APPENDIX A
COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PUBLIC POLICY: MEMBER AND STAFF BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Committee

Maxine F. Singer (Chair), president of the Carnegie Institute of Washington (Washington, DC), is an eminent biochemist whose wide-ranging research on RNA and DNA has greatly advanced scientific understanding of viral and human genes. Dr. Singer received her bachelor's degree from Swarthmore College (1952) and her PhD from Yale University (1957). She worked at the National Institutes of Health as a research biochemist in the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases until 1975, studying the synthesis and structure of RNA. In 1975, she moved to the National Cancer Institute. Her interest in primate DNA led to the discovery of a transposable element in the human genome. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Singer has served on the editorial boards of several scientific journals and on the Governing Boards of Yale and the Weizmann Institute. She received the Distinguished Presidential Rank Award, the highest honor given to a civil servant, and the National Medal of Science in 1991.

Bruce M. Alberts, president of the National Academy of Sciences, is a respected biochemist recognized for his work in biochemistry and molecular biology. He is noted particularly for his extensive study of the protein complexes that allow chromosomes to be replicated, as required for a living cell to divide. He is a past chair of the Commission on Life Sciences and has served on the faculty of Princeton University and as



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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields APPENDIX A COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PUBLIC POLICY: MEMBER AND STAFF BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Committee Maxine F. Singer (Chair), president of the Carnegie Institute of Washington (Washington, DC), is an eminent biochemist whose wide-ranging research on RNA and DNA has greatly advanced scientific understanding of viral and human genes. Dr. Singer received her bachelor's degree from Swarthmore College (1952) and her PhD from Yale University (1957). She worked at the National Institutes of Health as a research biochemist in the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases until 1975, studying the synthesis and structure of RNA. In 1975, she moved to the National Cancer Institute. Her interest in primate DNA led to the discovery of a transposable element in the human genome. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Singer has served on the editorial boards of several scientific journals and on the Governing Boards of Yale and the Weizmann Institute. She received the Distinguished Presidential Rank Award, the highest honor given to a civil servant, and the National Medal of Science in 1991. Bruce M. Alberts, president of the National Academy of Sciences, is a respected biochemist recognized for his work in biochemistry and molecular biology. He is noted particularly for his extensive study of the protein complexes that allow chromosomes to be replicated, as required for a living cell to divide. He is a past chair of the Commission on Life Sciences and has served on the faculty of Princeton University and as

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields vice chair and chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the University of California, San Francisco. Being committed to the improvement of science education, he has dedicated much of his time to education projects in San Francisco elementary schools. Enriqueta C. Bond, president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, received her undergraduate degree in zoology and physiology from Wellesley College, a master's degree in biology and genetics from the University of Virginia, and a PhD in molecular biology and biochemical genetics from Georgetown University. She is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Public Health Association. She serves on the Board of Health Sciences Policy of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the Board of the Society for the Advancement of Research on Women's Health, and the Board of the North Carolina Biotechnology Center. Dr. Bond was executive officer of IOM from 1989 to 1994. Lewis M. Branscomb is the Aetna Professor of Public Policy and Corporate Management emeritus and former director of the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program in the Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Branscomb graduated from Duke University in 1945, summa cum laude, and was awarded a PhD in physics by Harvard University in 1949. He has held teaching positions at the University of Maryland and the University of Colorado. He is a former president of the American Physical Society and of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. A research physicist at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) from 1951 to 1969, he was its director of NBS from 1969 to 1972. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Academy of Public Administration. He serves on the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee to the Technology Assessment Board of the Congress. Dr. Branscomb is a former director of the IBM Europe, Middle East, Africa Corporation and of General Foods Corporation. He is a director of Mobil, MITRE, and the Lord Corporation and C. S. Draper Laboratories. He has written extensively on science and technology policy, comparative science and technology policy of different nations, information technology, management of technology, and atomic and molecular physics. David R. Challoner is the director of the Institute for Science and Health Policy at the University of Florida. He served as vice president for health affairs and chairman of the Board of Directors of the Shands Health System at the University of Florida. He has held various profes-

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields sorships, including professor of internal medicine at the Indiana University School of Medicine, dean and professor of medicine at the St. Louis University School of Medicine, and professor of internal medicine at the University of Florida. His clinical specialty is internal medicine and endocrinology. Dr. Challoner is the foreign secretary of the Institute of Medicine. He was a member of the Institute's council, chair of its Membership Committee, and a member of COSEPUP. He also has served on the Advisory Committee to the Director of the National Institutes of Health, as president of the American Federation for Clinical Research, and as chair of the President's Committee on the National Medal of Science. He has received the Dr. William Beaumont Award of the American Medical Association. Ellis B. Cowling is University Distinguished Professor At-Large and director of the Southern Oxidants Study at North Carolina State University. He earned a BS and an MS in wood technology at the State University of New York College of Forestry at Syracuse University, a PhD in plant pathology and biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin, and Filosofie Licensiat and Filosofie Doktor degrees in physiologic botany at the University of Uppsala in Sweden. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973. His current research interests include changes in the chemical climate of industrial regions and their effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and the role of scientist and engineers in public-decision making. In 1995, he was appointed Visiting Eminent Scholar in the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Georgia Tech. Peter Diamond is an Institute Professor and Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he has taught since 1966. He received his BA in mathematics from Yale University in 1960 and his PhD in economics from MIT in 1963. He has been president and chair of the National Academy of Social Insurance(NASI), president of the Econometric Society, and vice-president of the American Economic Association. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He was the recipient of the 1980 Mahalanobis Memorial Award and the 1994 Nemmers Prize. He has written on public finance, social insurance, uncertainty and search theories, and macroeconomics. Gerald P. Dinneen was foreign secretary of the National Academy of Engineering from 1988 to 1995. He was previously vice president of science and technology at Honeywell Corporation and from 1977 to 1981 was the assistant secretary of defense and principal deputy under secretary of defense for research and engineering. He has had a long

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields affiliation with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) having joined the MIT Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, MA, in 1955. He advanced through many positions to become Director in 1970 to 1977 and professor of electrical engineering in 1971-1981. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1975 and serves on many advisory committees and boards in the National Research Council and in government. He has been elected to the Engineering Academy of Japan, the Swiss Academy of Technological Sciences, and the Royal Academy of Engineering of the UK. Mildred S. Dresselhaus is the Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she directed the Center for Materials Science and Engineering. She has been active in the study of a wide array of problems in the physics of solids and the structure and properties of carbon fibers, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. She was awarded the National Medal of Science in November 1990 and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1974 and to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1985. She has been a member of the Councils of both academies and of the Governing Board of the National Research Council, treasurer of NAS, and president of the American Physical Society and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. James J. Duderstadt is president emeritus and University Professor of Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. He received his BA from Yale University in 1964 and his doctorate in engineering science and physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1967. He joined the faculty of the University of Michigan in 1968 and has served as professor of nuclear engineering, dean of the College of Engineering, provost, vice president for academic affairs, and president from 1984 to 1996. He received the National Medal of Technology for exemplary service to the nation, the E.O. Lawrence Award for excellence in nuclear research, and the Arthur Holly Compton Prize for outstanding teaching. He has served as chair of the National Science Board, chair of the Board of Directors of the Big Ten Athletic Conference, and chair of the Executive Board of the University of Michigan's hospitals. He serves as a director of the Unisys Corporation and CMS Energy Corporation. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1987. Alexander H. Flax, was Home Secretary of the National Academy of Engineering from 1984-1992. He received his bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering from New York University in 1940 and a PhD in physics from the University of Buffalo in 1957. Previously, he was

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields president of the Institute for Defense Analyses, chief scientist of the Air Force, assistant secretary of the Air Force for research and development, director of the National Reconnaissance Office, and vice-president and technical director of the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. He was a US national delegate to the NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace R&D from 1969 to 1987. Marye Anne Fox, a chemist and member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), is North Carolina State University's 12th chancellor. Previously, she was M. June and J. Virgil Waggoner Regents Chair in Chemistry and vice president for research at the University of Texas at Austin. Her research interests include physical organic chemistry, organic photochemistry, organic electrochemistry, chemical reactivity in non-homogeneous systems, heterogeneous photocatalysis, and electronic transfer in anisotropic macromolecular arrays. She serves on the Council of NAS, its Executive Committee, and the Committee on Science and Education Policy. After Senate confirmation in 1990 of her nomination to the National Science Board, she served as its vice chairman (1994-1996) and chaired its Committee on Programs and Plans (1991-1994). She serves on the Texas Governor's Science and Technology Council, has chaired the Chemistry Section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and advises its Center for Science, Technology, and the Congress. She has served on advisory panels for the Army, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. She has served on 14 editorial boards, including a stint as associate editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society. She serves on boards of the Texas Environmental Defense Fund, the Texas Agribusiness Council, the Texas Food and Fiber Commission, W.R. Grace, and Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Ralph E. Gomory has been president of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation since 1989. After being a Higgins Lecturer and assistant professor at Princeton, he joined IBM in 1959, and became vice president in 1973, and was senior vice president for science and technology in 1985-1989. A member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, he has received the Lanchester Prize in 1963, the John von Neumann Theory Prize in 1984, the IEEE Engineering Leadership Recognition Award in 1988, the National Medal of Science in 1988, the Arthur M. Bueche Award of the National Academy of Engineering in 1993, and the Heinz Award for Technology, the Economy and Employment in 1998. He was named to the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology in 1990 and served to March 1993.

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields Ruby P. Hearn is senior vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which has awarded over $2 billion in grant funds since its inception as a national philanthropy in 1972. As a member of the executive management team, she participates in strategic program planning with the president and executive vice president and serves as a special adviser to the president and as the foundation's liaison in the nonprofit community. Dr. Hearn has had the major responsibility for oversight and program development of initiatives in maternal, infant, and child health, AIDS, substance abuse, and minority-group medical education. She received her MS and PhD in biophysics from Yale University and is a graduate of Skidmore College. She is a fellow of the Yale Corporation. She served on the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors for the 1995 Special Olympics World Summer Games in Connecticut. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and its' Council, COSEPUP, the Board of Directors of the Council on Foundations, the Science Board of the Food and Drug Administration, and the Advisory Committee to the Director of the National Institutes of Health. Brigid L. M. Hogan is an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Hortense B. Ingram Professor in the Department of Cell Biology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. She obtained her PhD from Cambridge University, England, and carried out postdoctoral training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Before moving to the United States, she was head of the Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, first at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund and then at the National Institute of Medical Research in London. Dr. Hogan is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization and was recently elected to the Institute of Medicine. Samuel Preston became dean of the University of Pennsylvania School of Arts and Sciences in January 1998 and has been a faculty member in sociology since 1979. He is a scholar of population studies with expertise in technical demography and the analysis of mortality and family structure. He has served twice as chair of the Department of Sociology, three times as chair of the Graduate Group in Demography, and as director of the Population Studies Center and Population Aging Research Center. Dr. Preston is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Philosophical Society. Earlier in his career, he served as a faculty member at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Washington. He was acting chief of the Population Trends and Structure Section of the UN Populations Division from 1977 to 1979. Dr. Preston holds a BA from Amherst College and a PhD in economics from Princeton.

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine and professor of medicine emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine. He is UCLA School of Medicine's immediate past dean and provost for medical services. He has also been director of the Coronary Care Unit, chief of the Cardiology Division, and chair of the Department of Medicine at the UCLA School of Medicine. He has served as chair of the Council of Deans of the Association of American Medical Colleges, and was president of the American Heart Association. His research interests include metabolic events in the heart muscle, the relation of behavior to heart disease, and emergency medicine. Morris Tanenbaum was the vice Chair of the Board and chief financial officer of AT&T from 1988 to 1991. He began his career at Bell Telephone Labs on the technical staff and held various positions at Western Electric Company, including vice president of the Engineering Division and vice president of manufacturing, before returning to Bell Labs in 1975 as executive vice president. In 1978, he became president of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. He returned to AT&T as executive vice president for Corporate Affairs and planning in 1980, and became the first Chair and CEO of AT&T Communications in 1984. He was vice president of the National Academy of Engineering until June 1998. Irving L. Weissman is Karel and Avice Beekhuis Professor of Cancer Biology, professor of pathology and professor of developmental biology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Weissman was a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Amgen (1981-1989), DNAX (1981-1992), T-Cell Sciences (1988-1992). He was a co-founder of SyStemix and was chairman of its Scientific Advisory Board and a member of its Board of Directors in 1988-1997. His main research interests are hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocyte differentiation, lymphocyte homing receptors, and phylogeny of the immune system. Sheila E. Widnall served as secretary of the Air Force from 1993 to 1997. Dr. Widnall received her BSc (1960), MS (1961), and ScD (1964) in aeronautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). She was appointed Abbey Rockefeller Mauze Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT in 1986 and served as associate provost of MIT from 1992-1993. William Julius Wilson is the Lewis P. and Linda L. Geyer University Professor at Harvard University. He was formerly Lucy Flower University Professor of Sociology and Public Policy at the University of Chicago. He received the National Medal of Science in 1998. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the National Academy of Education; a former

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Experiments in International Benchmarking of US Research Fields member of the President's Committee on the National Medal of Science; and a past president of both the American Sociological Association and the Consortium of Social Science Associations. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). He was AT&T Professor of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Virginia. He has served as assistant director of the National Science Foundation, chairman and CEO of Tartan Laboratories, Inc., and professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. He has been a member of NAE since 1993 and serves as chair of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. Staff Richard E. Bissell is executive director of the Policy Division of the National Academy of Sciences and Director of COSEPUP. He took up his current position in June 1998. Most recently, he served as coordinator of the Interim Secretariat of the World Commission on Dams (1997-1998) and as a member and chair of the Inspection Panel at the World Bank (1994-1997). He worked closely with the National Academy of Sciences during his tenure in senior positions at the Agency for International Development (1986-1993), as head of the Bureau of Science and Technology, and of the Bureau of Program and Policy Coordination. He has published widely in political economy and has taught at Georgetown University and the University of Pennsylvania. He received his BA from Stanford University (1968) and his MA and PhD from Tufts University (1970, 1973). Deborah D. Stine is associate director of COSEPUP, director of the Office of Special Projects, and director of the National Academies Christine Mirzayan Internship Program. She has worked on various projects in the National Academies since 1989. She received a National Research Council group award for her first study for COSEPUP, on policy implications of greenhouse warming, and a Commission on Life Sciences staff citation for her work in risk assessment and management. She has also worked on studies on research and the government performance and results act, science and technology centers, risk assessment and management, graduate education, responsible conduct of research, careers in science and engineering, and environmental issues. She holds a bachelor's degree in mechanical and environmental engineering from the University of California, Irvine; a master's degree in business administration; and a PhD in public administration, specializing in policy analysis, from the American University. Before coming to the National Academies, she was a mathematician for the Air Force, an air-pollution engineer for the state of Texas, and an air-issues manager for the Chemical Manufacturers Association.