting that appears in Appendix B of this report; Gary Gates of Carnegie Mellon University, who assisted panel member Steven Schlossman in analyzing historical data on juvenile delinquency and

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JUVENILE CRIME involvement in the adult criminal and juvenile justice systems; and Amie Schuck and Jorge Chavez of The University at Albany for assisting panel cochair Cathy Spatz Widom with an analysis of data on racial disproportionality in the juvenile justice system. Special thanks are also extended to Howard Snyder, of the National Center for Juvenile Justice, for sharing some of his analyses of juvenile arrest data; Rolf Loeber, of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, for providing the committee with materials presented to the OJJDP Study Group on Very Young Offenders and for sharing the literature review from his grant application to NIMH on the development of conduct disorders in girls; and to Linda Teplin, Northwestern University, for sharing the literature review from her grant application to the National Institute on Mental Health on mental health problems among incarcerated female juveniles. The panel would also like to acknowledge the following people for giving presentations at panel workshops and meetings: David Altschuler, Institute for Policy Studies, The Johns Hopkins University Mark Berends, RAND Corporation, Washington, DC Donna Bishop, Department of Criminal Justice and Legal Studies, University of Central Florida Hon. Jay Blitzman, Juvenile Court Department, Watertown, Massachusetts George Bridges, Offfice of Undergraduate Education, University of Washington Ted Chiricos, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University Philip Cook, Terry Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University John Devine, School of Education, New York University Mary Didier, United States Sentencing Commission, Washington, DC Thomas Dishion, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon Carol Dweck, Department of Psychology, Columbia University Delbert Elliott, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado Boulder Doris Entwisle, Department of Sociology, The Johns Hopkins University Jeffrey Fagan, Schools of Law and Public Health, Columbia University Barry Feld, School of Law, University of Minnesota Lawrence Greenfeld, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC David Harris, College of Law, University of Toledo Philip Harris, Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University

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JUVENILE CRIME Kimberly Kempf-Leonard, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri, St. Louis David Kennedy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Mark Lepper, Department of Psychology, Stanford University Mark Lipsey, Institute for Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University Rolf Loeber, Western Psychiatric Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Holly MacKay, United States Sentencing Commission, Washington, DC Ellen Markman, Department of Psychology, Stanford University Ken Maton, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland Baltimore County Steven Messner, Department of Sociology, The University at Albany Gale Morrison, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Riverside Stephanie Myers, School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany William Oliver, Department of Criminal Justice, Indiana University Daphna Oyserman, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan Howard Pinderhughes, Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco Gregory Pettit, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University Ira Schwartz, School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania Laurie Schwede, Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC Margaret Beale Spencer, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania Howard Snyder, National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA Laurence Steinberg, Department of Psychology, Temple University Cynthia Stifter, Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University Kenneth Trump, National School Safety and Security Services, Cleveland, Ohio Lee Underwood, The Pines Residential Treatment Center, Portsmouth, Virginia Robert Worden, School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany The panel is grateful to the following individuals who hosted site visits and shared their firsthand experience with juvenile justice system programs with panel members and staff:

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JUVENILE CRIME Nancy Arrigona, Criminal Justice Policy Council, Austin, Texas Judy Briscoe, Texas Youth Commission Thomas Chapmond, Community Initiatives for Program Development, Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services Stan DeGerolami, Giddings State School, Giddings, Texas Hon. John K. Dietz, Travis County Juvenile Board, Austin, Texas Mike Griffiths, Dallas County Juvenile Probation Department, Dallas, Texas Dawn Heikkila, Criminal Justice Policy Council, Austin, Texas Laura King, Southeast Austin Community Youth Development program Vance McMahan, Governor's Policy Office, Austin, Texas Estela Medina, Travis County Juvenile Probation Department, Austin, Texas David Montague, Tarrant County Chief Juvenile District Attorney, Fort Worth, Texas Ron Quiros, Travis County Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program, Austin, Texas David Riley, Bexar County Juvenile Probation Department, San Antonio, Texas Linda Smith, Giddings State School, Giddings, Texas Vicky Spriggs, Texas Juvenile Probation Commission Johnny Sutton, Governor's Policy Office, Austin, Texas Don Willett, Governor's Policy Office, Austin, Texas Thanks and acknowledgment are due to the members of the study panel, all of whom gave generously of their time. Tony Fabelo graciously arranged a site visit to various juvenile detention and correctional facilities in Texas, as well as setting up meetings with a number of juvenile justice system officials. Patricia Cohen arranged a site visit to a correctional facility in New York state. Several members took primary responsibility for drafting sections of the report. We wish to thank Jane Costello for her contributions to the compound risk analysis in Chapter 6; Sandra Graham for her contributions to the section on school-related factors in Chapter 3 and school-based prevention programs in Chapter 4; Darnell Hawkins for his assistance with Chapter 6; Steven Schlossman for his analyses of historical data that appear throughout the report; Mercer Sullivan for his contributions to the section on community factors in Chapter 3; Richard Tremblay for his contributions to individual developmental factors in Chapter 3 and prevention programs in Chapter 4. Finally, we would like to thank the National Research Council staff for valuable assistance with this project: project assistant Glenda Tyson and senior project assistant Karen Autrey, for facilitating the panel's meetings; project assis-

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JUVENILE CRIME tant Lecia Henderson, for preparing the manuscript for publication; research assistant Brenda McLaughlin, for assisting in gathering materials for response to review; research associate Melissa Bamba, for helping to organize workshops and pulling together research materials for the panel; study director Nancy Crowell for analyzing crime data and turning the panel's writing contributions into a coherent whole; and CBASSE editor Christine McShane, whose editing of this report made it much more readable. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Donald Cohen, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Yale University; David Farrington, Institute of Criminology, Cambridge, England; Barry C. Feld, Law School, University of Minnesota; Peter W. Greenwood, RAND, Santa Monica, California; Richard Jessor, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado; Mark Lipsey, Institute of Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University; Rebecca Maynard, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania; N. Dickon Reppucci, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia; and Richard Rosenfeld, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri-St. Louis. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mark H. Moore, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and Henry W. Riecken, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (emeritus). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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JUVENILE CRIME Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   13      Child and Adolescent Development: Not Just Little Adults,   15      International Perspective,   17      Charge to the Panel,   21      Definitions Used in This Report,   23      Plan of the Report,   23  2   PATTERNS AND TRENDS IN JUVENILE CRIME AND JUVENILE JUSTICE   25      Sources of Data,   26      Crime Trends,   32      Girls and Delinquency,   57      Forecasting Trends in Juvenile Crime,   60      Conclusions,   62      Recommendations,   63  3   THE DEVELOPMENT OF DELINQUENCY   66      Individual-Level Risk Factors,   67      Social Factors,   74      Community Factors,   83      The Development of Delinquency in Girls,   100

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JUVENILE CRIME      Conclusions,   103      Recommendations,   104  4   PREVENTING JUVENILE CRIME   107      Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency Through Family Interventions,   108      School-Based Preventive Interventions,   121      Peer-Group Based Interventions,   135      Community-Based Interventions,   138      Conclusions,   151      Recommendations,   152  5   THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM   154      History of the Juvenile Justice System,   157      The Juvenile Justice System in the 1990s,   162      Justice System Involvement and Employment,   200      Girls in the Juvenile Justice System,   203      Recent Legislative Changes Affecting the Juvenile Court,   204      Impact of Legislative Changes,   214      Conclusions,   222      Recommendations,   224  6   RACE, CRIME, AND JUVENILE JUSTICE: THE ISSUE OF RACIAL DISPARITY   228      Introduction,   228      Racial Disparity in the Juvenile Justice System,   231      Bias in the Juvenile Justice System,   242      Compound Risk,   254      Conclusions and Recommendations,   258     REFERENCES   261     APPENDIXES    A   Definition of Offenses Used in Uniform Crime Reporting,   315  B   The Indeterminancy of Forecasts of Crime Rates and Juvenile Offenses Kenneth C. Land and Patricia L. McCall,   319  C   Workshop Agendas,   349  D   Biographical Sketches,   355     INDEX   363

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JUVENILE CRIME JUVENILE CRIME JUVENILE JUSTICE

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JUVENILE CRIME