TABLE 8-3 Concentrations of β-Carotene and Total Carotenoids in Plasma or Serum Associated with a Lower Risk of Various Health Outcomes in Selected Studies



Nomura et al., 1985

Japanese men

Menkes et al., 1986

U.S. men and women

Connett et al., 1989

MRFITb cohort men

Greenberg et al., 1996

U.S. men and women, 24–84 y

Jacques and Chylack, 1991

U.S. men and women, 40–70 y

Riemersma et al., 1991

British men

Stahelin et al., 1991

Swiss men

Batieha et al., 1993

U.S. women

EDCCSG, 1993

U.S. men and women

Eichholzer et al., 1992; Gey et al., 1993b

Swiss men

Zheng et al., 1993

U.S. men and women

Morris et al., 1994

U.S. men

West et al., 1994

U.S. men and women, ≥40 y

Sahyoun et al., 1996

U.S. men and women, >60 y

Bonithon-Kopp et al., 1997

French men, >58 y

French women, >58 y

a Concentration in the quartile/quantile where the risk reduction was of the greatest magnitude. For studies that only report mean or median concentrations in the diseased and disease-free groups, the concentration is the level in the group that remained free of disease. SI Conversion factor used for β-carotene and total carotenoids = 0.01863 µg/dL to µmol/L, with the exception of Greenberg et al., 1996.

mortality in U.S. adults. Note that these blood concentrations reflect levels in the absence of supplementation with β-carotene. Thus, this prospective study emphasizes the inverse association between β-carotene-rich foods and the risk of all-cause mortality.

Another cohort study of carotenoids and mortality examined both dietary intake of total carotenoids and plasma concentrations of

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