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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids
TABLE 6-2 continued
Shorer et al., 1996
n = 4 females (sisters); aged 11–24
Absent tendon reflexes
Hammans and Kennedy, 1998
n = 1; female; aged 16 (age 6 at onset)
Mild thoracic scoliosis
Gait and limb ataxia
Upgoing plantar responses
Martinello et al., 1998
n = 1 male; aged 26 (age 5 at onset)
No deep tendon reflexes
Decreased muscle strength
Bilateral Babinski's sign
Reduced vibratory sensation
Severe dysmetria and dysarthria
Bilateral pes cavus
Fasciculations of the tongue
NOTES: Lipid absorption was normal in all cases. There were no reports of anemia, lipid peroxidation products, or lipofuscin.
a α-TTP gene = α-tocopherol transfer protein gene.
b ND = not determined.
Oxidation Products of DNA or Proteins
Vitamin E has not been shown to directly protect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or proteins against oxidative damage (Halliwell, 1999). Therefore, DNA adducts or protein carbonyls were not used to assess α-tocopherol requirements.
Vitamin E Metabolite Excretion
Excretion of vitamin E metabolites have been shown in one study to increase with increasing vitamin E intake in humans (Schultz et al., 1995). Increasing amounts of 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2′-carboxy-