Duration of Treatment (y)

Daily Dose

Primary Disease Outcome



50 mg β-carotene

Skin cancer

No effect on occurrence of new nonmelanoma skin cancers


15 mg β-carotene, 30 mg α-tocopherol, 50 mg selenium


9% reduction in total mortality; 13% decrease in cancer mortality; 21% decrease in stomach cancer deaths; 10% decrease in cerebrovascular mortality (nonsignificant)


50 mg α-tocopherol and/or 20 mg β-carotene

Lung cancer

50% increase in hemorrhagic stroke deaths among vitamin E group; 11% increase in ischemic heart disease deaths among β-carotene group; 18% increase in lung cancer among β-carotene group; no effect of vitamin E on lung cancer


25 mg β-carotene, 1,000 mg vitamin C, 400 mg α-tocopherol

Colorectal cancer

No reduced incidence of adenomas


30 mg β-carotene, 25,000 IU retinol (as retinyl palmitate)

Lung cancer

28% increase in lung cancer; 26% increase in CVDd (nonsignificant); 17% increase in total mortality among treatment group


400 or 800 IU (268 or 537 mg) α-tocopherol

CVD death or nonfatal MIf

77% decrease in risk of subsequent nonfatal MI; no benefit on cardiovascular mortality

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