TABLE S-4 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa) by Life Stage Group

Life Stage Group

Vitamin C (mg/d)

α-Tocopherol (mg/d)b

Selenium (µg/d)

0 through 6 mo

NDc

ND

45

7 through 12 mo

ND

ND

60

1 through 3 y

400

200

90

4 through 8 y

650

300

150

9 through 13 y

1,200

600

280

14 through 18 y

1,800

800

400

19 through 70 y

2,000

1,000

400

>70 y

2,000

1,000

400

Pregnancy

 

≤18 y

1,800

800

400

19 through 50 y

2,000

1,000

400

Lactation

 

≤18 y

1,800

800

400

19 through 50 y

2,000

1,000

400

a The UL is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases. Unless specified otherwise, the UL represents total nutrient intake from food, water, and supplements.

b The UL for α-tocopherol applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol.

c ND. Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food and formula in order to prevent high levels of intake.

prevention and control of vitamin A deficiency, in view of concerns about lung cancer and total mortality risk raised by recent randomized clinical trials in special at-risk populations.

USING DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

Suggested uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) appear in Box S-2. The transition from using previously published Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs) and Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) alone to using all DRIs appropriately will require time and effort by health professionals and others.

For statistical reasons that will be addressed in a future report and discussed briefly in Chapter 9, the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the appropriate reference intake to use in assessing the



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement