a Concentration in the quartile/quantile where the risk reduction was of the greatest magnitude. For studies that only report mean or median concentrations in the diseased and disease-free groups, the concentration is the level in the group that remained free of disease. SI Conversion factor used for β-carotene and total carotenoids = 0.01863 µg/dL to µmol/L, with the exception of Greenberg et al., 1996.
mortality in U.S. adults. Note that these blood concentrations reflect levels in the absence of supplementation with β-carotene. Thus, this prospective study emphasizes the inverse association between β-carotene-rich foods and the risk of all-cause mortality.
Another cohort study of carotenoids and mortality examined both dietary intake of total carotenoids and plasma concentrations of