ATTACHMENT 3
INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH

Panel on International Benchmarking of US Immunology Research

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy



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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields ATTACHMENT 3 INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF US IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH Panel on International Benchmarking of US Immunology Research Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields This report is dedicated to Marian (Bunny) Koshland a pioneer in the field of molecular immunology and a friend to young immunologists

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields International Benchmarking of US Immunology Research Panel Members IRVING L. WEISSMAN (Chair), Professor of Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California JAMES ALLISON, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator and Professor, Cancer Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley FREDERICK W. ALT, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator and Professor, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts HAROLD VON BOEHMER, Professor, Faculte de Medicine Necker – Enfants Malades, Institut Necker, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherché Medicale, Paris, France MAX D. COOPER, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator and Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics, Pathology, and Microbiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham IRWIN FELLER, Director, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation and Professor of Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park LAURIE H. GLIMCHER, Irene Heinz Given Professor of Immunology, Harvard School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Cambridge, Massachusetts DAVID V. GOEDDEL, President and Chief Executive Officer, Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, California HUGH MCDEVITT, Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California DIANE MATHIS, Director de Recherches, Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherché Medicale, Strasbourg, France GUSTAV NOSSAL, Professor Emeritus, Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Australia ROGER M. PERLMUTTER, Senior Vice President, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey CRAIG B. THOMPSON, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator and Professor, University of Chicago, Illinois DON C. WILEY, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator and Professor, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Project Staff DEBORAH D. STINE, Study Director TAMARA ZEMLO, Research Associate NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields Immunology Benchmarking Guidance Group PHILIP W. MAJERUS (Chair), Professor of Medicine, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biophysics and Director, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO MARIAN KOSHLAND (Chair*), Professor of Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley ENRIQUETA C. BOND, President, The Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Durham, NC RUBY B. HEARN, Senior Vice President, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ RICHARD B. JOHNSTON, JR., Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO DONALD R. MATTISON, Medical Director, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, White Plains, NY JUNE OSBORN, President, Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, New York, NY *    Served from October 1996 to October 1997

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields PREFACE In 1993, the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine issued the report Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era. In that report, COSEPUP suggested that the United States adopt the principle of being among the world leaders in all major fields of science so that it can quickly apply and extend advances in science whenever and wherever they occur. The report also recommended that the United States maintain clear leadership in fields that are tied to national objectives, that capture the imagination of society, or that have multiplicative effects on other scientific advances. Those recommendations were reiterated in another Academy report, Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, developed by a committee chaired by Frank Press. Both reports stated that quantitative measures, such as number of dollars spent and number of scientists supported, are inadequate indicators of leadership and that policy decisions about programmatic issues or resource allocation would be better informed by comparative international assessments. To measure international leadership, the reports recommended the establishment of independent panels that would conduct comparative international assessments of scientific accomplishments in particular research fields. COSEPUP indicated that the panels should consist of researchers who work in the specific fields under review (both in the United States and abroad), people who work in closely related fields, and of the research users results who follow the fields closely.

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields To test the feasibility of the recommendation that panels conduct comparative assessments, COSEPUP has conducted experimental evaluations of three fields: mathematics, materials science and engineering, and immunology. The study panels for the assessments were charged with developing and presenting their findings and conclusions, not recommendations. Specifically, panel members were asked to address the following three questions: What is the position of US research in the field relative to the research performed in other regions or countries? What key factors influence the US performance in the field? On the basis of current trends in the United States and abroad, what will be the future relative position of the United States in the field in the near term and the longer term? This document presents results of the third and final assessment, that of research in immunology. The panel concluded that the United States is the world leader in immunology, and in its major subfields. In addition, while US dominance is evident in the major sub-fields: cellular immunology, molecular immunology, immunogenetics, and clinical aspects of immunology, and among the world leaders in some parts of subfields, the panel found that US leadership in immunology depends on being able to generate and pursue innovative research ideas. Sufficient funding from both government and private sources, talented researchers, and key infrastructure support mechanisms are instrumental in maintaining US leadership. However, diverse federal and industry priorities, a potential reduction in access to domestic and foreign talent, and the increasing cost of maintaining mice facilities could curtail US ability to capitalize on leadership opportunities in immunology. Now that all three of the assessments are completed, COSEPUP will begin to discuss the feasibility and utility of the benchmarking process and will make whatever recommendations it deems appropriate. The committee appreciates all the hard work and dedication of the panel members and thanks them for their help and cooperation in completing this report. This report has been reviewed by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to obtain candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and COSEPUP in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets the institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remains confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this report:

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields Jeffrey Bluestone, Director, Ben May Institute for Cancer Research Suzan Cozzens, Chair, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology Frank Fitch, Albert D. Lasker Professor Emeritus, Ben May Institute for Cancer Research Maureen Henderson, Professor Emeritus of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Washington Richard Locksley, Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco Tak Mak, Ontario Cancer Institute, Department of Immunology and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto Carl Nathan, Beatrice and Samuel A. Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College Joseph Newhouse, John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy and Management, Harvard University Philippa Marrack, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Jewish Medical and Research Center Edward Penhoet, Vice Chairman and CEO, Chiron Corporation Klaus Rajewsky, Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne Martin Weigert, Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University Arthur Weiss, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California Although those just listed have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the author panel and COSEPUP. Finally, the project was aided by the invaluable help of COSEPUP professional staff: Deborah D. Stine, study director, and Tamara Zemlo, research associate. Phillip A. Griffiths Chair Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   261     1 INTRODUCTION   263     1.1 How Important Is It for the United States to Lead in Immunology Research?   263     1.2 What Is Immunology?   264     1.3 Immunology as an Academic Discipline   265     1.4 What Is the International Nature of Immunology?   266     1.5 What Are Some Caveats?   266     1.6 Panel Charge and Rationale   266     2 BENCHMARKING RESULTS   268     2.1 Methods   268     2.1.1 Reputation Survey   269     2.1.2 Citation Analysis   271     2.1.3 Journal Publication Analysis   272     2.2 Results   272     2.2.1 Reputation Survey   272     2.2.2 Citation Analysis   273     2.2.3 Journal Publication Analysis   276     2.3 Summary   278     3 KEY FACTORS   279     3.1 Funding   279     3.2 Human Resources   282     3.3 Infrastructure   283

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields     3.4 Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Firms   283     3.5 The Clinical Trial   284     4 LIKELY FUTURE POSITION   288     4.1 Funding and Resource Limitations   288     4.2 Increased Competition from Europe and Other Countries   290     4.3 Clinical Immunology and the Shift Toward HMOs   290     4.4 Training of US Students   290     5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS   295     5.1 The United States Is the World Leader in All the Major Subfields of Immunology But Is Only Among the World Leaders in Some Specific Sub-Subfields,   295     5.2 Flexibility to Pursue Original and Innovative Research Ideas Has Attracted Both Domestic and International Human Capital. Federal, State, and Private Funding Have all Contributed to a Climate Ripe for This Innovative Research,   296     5.3 Industrial Interests Have Fostered Many Striking Breakthroughs in Immunology,   296     5.4 A Scarcity of Large-Scale Clinical Trials in Immunology Can Be Attributed to Shortages of Funding and of Qualified Personnel. In Addition, Increasing Dominance of Managed Care Means That Fewer Patients Are Available to Academic Institutions for Clinical Trials,   297     5.5 Shifting Federal and Industry Priorities, a Potential Reduction in Access to Domestic and Foreign Talent, and the Increasing Cost of Maintaining Mouse Facilities Could Curtail US Ability To Capitalize on Leadership Opportunities,   297     6 REFERENCES   299     APPENDIX: PANEL AND STAFF BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION   300 Tables and Graphs Figure 2.1:   Contribution of United States and Other Nations to Immunology Papers in 1981-1996   269 Figure 2.2:   Percentage of World's Papers in Immunology from 1981-1996, by Country   270

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields Figure 2.3:   Contribution of United States and Other Nations to Immunology Citations in 1981-1997   271 Figure 2.4:   Percentage of World's Citations in Immunology in 1981-1997, by Country   275 Figure 3.1:   U.S. Net Trade Balance: Biotechnology, 1990-1996   287 Figure 4.1:   Number of PhD Students in Immunology in the United States, 1977-1996   291 Figure 4.2:   Percentage of US Citizen and Permanent-Resident PhD Students in Immunology Supported by National Institutes of Health, 1977-1996   291 Table 2.1:   Immunology International Reputation Survey Results   274 Table 2.2:   Relative Citation Impact of High-Impact Papers in Immunology, by Country, 1981-1997   276 Table 2.3:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Blood, 1995-1997   277 Table 2.4:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Cell, 1995-1997   277 Table 2.5:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Immunity, 1995-1997   277 Table 2.6:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Nature, 1995-1997   277 Table 2.7:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Science, 1995-1997   278 Table 2.8:   Authorship of Immunology Papers in Journal of Experimental Medicine, February 1996–July 1996   278 Table 3.1:   Analysis of Nobel Prizes Presented for Immunology Research   282 Table 3.2:   Biotechnology Industry Comparable Metrics (Ecu in Millions)   285 Table 3.3:   Entrepreneurial Life Sciences Highlights (Ecu in Millions)   286 Table 4.1:   NIH Trainee and Fellowship Support in Immunology   292 Table 4.2:   Employment Status of Doctorates in Immunology   293

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields an estimation of the present standing of the United States in immunology. Because the exploration of immunology is an international endeavor, the high degree of cooperation and collaboration among US and non-US scientists should be highlighted. Current US leadership has been documented by a number of quantitative and semiquantitative measures, but these measures do not show the breakthrough discoveries that are recognized by such awards as the Nobel Prize (half the immunology awardees were non-citizens). Nor do they reveal that a very significant fraction of the leading US scientists received some of or all their training in non-US institutions, mainly as nationals in other countries; several of these were Nobel laureates for research done outside of the United States. 5.2 Flexibility to Pursue Original and Innovative Research Ideas Has Attracted Both Domestic and International Human Capital. Federal, State, and Private Funding have all Contributed to a Climate Ripe for this Innovative Research. The United States has been able to attract talented foreign students to be both graduate and postgraduate investigators in immunology laboratories to a greater degree than other countries have been able to attract US students. That is in part due to the research opportunities available within the United States for these students as they seek to advance their careers. In the United States, more than in other countries, high-school and college students have the opportunity to gain research and analytical experience by working in laboratories and attending specialized science programs. The NIH has been the major federal funding agency for immunology research. The strength of this system is that it is largely an investigator-initiated, peer-reviewed, and merit-based system of awarding grants. Critically, it is the individual investigator—rather than the department chair or other research colleagues, as it often is in many European countries—that has the authority and autonomy to pursue a specific research interest. Unlike many foreign countries, the United States supports research institutions and medical schools through state governments and private foundations, and this allows the freedom and flexibility to develop innovative research programs. 5.3 Industrial Interests Have Fostered Many Striking Breakthroughs in Immunology. Substantial funding of the biotechnology industry by venture capitalists and other investors has resulted in the successful generation of many products to sell in the international market. Venture-capital financing of the biotechnology industry increased by 11.7% from $697 million in 1996 to $790 million in 1997. (BIO, 1997; BIO, 1998) In addition to creating an economic benefit to the United States, the

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields success of the US biotech industry has resulted in the creation of new jobs for immunology graduates. And, the collaboration between academic and industrial researchers has allowed scientific discoveries to be rapidly developed and commercialized, in contrast with what has been observed in many other countries. 5.4 A Scarcity of Large-Scale Clinical Trials in Immunology Can Be Attributed to Shortages of Funding and of Qualified Personnel. In Addition, Increasing Dominance of Managed Care Means That Fewer Patients Are Available to Academic Institutions for Clinical Trials. The expense of a large-scale clinical trial often proves prohibitive, especially when there is fierce competition among institutions and between research interests for limited funding dollars. European countries, because of their centralized government control of medical schools and research institutions have been able to support large-scale clinical trials more successfully than the United States. Anecdotal evidence indicates a decrease in trained clinical immunologists to serve as principal investigators for such trials in the United States. Lack of funding and training opportunities has contributed to the growing scarcity. Furthermore, the advent of the managed care has decreased the patient base for this type of clinical research. 5.5 Shifting Federal and Industry Priorities, a Potential Reduction in Access to Domestic and Foreign Talent, and the Increasing Cost of Maintaining Mouse Facilities Could Curtail US Ability to Capitalize on Leadership Opportunities. Continued US leadership in the various subfields of immunology is not guaranteed. It depends on trends and sudden changes in the United States and abroad in funding, human resources, and infrastructure support. NIH has received increases in its annual budget from Congress, and the increases have resulted in the funding of more investigator-initiated grants in many fields of research, including immunology. The trend of creating multidisciplinary graduate programs at large universities has resulted in competition for immunology graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. In addition, there is a substantial decrease in medical doctors seeking to specialize in immunology, in part probably, because of the cost of such an education and the low salary offered during the training period. Other countries, particularly those in Europe, seem to be moving away from the restrictive funding and tight employment environments that have been characteristic of their scientific research institutions. That raises the possibility that foreign students will elect to seek training and jobs in their own respective countries. The loss of talented students in immunology, both domestic

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields and international, would have profound implications for the ability of the United States to maintain its leadership role. One subject of particular concern to the panel was the lack of adequate funding and specific cost-based accounting for maintaining mouse facilities at most research institutions. Because much immunology research involves the use of mice, this resource is critical to the development of the field.

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields REFERENCES Bio, 1998. The 1998-99 Bio Editors and Reporters Guide to Biotechnology. http://www.bio.org Bio, 1997. The 1997-98. Bio Editors and Reporters Guide to Biotechnology. http://www.bio.org Ernst & Young. European Life Sciences 98 : Continental Shift, London, United Kingdom: Ernst & Young. April 1998b. Ernst & Young. Biotech 1999: Bridging the Gap. Palo Alto, California: Ernst & Young. December 1998a, http://www.ey.com. May, Ernest, Anthony Mazzashi, Rebecca J. Levin, David Blake, and Paul Griner. 1997. Relationship Between National Institutes of Health Research Awards to US Medical Schools and Managed Care Presentation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278: 3. NSF (National Science Foundation). Science and Engineering Indicators . NSB 98-1. Washington D.C.: 1998. Stanford Medical School, 1998. Conversation Between Irving Weissman and Michael Hindery, Associate Dean, Stanford Medical School regarding Cost of Animal Care Facilities. Weissman, Joel S., David Blumenthal, and Eric Campbell. 1997. Relationship Between Market Competition and the Activities and Attitudes of Medical School Faculty. Journal of the American Medical Association. 278:3.

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields APPENDIX PANEL AND STAFF BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Panel Irving L. Weissman (Chair) received his MD from Stanford University in 1965. He pursued training in experimental pathology at Oxford University and continued his postgraduate fellowship at Stanford University. Dr. Weissman is the Karel and Avice Beekhuis Professor of Cancer Biology, professor of pathology, professor of developmental biology, and, by courtesy professor of biological sciences at Stanford University. He has received the Outstanding Investigator Award from the National Institutes of Health, the Pasarow Award for Outstanding Contribution to Cancer Biology and the Harvey Lecture, and the Montana Conservationist of the Year Award. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the California Academy of Medicine, and the Israel Immunological Society. He has served as president of the American Association of Immunologists. He was the cofounder of the biotechnology companies Systemix, Inc., and Stem Cells, Inc. James Allison received his PhD from the University of Texas, Austin in 1973. He did postdoctoral work at the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation in La Jolla. Dr. Allison is professor of immunology, director of the Cancer Research Laboratory, and a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator at the University of California, Berkeley. Selected awards and honors include a merit award from the National Institutes of Health and, election into the National Academy of Sciences and the American

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields Academy of Microbiology. He serves as a councilor to the American Association of Immunologists and is a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors for the National Cancer Institute. Frederick W. Alt received his PhD in biological sciences at Stanford University, where he worked with Robert Schimke and discovered the phenomenon of gene amplification in the context of cellular resistance to anticancer drugs. In 1982, he joined the faculty of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in New York, where he became professor of biochemistry and molecular biophysics and, professor of microbiology. In 1987, he became a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator at Columbia University. In 1991, Dr. Alt became senior investigator at the Center for Blood Research in Boston, in addition to serving as a Howard Hughes Investigator at Boston's Children's Hospital. He is professor of genetics and pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, chair of the NIH allergy and immunology study section and of the Irvington Institute Scientific Advisory Board. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Microbiology, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his many honors are the Irma T. Hirschl Career Scientist Award, the Searle Scholars Award, the Mallinckrodt Scholar Award, and an NIH Merit Award. Harald von Boehmer studied medicine at the Universities of Gottingen, Frieburg and Munich and prepared his medical thesis at the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry. He is an adjunct professor in the Department of Pathology, University of Florida, Gainsville, and professor of immunology, University of Basel, and, Faculte de Medecine Necker Enfants Malades, Descartes University, Paris. He is the director of 373 of the National Unite Institute of Science and Medical Research, France. He is a member of the Institut Universitaire de France, Academia Europaea, the European Molecular Biology Organization, the New York Academy of Sciences, Gesellschaft fur Immunologie, the American Association of Immunologists, and the Scandinavian Society for Immunology. Dr. von Boehmer has been awarded the Louis Jeantet Prize for Medicine, the Avery-Landsteiner Prize for Immunology, the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedt Prize, and the Korber Prize for European Science. He chairs the Executive Committee of the European Journal of Immunology. Max D. Cooper received his MD (1957) and training in Pediatrics (1958-1960) at Tulane Medical School. He was a house officer and research assistant at the Hospital for Sick Children, London(1960-1961), and a pediatric-allergy fellow at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center (1961-1962). His postdoctoral research in the

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields laboratory of Robert Good (1963-1967), led to the definition of separate T-and B-cell lineages. Dr. Cooper is professor of medicine, pediatrics, pathology, and microbiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham; senior scientist at the University of Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Center; professor of medicine and director of the Division of Developmental and Clinical Immunology at the University of Alabama; and a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and in 1990 was elected to the Institute of Medicine. He was inducted as a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Cooper served as president of the American Association of Immunologists and of the Clinical Immunology Society. Among his awards are the 3M Life Sciences Award, the Sandoz Prize for Immunology, and the American College of Physicians Award. Irwin Feller is the director of the Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation and professor of economics at the Pennsylvania State University, where he has been on the faculty since 1963. Dr. Feller was an American Society for Mechanical Engineering Pennsylvania State Fellow for 1996-1997. Dr. Feller's research interests include the economics of academic research, the university's role in technology-based economic development, and the evaluation of federal and state technology programs. He was chair of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Laurie H. Glimcher received her MD at Harvard Medical School in 1976. She was an intern and resident at Massachusetts General Hospital and a postdoctoral fellow under the direction of William Paul at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Glimcher is a physician in the Division of Rheumatology and Immunology at Brigham and Women's Hospital, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and Irene Heinz Given Professor of Immunology at the Harvard School of Public Health. She received a Merit Award from NIH, was elected into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and received the Lee S. Howley Award from the Arthritis Foundation. She serves on the corporate board of directors for Bristol-Myers Squibb. She is a councilor of the American Association of Immunologists. David V. Goeddel received his PhD in biochemistry in 1977 from the University of Colorado in Boulder. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Stanford Research Institute. Dr. Goeddel is the president and chief executive officer of Tularik, Inc. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Microbiology. Dr. Goeddel serves on the editorial review boards of Immunity and Nature Biotechnology. His

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields research interests include cytokine signaling mechanisms and small-molecule therapeutics that act through regulation of gene expression. Hugh McDevitt received his MD from Harvard Medical School in 1955. He was an intern in medicine at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, a resident in medicine at Bellevue Hospital, and a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at Harvard Medical School. Dr. McDevitt is professor of medicine and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine. He has received the 3M Life Sciences Award, the Paul Erlich Prize, and Outstanding Investigator Award from NCI and NIH, the Barbara Davis Diabetes Award, and the Paul Klemperer Award from the New York Academy of Sciences. He became a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1977, of the Institute of Medicine in 1983, and of the Royal Society of London in 1994. Diane Mathis received a doctorate in biology from the University of Rochester, New York in 1977. She is the director of research, INSERM, LGME, and Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC) in Strasbourg, France. She serves on the editorial boards of the European Journal of Immunology, Immunology Today, Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de Paris, Science, Cell, Current Biology, Journal of Experimental Medicine, and Immunity. Gustav Nossal studied medicine at the University of Sydney and after 2 years of residency at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital moved to Melbourne to work as a research fellow at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, where he received a PhD. Apart from 2 years as an assistant professor of genetics at Stanford University, 1 year at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and 1 year as a special consultant to the World Health Organization, Sir Nossal's research career has been at the Hall Institute. He was the director of the institute from 1965 until he retired in 1996. Sir Nossal was also professor of Medical Biology at the University of Melbourne. Sir Nossal's eminence in immunology has been recognized by his election as president of the 25,000-member International Union of Immunological Societies. Included among his international honors is his election to the US National Academy of Sciences and his membership in the Academie des Sciences (France). He has also served as president of the Australian Academy of Science and chair of the global programme for vaccines and immunization of the World Health Organization. Sir Nossal was knighted in 1977 and made a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1989. Roger M. Perlmutter received his MD and PhD from Washington University (St. Louis) in 1979. Thereafter, he pursued clinical training

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields in internal medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the University of California, San Francisco. He was a lecturer in the Division of Biology at the California Institute of Technology, where he studied the genetic basis of antibody repertoire diversification. He joined the departments of medicine and biochemistry and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of Washington (Seattle), where he became professor and founding chair of the Department of Immunology. In 1997, he left the University of Washington to assume responsibility for drug-discovery efforts at the Merck Research Laboratories in Rahway, NJ. Dr. Perlmutter has served on numerous scientific advisory and review panels and is a councilor of the American Association of Immunologists and a member of the Board of Directors of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Craig B. Thompson received his MD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1977. His internship and residency were at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital. Dr. Thompson is a professor in the Department of Medicine and Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology at the University of Chicago and a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator. He has received the Jerome W. Conn Award for Distinguished Research by a Junior Faculty Member. He serves on the editorial boards of Cell, Immunity, and International Immunology. Don C. Wiley was an NSF graduate fellow in biophysics at Harvard University and received his PhD in biophysics in 1971. Dr. Wiley is a professor of biochemistry and biophysics at Harvard University, a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator, a research associate in medicine at the Boston Children's Hospital, and an affiliate of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University. He has been elected to numerous honorary societies, including the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the National Academy of Sciences. Among his awards are the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, the William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Fundamental Immunology, the V.D. Mattia Award, the Passano Foundation Award, the Emil von Behring Prize, the Gairdner Foundation International Award, the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, and the Rose Payne Distinguished Scientist Award. Staff Deborah D. Stine is the study director and associate director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP). She has worked on various projects throughout the National Academy of Sciences complex since 1989. She received a National Research Council group award for her first study for COSEPUP on policy implications of

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields greenhouse warming and a Commission on Life Sciences staff citation for her work in risk assessment and management. Other studies have addressed graduate education, responsible conduct of research, careers in science and engineering, environmental remediation, the national biological survey, and corporate environmental stewardship. Dr. Stine received a PhD in public administration, specializing in policy analysis, from the American University. Before coming to the Academy, she was a mathematician for the US Air Force, an air-pollution engineer for the state of Texas, and an air-issues manager for the Chemical Manufacturers Association. Tamara Zemlo is a Cancer Prevention Fellow at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), where she is researching the risk factors for the progression of low-grade cervical disease to cervical cancer. She is also participating in analyzing data from the ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study, which is an NCI-sponsored clinical trial designed to determine the optimal management plan for low-grade cervical cytologic abnormalities. She received a PhD in oncology from the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where she studied the transforming properties of papillomavirus replication proteins in tissue culture, and a Master's of Public Health from Harvard University. As part of her postdoctoral training, she has an internship at COSEPUP.

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